FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
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Encyclopedia > Spoiler effect

The spoiler effect is a term to describe the effect a candidate can have on a close election, in which their candidacy results in the election being won by a candidate dissimilar to them, rather than a candidate similar to them.


One often cited example of the spoiler effect at work was the 2000 U.S. Presidential election. In that election, George W. Bush and Al Gore had a very close election in many states, with neither candidate winning a majority of the votes. In Florida, the final certified vote totals show Bush winning just 537 more votes than Gore, thus winning the state and the Presidency (see Florida election results). Many Gore supporters contended that many of the 97,421 votes that went to Ralph Nader in that state would have likely been votes for Gore had Nader not been in the election (though Nader himself argued otherwise). They contend that Nader's candidacy "spoiled" the election for Gore, by taking away enough votes from Gore in Florida and many other states to allow Bush to win. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Order: 43rd President Vice President: Dick Cheney Term of office: January 20, 2001 – Present Preceded by: Bill Clinton Succeeded by: Incumbent Date of birth: July 6, 1946 Place of birth: New Haven, Connecticut First Lady: Laura Welch Bush Political party: Republican George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the... Albert Arnold Gore Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an activist attorney who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ...


Different voting systems are affected to a greater or lesser extent by the spoiler effect: in First Past the Post elections, the spoiler effect can be a defining feature of campaigns, whereas the Single transferable vote and most Condorcet methods are barely affected by it. Voters at the voting booths in the US in 1945 Voting systems are methods (algorithms) for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members. ... The First Past the Post electoral system, is a voting system for single-member districts. ... The Single Transferable Vote, or STV, is a preference voting system designed to minimise wasted votes in multi-candidate elections while ensuring that votes are explicitly for candidates rather than party lists. ... Any election method conforming to the Condorcet criterion is known as a Condorcet method. ...


A voting system which satisfies the independence of irrelevant alternatives criterion is immune to the spoiler effect, but Arrow's impossibility theorem shows that rank-voting systems are unable to satisfy this criterion without exhibiting other undesirable properties as a consequence. Satisfaction of the independence of clone alternatives or local independence of irrelevant alternatives criteria also tend to indicate that a voting system is less susceptible to this effect. Voters at the voting booths in the US in 1945 Voting systems are methods (algorithms) for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members. ... In voting systems, independence of irrelevant alternatives is the property some voting systems have that, if one option (X) wins the election, and a new alternative (Y) is added, only X or Y will win the election. ... In voting systems, Arrow’s impossibility theorem, or Arrow’s paradox demonstrates the impossibility of designing a set of rules for social decision making that would obey every ‘reasonable’ criterion required by society. ... In voting systems, independence of irrelevant alternatives is the property some voting systems have that, if one option (X) wins the election, and a new alternative (Y) is added, only X or Y will win the election. ...


Tactical voting, strategic nomination, and vote swapping are all common responses to the spoiler effect. In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter misrepresents his or her sincere preferences in order to gain a more favorable outcome. ... Strategic nomination is the manipulation of an election through its candidate set (compare this to tactical voting, where the manipulation comes from the voters). ... Vote swapping is the method where a voter in one district agrees to vote tactically for a less-preferred candidate or party who has a greater chance of winning in their district, in exchange for a voter from another district voting tactically for the candidate the first voter prefers, because...


The spoiler effect is one of the components contributing to the effect known as Duverger's law, which states that the first-past-the-post election system creates and preserves a two-party system. Duvergers Law is a principle which asserts that a first-past-the-post election system naturally leads to a two-party system. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... A two-party system is a type of party system where only two political parties have a realistic chance of winning an election. ...


List of American Spoilers (third-party candidates who feasibly could have denied victory to a major nominee)

James Gillespie Birney (February 4, 1792 - November 25, 1857) was an American presidential candidate for the Liberty Party in the 1840 and 1844 elections. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States. ... Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ... Order: 26th President Vice President: Charles Warren Fairbanks Term of office: September 14, 1901 – March 3, 1909 Preceded by: William McKinley Succeeded by: William Howard Taft Date of birth: October 27, 1858 Place of birth: New York City Date of death: January 6, 1919 Place of death: Oyster Bay, New... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman billionaire from Texas best known as a candidate for President of the United States (in 1992 and 1996). ... Notes: Introduction As the 1992 presidential election approached, Americans found themselves in a world transformed in ways almost unimaginable four years earlier. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an activist attorney who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

See also

  • List of democracy and elections-related topics

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spoiler effect - Electowiki (377 words)
The spoiler effect is a term to describe the effect a candidate can have on a close election, in which their candidacy results in the election being won by a candidate dissimilar to them, rather than a candidate similar to them.
A voting system which satisfies the independence of irrelevant alternatives criterion is immune to the spoiler effect, but Arrow's impossibility theorem shows that rank-voting systems are unable to satisfy this criterion without exhibiting other undesirable properties as a consequence.
The spoiler effect is one of the components contributing to the effect known as Duverger's law, which states that the first-past-the-post election system creates and preserves a two-party system.
Spoiler effect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (515 words)
The spoiler effect is a term to describe the effect a candidate can have on a close election, in which their candidacy results in the election being won by a candidate dissimilar to them, rather than a candidate similar to them.
One often cited example of the spoiler effect at work was the 2000 U.S. Presidential election.
The spoiler effect is one of the components contributing to the effect known as Duverger's law, which states that the first-past-the-post election system creates and preserves a two-party system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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