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Encyclopedia > Splenic flexure
Gray's Fig. 1043 - Superior ileocecal fossa.

In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon, also called the large intestine or large bowel, is the part of the intestine from the cecum ('caecum' in British English) to the rectum. Its primary purpose is to extract water from feces. In mammals, it consists of the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum. The colon from cecum to the mid transverse colon is also known as the right colon. The remainder is known as the left colon. Image File history File links Gray1043. ... Image File history File links Gray1043. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon and rectum from public domain source at http://www. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx. ... Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... Rabbit feces are usually 8-10 mm in diameter, dry to the touch, and taste like Cocoa Puffs. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla...

Contents


Role in digestion

The large intestine comes after the small intestine in the digestive tract and measures approximately 1.5 meters in length. Although there are differences in the large intestine between different organisms, the large intestine is mainly responsible for storing waste, reclaiming water, maintaining the water balance, and absorbing some vitamins, such as vitamin K. Diagram showing the small intestine In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine (colon). ... Vitamin K denotes a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives. ...


By the time the chyme has reached this tube, almost all nutrients and 90% of the water have been absorbed by the body. At this point some electrolytes like sodium, magnesium, and chloride are left as well as indigestible carbohydrates known as dietary fiber. As the chyme moves through the large intestine, most of the remaining water is removed, while the chyme is mixed with mucus and bacteria known as gut flora, and becomes feces. The bacteria break down some of the fiber for their own nourishment and create acetate, propionate, and butyrate as waste products, which in turn are used by the cells lining of the colon for nourishment. This is an example of a symbiotic relationship and provides about 100 Calories a day to the body. The large intestine produces no digestive enzymes — chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. The pH in the colon varies between 5.5 and 7 (slightly acidic to neutral). Chyme is the liquid substance found in the stomach before passing the pyloric valve and entering the duodenum. ... An electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system and absorb water. ... Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Gut flora, or intestinal bacteria, are the bacteria that normally live in the digestive tract and perform a number of useful functions involving digestion for their hosts. ... Acetate, or ethanoate, is the anion of a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... The propionate (also propanoate) ion is C2H5COO− (propionic acid minus one hydrogen ion). ... The butyrate (also butanoate) ion is C3H7COO- (butyric acid minus one hydrogen ion). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... The correct title of this article is pH. The initial letter is capitalized due to technical restrictions. ...


Diseases and disorders of the colon

In medicine (gastroenterology), angiodysplasia is a small vascular malformation of the gut. ... Chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP) is the ongoing presence of abdominal pain for which there is no physical explanation. ... Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Constipation or Irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to eliminate; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Diarrhea (American English) or diarrhoea (Commonwealth English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent and watery, chunky, or loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; lit. ... Diverticulosis, otherwise known as diverticular disease, is the condition of having diverticula in the large colon which are outpocketings of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall. ... Diverticulitis is a common disease of the bowel, in particular the large intestine. ... Hirschsprungs disease, or congenital aganglionic megacolon, involves an enlargement of the colon, caused by bowel obstruction resulting from an aganglionic section of bowel (the normal enteric nerves are absent) that starts at the anus and progresses upwards. ... Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition in which numerous polyps to form in the epithelium of the large intestine. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is a infection of the colon caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Toxic megacolon is a medical condition characterized by the loss of tone and dilatation in the colon. ...

Colon subsections

The location of the parts of the colon are either in the abdominal cavity or behind it in the retroperitoneum. The colon in those areas is fixed in location.


Caecum

The cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine and the ileum. It is separated from the ileum by the ileocecal valve (ICV) or Bauhin's valve, and is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine and part of the colon. The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Grays Fig. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: lack of content If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...


The cecum is present in mammals, birds, and some reptiles. Most herbivores have a relatively large cecum, and exclusive carnivores have a smaller cecum or none at all. This size difference results from the large number of bacteria in the cecum of herbivores, which aid in the enzymatic breakdown of plant materials such as cellulose. Carnivores, whose diets contain little or no plant material, have a reduced cecum, often partially or wholly replaced by the vermiform appendix. Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla... Orders Many - see section below. ... Orders See text. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plant matter (rather than meat). ... The lion is a well-known, truly carnivorous member of the order Carnivora. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose. ... Grays Fig. ...


The appendix is a branch of the cecum. Like the human appendix, the cecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) was once believed to have no function. Unlike the appendix, however, there is no current debate about the use of the cecum. Grays Fig. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Ascending colon

The ascending colon is on the right side of the abdomen. It is the part of the colon from the cecum to the hepatic flexure (the turn of the colon by the liver). It is retroperitoneal in most humans. In grazing animals the cecum empties into the spiral colon.


Transverse colon

The transverse colon is the part of the colon from the hepatic flexure (the turn of the colon by the liver) to the splenic flexure (the turn of the colon by the spleen). The transverse colon hangs off the stomach, attached to it by a wide band of tissue called the mesocolon. The transverse colon is mobile (unlike the parts of the colon immediately before and after it), and is very mobile in the abdomen of some individuals. The liver is the largest internal organ of the human body. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is not necessary for life but is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells in holding a reservoir of blood. ...


Descending colon

The descending colon is the part of the colon from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon. It is retroperitoneal in two-thirds of humans. In the other third, it has a (usually short) mesentery.


Sigmoid colon

Diagram of the Human Intestine
Diagram of the Human Intestine

The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. The name sigmoid means S-shaped (see sigmoid). The walls of the sigmoid colon are muscular, and contract to increase the pressure inside the colon, causing the stool to move into the rectum. Diagram of the Human Intestine. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx. ... Rabbit feces are usually 8-10 mm in diameter, dry to the touch, and taste like Cocoa Puffs. ...


Due to the intermittent high pressure within it, the colon can develop pockets called diverticuli in its walls. The presence of diverticuli, whether harmful or not, is called diverticulosis. An infection of the diverticuli is called diverticulitis. A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is medical term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid filled) structure in the body. ...


Sigmoidoscopy is a common diagnostic technique used to examine the sigmoid colon. Sigmoidoscopy is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the last part of the colon. ...


If long objects are inserted forcibly into the anus, the rectum or sigmoid colon may be damaged. Male Human Anatomy Anal redirects here. ...


Rectum

The rectum is the last part of the colon. It holds stool prior to defecation. The last few centimeters of the rectum are lined by tissue which is similar to skin. This area is known as the "social part" of the rectum, since it can distinguish between solid, liquid and gas. That perceptual ability is important in knowing what can be passed appropriately in what circumstance. Anatomy of the anus and rectum Defecation or feceation, in physiology, is the act or process by which organisms eliminate solid or semisolid waste material from the digestive tract. ...

Digestive system - edit
Mouth | Pharynx | Esophagus | Stomach | Pancreas | Gallbladder | Liver | Small intestine (duodenumjejunumileum) | Colon | Cecum | Rectum | Anus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Splenic flexure or constipation? - Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Forum (1226 words)
Splenic flexure syndrome refers to the trapping of gas at the splenic flexure causing distension and bloating.
The splenic flexure is where large amounts of gas gets trapped in the bends of your colon.
The splenic flexure is one the left side under the rib and there is another flexure under the right rib.
Text for Abdomen Module (3232 words)
It is related to the 12th rib posteriorly and to the liver, duodenum, and hepatic flexure of the colon anteriorly.
The splenic vein is formed by several veins that drain the spleen at the hilum.
Splenic vein thrombosis is a disease where there is occlusion of the splenic vein by a thrombus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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