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Encyclopedia > Splenomegaly
Splenomegaly
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 R16.1
ICD-9 789.2
DiseasesDB 12375
MedlinePlus 003276
eMedicine ped/2139  med/2156
MeSH C23.300.775.750

Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen, which usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. It is one of the cardinal signs of hypersplenism. Splenomegaly is usually associated with increased workload (such as in hemolytic anemias), which suggests that it is a response to hyperfunction. It is therefore not surprising that splenomegaly is associated with any disease process that involves abnormal red blood cells being destroyed in the spleen. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells in holding a reservoir of blood. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen, which usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ...


Signs of splenomegaly may include a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass or splenic rub. Patients may also be cytopenic. Patients with splenomegaly may present with abdominal pain, early satiety due to splenic encroachment, and may complain of the symptoms of anemia due to accompanying cytopenia. It can be detected by physicians on physical examination, but an ultrasound can be used to confirm diagnosis.[1] In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... An abdominal mass is any localized enlargement or swelling in the human abdomen. ... Cytopenia is a reduction in the number of cells circulating in the blood. ... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... A baby in its mothers womb, viewed in a sonogram A baby, aged 29 weeks, in a 3D ultrasound Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ...

Contents

Treatment

If the splenomegaly underlies hypersplenism, a splenectomy is indicated and will correct the problem. After splenectomy, however, patients have an increased risk for infectious diseases. A splenectomy is a procedure that involves the removal of the spleen by operative means. ...


After splenectomy, patients should be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. They should receive annual influenza vaccinations. Long-term prophylactic antibiotics should be given. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics Test plate. ...


Causes

Infections

Malaria is an infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Bilharzia Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a disease affecting many people in developing countries. ... Infectious mononucleosis (also known as mono, the kissing disease, Pfeiffers disease, and, in British English, glandular fever) is a disease seen most commonly in adolescents and young adults, characterized by fever, sore throat and fatigue. ...

Cancer/tumors

Hairy cell leukemia is a type of chronic lymphoid leukemia. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterized by increased and unregulated clonal production of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Genetic

Gauchers disease (pronounced ) is the most common of the lipid storage diseases. ... Thalassemia (American English) (or thalassaemia in British English) is an inherited disease of the red blood cells. ... Hurler syndrome, also known as mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) or Hurlers disease, is a genetic disorder that results in the deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase, which is an enzyme that breaks down mucopolysaccharides. ... Sickle-shaped red blood cells Sickle cell anemia (American English), sickle cell anaemia (British English) or sickle cell disease is a genetic disease in which red blood cells may change shape under certain circumstances. ... Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetic disorder of the red blood cells that makes them prone to hemolysis. ... Spherocytosis is an auto-hemolytic anemia (a disease of the blood) characterized by the production of red blood cells that are sphere-shaped, rather than donut-shaped. ...

Other

Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Myelofibrosis, one of the myeloproliferative diseases, is the gradual replacement of the bone marrow by connective tissue. ... Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder that affects groups of patients originating from around the Mediterranean Sea (hence its name). ...

See also

In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor. ... Hepatosplenomegaly is the simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly). ...

References

  1. ^ Grover S, Barkun A, Sackett D (1993). "The rational clinical examination. Does this patient have splenomegaly?". JAMA 270 (18): 2218-21. PMID 8411607.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Splenomegaly : Article by Vikramjit S Kanwar, MBBS, MBA, MRCP(UK), FAAP (5004 words)
Splenomegaly is the result of the accumulation of abnormal lipids in splenic macrophages.
Splenomegaly is usually the result of systemic disease and not the result of primary splenic disease.
Children with splenomegaly due to acute viral illness, particularly infectious mononucleosis, demonstrate great fragility of the spleen and are at risk of rupture even with modest degrees of splenomegaly.
Splenomegaly: Spleen Disorders: Merck Manual Professional (985 words)
Splenomegaly increases the spleen's mechanical filtering and destruction of RBCs and often of WBCs and platelets.
Splenomegaly is the hallmark; spleen size correlates with the degree of anemia.
Hypersplenism is suspected in patients with splenomegaly and anemia or cytopenias; evaluation is similar to that of splenomegaly (see Spleen Disorders: Splenomegaly).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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