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Encyclopedia > Spiritus asper

The spiritus asper ("rough breathing") or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. It indicates an initial aspiration: in other words that the word began with an [h] sound in in Ancient Greek. It is written as on top of or to the left of an initial vowel (the second vowel of a pair comprising a diphthong), and also on an initial rho or the second of a pair of rhos. It takes the form of an opening half moon or an opening single quotation mark: A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ... The Greek language (Greek Ελληνικά, IPA // – Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of some 3,000 years. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Rho (upper case Ρ, lower case ρ) is a letter of the Greek alphabet. ...

  • ἁ- ἑ- ἡ- ἱ- ὁ- ὑ- ὡ- ῥ-;
  • Ἁ- Ἑ- Ἡ- Ἱ- Ὁ- Ὑ- Ὡ- Ῥ-.

The only situations when it can be written inside a word are :

  • on a double rho in certain editions;
  • when it represents a coronis resulting from a crasis implying a vowel bearing a spiritus asper.

The spiritus asper merely notes the presence of an initial consonant [h], which cannot be written otherwise when it is not initial: thus ὕμνος stands for humnos, "hymn", and ῥήτωρ for hrêtôr (or rhêtôr), "orator". Rho (upper case Ρ, lower case ρ) is a letter of the Greek alphabet. ...


When a word begins by an initial grapheme which is a vowel not preceded by an [h], the spiritus lenis ("soft breathing") is employed. A grapheme designates the atomic unit in written language. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ...


It is part of the traditional polytonic orthography for Greek, but has been dropped in the modern monotonic orthography as the [h] sound has disappeared from Modern Greek. The origin of the sign is thought to be the left-hand half ( ├ ) of the letter H, which was used in some Greek dialects as an [h] while in others it was used for the vowel eta. Polytonic orthography for Greek uses a variety of diacritics (πολύ = many + τόνος = accent) to represent aspects of Ancient Greek pronunciation. ... Monotonic orthography is the simplified way for spelling modern Greek introduced in the 1980s. ... Modern Greek (Κοινή Νεοελληνική — Common Neo-Hellenic) is the present vernacular language of Greece, Cyprus and the Greek Diaspora throughout the world. ...


Dasea pneumata were also used in the early Cyrillic alphabet when writing the Old Church Slavonic language. In this context it is encoded as Unicode U+0485 or HTML entity ҅ ( ◌҅ ). The Early Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Bulgaria during the 10th century A.D. for the writing of Old Church Slavonic. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spiritus asper - Definition, explanation (301 words)
The spiritus asper ("rough breathing") or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek.
The spiritus asper merely notes the presence of an initial consonant [h], which cannot be written otherwise when it is not initial: thus stands for humnos, "hymn", and for hrêtôr (or rhêtôr), "orator".
When a word begins by an initial grapheme which is a vowel not preceded by an [h], the spiritus lenis ("soft breathing") is employed.
Spiritus lenis at AllExperts (353 words)
The spiritus lenis ("smooth breathing" or "soft breathing"), psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) or psilí, (Greek: ψιλή), is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek.
The spiritus lenis is written as on top of, or to the left of, an initial vowel (the second vowel of a pair comprising a diphthong), and also in certain editions on the first of a pair of rhos.
In Unicode, spiritus lenis is encoded at U+1FBF ().
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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