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Encyclopedia > Splendid Isolation

Splendid Isolation is the foreign policy pursued by Britain during the late 19th century, under the premierships of Benjamin Disraeli and The Marquess of Salisbury. The term was actually coined by a Canadian M.P. to praise Britain's lack of involvement in European affairs. There is much debate between historians regarding the question of whether it was intended; or whether Britain simply became a victim of its surroundings. A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... The Most Honourable Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830–22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister. ...

Contents

Background

During this period,Britain's primary goal in foreign policy was, to maintain the balance of power in Europe and to intervene should that balance be upset. Its secondary goal was to protect its overseas interest in the colonies and dominions, as free trade was what kept the Empire alive. The sea routes to the colonies, especially those linking Britain to India (the Suez Canal), were vital. Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ... European redirects here. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: ‎, translit: , French: ), west of the Sinai Peninsula, is a 163-km-long (101 miles) and, at its narrowest point, 300-m-wide (984 ft) maritime canal in Egypt between Port Said (Būr Saīd) on the Mediterranean Sea...


The policy of Splendid Isolation was characterised by a reluctance to enter into permanent European alliances or commitments with the other Great Powers and by an increase in the importance given to British colonies, protectorates and dependencies overseas. This occurred side by side with the development of informal empire through the use of sphere of influence and client states dominated by, but not directly governed by Britain. In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell See The Protectorate. ... Dependency has a number of meanings: In project management, a dependency is a link amongst a projects terminal elements. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country. ... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two...


Change

After the unification of Germany, Bismarck sought alliances with other European powers to prevent France's revenge. Successful alliances began with the Dreikaiserbund and Dual Alliance, 1879. The Triple Alliance was formed in 1882, the signing countries being Germany, Austria, and Italy. Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... League of the Three Emperors (Dreikaiserbund) 1873 Creation of a Conservative league between Germany, Russia and Austria Post Franco-Prussian War Alliance against radicals Conservatives in the three countries were wary of the growing threat (as they perceived it) of liberalism and so created a league of nations that would... The Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary was created by treaty on October 7, 1879. ... The Triple Alliance (German: Dreibund, Italian: Triplice Alleanza) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy pledged on 20 May 1882 to support each other militarily in the event of an attack against any of them by two or more great powers. ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ...


The rise of Germany in both industrial and military terms alarmed Britain. The naval aspirations of Germany under the guidance of the German Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz was especially alarming to the British government at Whitehall. After the Triple Intervention in China, British attitudes questioned the continuation of its policy. On the other side of the world, the Triple Intervention also deeply humiliated Japan, which also realised that a strong ally in Europe was needed for the world to recognise its status as a power. Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... After the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed between Japan and China on April 17, 1895 to conclude the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), three European Powers (Russia, Germany and France) intervened on April 23 with so-called friendly advice to Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula including Lushun (Port...


Britain had came close to war with European powers at the turn of the 20th Century. For instance, the Fashoda Crisis in 1898, while a political victory for Britain, was a worrying situation as had war broken out, she would have to had fought France alone, and there was always the possibility of Russian intervention on France's side. Because of the weak army, she would have had to rely on her navy, one of the main reasons for the Arms Race with Germany. Other situations had meant war could have broken out with Russia (over Russian expansionism and fear of losing India) and the United States, whom opposed a British offensive in South America to protect territory. The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of territorial disputes between imperial Britain and France in Eastern Africa. ...


Abandonment

Finally, Britain's Splendid Isolation was ended by the 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Britain began to normalise its relations with European countries that it had disputes with, and the Entente Cordiale and the Anglo-Russian Entente were signed in 1904 and 1907 respectively. The Alliance System was finally formed in the same year as the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente), and is considered an important factor in the outbreak of World War I.[citation needed] 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ... The Entente Cordiale (French for friendly understanding) is a series of agreements signed on April 8, 1904, between the United Kingdom and France. ... Britain and Russia concluded the Anglo-Russian Entente on August 31, 1907, delimiting their respective spheres of interest in Persia and Afghanistan. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Triple Alliance (German: Dreibund, Italian: Triplice Alleanza) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy pledged on 20 May 1882 to support each other militarily in the event of an attack against any of them by two or more great powers. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg...


Salisbury never actually used the term to describe his approach to foreign policy, and even argued against the use of the term. It could be claimed that Britain was not isolated during this period due to the fact that it still traded with other European powers and remained heavily connected with the Empire. Secondly, Salisbury never thought isolation to be 'splendid' as he considered it dangerous to be completely uninvolved with European affairs.[1] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Andrew Roberts, Salisbury: Victorian Titan (Phoenix, 2000), p. 433.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Splendid isolation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (645 words)
Splendid Isolation is the foreign policy pursued by Britain during the late 19th century, under the premierships of Benjamin Disraeli and The Marquess of Salisbury.
The policy of Splendid Isolation was characterised by a reluctance to enter into permanent European alliances or commitments with the other Great Powers and by an increase in the importance given to British colonies, protectorates and dependencies overseas.
It could be claimed that Britain was not isolated during this period due to the fact that it still traded with other European powers and remained heavily connected with the Empire.
CD Baby: SAM MOORE: Splendid Isolation (652 words)
Splendid Isolation, by England's own Sam Moore, is a mixture of Neo-soul, with a touch of jazz, and a hint of R&B which creates a signature sound that uplifts your soul and keeps you vibin' in His presence.
Splendid Isolation, a mixture of Neo-soul, with a touch of jazz, and a hint of R&B creates a signature sound that uplifts your soul and keeps you vibin' in His presence.
Splendid Isolation is a refreshingly different type of Neo-Soul album that may be enjoyed by both Gospel and Secular listeners, with an untainted message of God's love and power.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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