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Encyclopedia > Spiritus lenis
Diacritical marks

accent
A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

acute accent ( ˊ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ˋ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ˆ )
diaeresis ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese, and other languages. ... This article is about the breve breve in music, see double whole note. ... Caron may refer to multiple things. ... Caron may refer to multiple things. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In linguistics, a diaeresis or dieresis (AE) (from Greek διαιρειν (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot ·, or to the glyphs combining dot above ̇ and combining dot below ̣ which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvaara (  ̣ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
macron ( ˉ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚ )
spiritus asper ( ʽ )
spiritus lenis (  ʼ )
umlaut ( ¨ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... A macron (from Gr. ... For the Russian magazine, see Ogonyok Ogonek (Polish for little tail; In Lithuanian it is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian Ä…, Ä™, į, ų), Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua and Tutchone. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... Ä ä Ö ö Ãœ ü The term umlaut is used for two closely related notions: a special kind of vowel modification and a particular diacritic mark. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ˜ )
titlo (  ҃ )
An apostrophe ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... A colon is a punctuation mark, with one dot above another, e. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme which has several uses, described below. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

The spiritus lenis ("soft breathing") or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. It indicates the absence of initial aspiration: in other words, that the word does not begin with an [h] sound. Some authorities have interpreted it as representing a glottal stop, but a final vowel at the end of a word is regularly elided where the following word starts with a vowel, which would not happen if the second word began with a glottal stop (or any form of stop consonant). Allen1 accordingly regards the glottal stop interpretation as "highly improbable". A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ... Ancient Greek refers to the stage in the history of the Greek language corresponding to Classical Antiquity, which normally applies on two ancient periods of Greek history: Archaic and Classic Greece. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ...


The spiritus lenis is written as on top of or to the left of an initial vowel (the second vowel of a pair comprising a diphthong), and also in certain editions on the first of a pair of rhos. It did not occur on an initial upsilon. It takes the form of a closing half moon or a closing single quotation mark: Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... 1. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ...

  • ἀ- ἐ- ἠ- ἰ- ὀ- ὐ- ὠ;
  • Ἀ- Ἐ- Ἠ- Ἰ- Ὀ- Ὠ.

It is part of the traditional polytonic orthography for Greek, but has been dropped in the modern monotonic orthography as the [h] sound has disappeared from Modern Greek. The origin of the sign is thought to be the right-hand half–  ┤  –of the letter H, which was used in some Greek dialects as an [h] while in others it was used for the vowel eta. Polytonic orthography for Greek uses a variety of diacritics (πολύ = many + τόνος = accent) to represent aspects of Ancient Greek pronunciation. ... Monotonic orthography is the simplified way for spelling modern Greek introduced in the 1980s. ... Modern Greek (Νεοελληνική) is a dialect family that refers to the fifth stage of the evolution of the Greek language (the first four being Mycenean, Ancient Greek, Post-Classical or Hellenistic Greek and Medieval Greek), and it includes every dialect and idiom of Hellenic speech that exists in the world today. ... It has been suggested that ETA military be merged into this article or section. ...


Psila pneumata were also used in the early Cyrillic alphabet when writing the Old Church Slavonic language. In this context it is encoded as Unicode U+04806 or HTML entity ҆ ( ◌҆ ). The Early Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Bulgaria during the 10th century A.D. for the writing of Old Church Slavonic. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius (actually they were bularian slavs). ... In computing, Unicode provides an international standard which has the goal of providing the means to encode the text of every document people want to store on computers. ... In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ...


See also

The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... Polytonic orthography for Greek uses a variety of diacritics (πολύ = many + τόνος = accent) to represent aspects of Ancient Greek pronunciation. ...

References

  1. W. Sidney Allen, Vox Graeca - a guide to the pronunciation of classical Greek. Cambridge University Press, 1968-74. ISBN 0-521-20626-X

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Die in hellenistischer Zeit in die griechische Schriftsprache eingeführten Akzente und Symbole für Hauchlaute wurden noch bis vor kurzem verwendet.
April 1982 wurden der Akzent Gravis, der Akzent Zirkumflex sowie die Hauchzeichen Spiritus asper und Spiritus lenis abgeschafft.
Es gibt seitdem in der griechischen Schriftsprache nur noch den Akzent Akut, der die betonte Silbe anzeigt.
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