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Encyclopedia > Spirochaete
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Spirochaetes

Treponema pallidum spirochetes.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Spirochaetes
Class: Spirochaetes
Order: Spirochaetales
Buchanan 1917
Families

Spirochaetaceae
Brachyspiraceae
   Brachyspira
   Serpulina
Leptospiraceae
   Leptospira
   Leptonema
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 734 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (734 × 497 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/png)Histopathology of Treponema pallidum spirochetes using a modified Steiner silver stain. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Species Leptospira is a genus of spirochaete bacteria, including a small number of pathogenic and saprotrophic microorganisms. ... Species Leptonema illini etc. ...

Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells.[1] Spirochetes are chemoheterotrophic in nature, with lengths between 5 and 500 µm and diameters around 0.1-0.6 µm.[citation needed] Spriochetes are distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the presence of flagella running lengthwise between the cell membrane and cell wall, called axial filaments. These cause a twisting motion which allows the spirochaete to move about. Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ... A chemoheterotroph is an organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon. ... // A Flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long, slender projection from the cell body, composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ...


The spirochaetes are divided into three families, all placed within a single order. Important members of this phylum include

The genome of spirochaetes are also highly unusual and consists of both linear chromosomes and plasmids.[4] Most spirochaetes are free-living and anaerobic, but there are numerous exceptions, including the above. Species Leptospira is a genus of spirochaete bacteria, including a small number of pathogenic and saprotrophic microorganisms. ... Binomial name Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson RC et al 1984 Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria and the causative agent of Lyme disease. ... Lyme disease(Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Leptospirosis aka Weils disease aka canicola fever aka canefield fever aka nanukayami fever aka 7-day fever was first described by Adolph Weil in 1886 when he reported an acute infectious disease with enlargement of spleen, jaundice and nephritis. The pathogen, Leptospira-genus bacteria was isolated in 1907 from... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. ...


Cavalier-Smith has postulated that the Spirochaetes belong in a larger clade called Gracilicutes.[5] Professor Thomas (Tom) Cavalier-Smith (born October 21, 1942), FRS, FRSC, NERC Professorial Fellow, is a Professor of Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford. ... Kingdoms/Phyla Proteobacteria Planctobacteria Sphingobacteria Spirochaetae Gracilicutes is a taxon created by Cavalier-Smith, which he believes to be a clade comprising the Proteobacteria, the Planctobacteria (comprising Chlamydiae and Planctomycetes), the Sphingobacteria (comprising the green sulfur bacteria and Bacteroidetes), and Spirochaetae. ...


Historical

Salvarsan, the first antibiotic in medical history, was effective against spirochaetes only and was primarily used to cure Syphilis. Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


It has been suggested by biologist Lynn Margulis that eukaryotic flagella were derived from symbiotic spirochaetes, but few biologists accept this, as there is no close structural similarity between the two. Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative Phylogeny Unikonta    Opisthokonta    Amoebozoa Bikonta    Apusozoa    Cabozoa       Rhizaria       Excavata    Corticata       Archaeplastida       Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... The evolution of flagella is of great interest to biologists because the three known varieties of flagella (eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaebacterial) each represent an extremely sophisticated cellular structure that requires the interaction of many different and finely-tuned systems to function correctly. ...


References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ Schwan T (1996). "Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod interactions". Infect Agents Dis 5 (3): 167-81. PMID 8805079. 
  3. ^ McBride A, Athanazio D, Reis M, Ko A (2005). "Leptospirosis". Curr Opin Infect Dis 18 (5): 376-86. PMID 16148523. 
  4. ^ Hinnebusch J, Tilly K (1993). "Linear plasmids and chromosomes in bacteria.". Mol Microbiol 10 (5): 917-22. PMID 7934868. 
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (2006). "Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses". Biology Direct 1 (19).  Accessed 10 March 2006

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Summary of report: Control of Intestinal Spirochaete Infections in Chickens (2492 words)
Studies in Europe and the United States have found that infection of the caeca with intestinal spirochaetes is associated with the occurrence of wet droppings, delayed onset of egg laying, faecal staining of eggshells, reduced egg weights and reduced carotenoid content of eggs.
There were some spirochaete species differences in their susceptibility to the drugs, but in general there was a high degree of susceptibility of the isolates to most of the drugs.
In general the spirochaete species remain susceptible to a range of antimicrobial agents, although resistance against tylosin was evident for a number of strains.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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