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Encyclopedia > Spirit
Spirituality Portal

The English word "spirit" comes from the Latin "spiritus" (breath). The term spirit has several meanings in different fields. ... Image File history File links EndlessKnot03d. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

The English word "spirit" comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning "breath" (compare spiritus asper), but also "soul, courage, vigor", ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as opposed to anima, translating psykhē. The word was loaned into Middle English via Old French The distinction between soul and spirit became current in Judeo-Christian terminology (e.g. Greek. psykhe vs. pneuma, Latin anima vs. spiritus, Hebrew ruach vs. neshama or nephesh; in Hebrew neshama from the root NSHM or breath.) For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Pneumatology refers to the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... Look up anima in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... Nephesh is the Hebrew word largely translated by soul in english. ...


Metaphysical and metaphorical uses

The word is used in two related contexts, one metaphysical and the other metaphorical. Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ...


Its metaphysical context has attained a number of meanings:

  1. An incorporeal but ubiquitous, non-quantifiable substance or energy present individually in all living things. Unlike the concept of souls, which are by definition eternal and usually believed to preexist the body, a spirit develops and grows as an integral aspect of the living being. This concept of the individual spirit is common among traditional peoples. It is therefore important to note the distinction between this concept of spirit and that of the pre-existing or eternal soul because belief in souls is specific and far less common, particularly in traditional societies. This is more properly termed life ("bios" in Greek) ether than spirit ("pneuma" in Greek.)
  2. A daemon sprite, or especially ghost. A ghost is usually conceived as a wandering spirit from a being no longer living, having survived the death of the body yet maintaining the mind and consciousness.
  3. In religion and spirituality, the respiration of the human being has for obvious reasons been strongly linked with the very occurrence of life. A similar significance has been attributed to human blood. Spirit in this sense denotes that which separates a living body from a corpse and usually implies intelligence, consciousness and sentience.
  4. Spirits are often visualized as being interconnected to all others and The Spirit (singular capitalized) refers to the theories of a unified spirituality, universal consciousness and some concepts of Deity. All "spirits" connected, form a greater unity, the Spirit, which has both an identity separate from its elements plus a consciousness and intellect greater than its elements; an ultimate, unified, non-dual awareness or force of life combining or transcending all individual units of consciousness. The experience of such a connection can be a primary basis for spiritual belief. The term spirit has been used in this sense by at least Anthroposophy, Aurobindo, A Course In Miracles, Hegel, and Ken Wilber. In this use, the term is conceptually identical to Plotinus's "One" and Friedrich Schelling's "Absolute." Similarly, according to the pan(en)theistic aspect, Spirit is the essence that can manifest itself as mind/soul through any level in pantheistic hierarchy/holarchy, such as a mind/soul of a single cell (with very primitive, elemental consciousness), or a human or animal mind/soul (with consciousness on a level of organic synergy of an individual human/animal), or a (superior) mind/soul with synergetically extremely complex/sophisticated consciousness of whole galaxies involving all sub-levels, all emanating (since it is non-dimensional, or trans-dimensional) from the one Spirit.
  5. In Christian theology, the Spirit is also used to describe God, or aspects thereof as in Holy Spirit, referring to a Triune God (Trinity): "The result of God reaching to man by the Father as the source, the Son as the course ("the Way"), and through the Spirit as the transmission."
  6. Also in (popular) theological terms, the individual human "spirit" (singular lowercase) is a deeply situated aspect of the soul subject to "spiritual" growth and change; the very seat of emotion and desire, and the transmitting organ by which human beings can contact God. In a rare theological definition it is higher consciousness enclosing the soul. It is a central concept of Pneumatology (in context of the latter definition note that this science studies "pneuma;" Greek for "spirit," not "psyche;" Greek for "soul" studied in psychology.
  7. In Christian Science, Spirit is one of the seven synonyms for God. These are: "Principle; Mind; Soul; Spirit; Life; Truth; Love" (Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy, p. 587).
  8. In Harmonism, spirit is a term reserved for those which collectively control and influence an individual from the realm of the mind.

The metaphorical use of the term likewise has several related meanings: Plato-Raphael. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the legendary or mythical race. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Not to be confused with sapience. ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... This article is about life in general. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Anthroposophy, also called spiritual science, is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner,[1] which states that anyone who conscientiously cultivates sense-free thinking can attain experience of and insights into the spiritual world. ... Śrī Aurobindo Śrī Aurobindo (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, Evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ... Second hardbound edition of A Course in Miracles, as published by Foundation for Inner Peace. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Ken Wilber Kenneth Earl Wilber Jr. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (January 27, 1775 - August 20, 1854) was a German philosopher. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... A holarchy, in the terminology of Arthur Koestler, is a hierarchy of holons — where a holon is simply a part of a hierarchy which itself is a complex system. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... An epithet applied to God, most often by Christians, to express the unity of the Christian Godhead in a trinity of persons, literally meaning three-in-one God. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Way may mean: The Way International, a religious organization which describes itself as a biblical research, teaching, and fellowship ministry and which at least some sources consider to be a cult. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Pneumatology is the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published in 1875). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, written by Mary Baker Eddy, is the foundation of the Christian Science movement. ... Mary Baker Eddy (born Mary Morse Baker July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in 1879 and was the author of its fundamental doctrinal textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. ... see laziness. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ...

  1. The loyalty and feeling of inclusion in the social history or collective essence of an institution or group, such as in school spirit or esprit de corps
  2. A closely related meaning refers to the worldview of a person, place, or time, as in "The Declaration of Independence was written in the spirit of John Locke and his notions of liberty", or the term zeitgeist, meaning "spirit of the age".
  3. As a synonym for 'vivacity' as in "She performed the piece with spirit." or "She put up a spirited defense."
  4. The underlying intention of a text as distinguished from its literal meaning, especially in law; see Letter and spirit of the law
  5. As a term for alcoholic beverages stemming from medieval superstitions that explained the effects of alcohol as demonic activity.
  6. In Mysticism, as existence in unity with Godhead. Soul may also be known as spirit, but soul is certain individual human consciousness, while spirit comes from beyond that.

See soul and ghost for related discussions. Cheerleaders are an important part of the expression of school spirit. ... Esprit de Corps might refer to: Esprit de Corps - state of mind, Morale. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... This article is about the German word. ... Write redirects here. ... Look up literal, literally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The letter of the law versus the spirit of the law is an idiomatic antithesis referring to intent. ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Christianity, the Godhead is a unit consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ (the Son), and the Holy Spirit. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ...


Related concepts in other languages

Similar concepts in other languages include Greek Pneuma and Sanskrit akasha/atman, see also Prana. In some languages, the word for spirit is often closely related, if not synonymous to mind. Examples include the German, 'Geist' (related to the English word ghost) or the French, 'l'espirit'. In the Judaeochristian Bible, the word "ruach" (רוח; "wind") is most commonly translated as the spirit, whose essence is divine (see Holy Spirit). Alternately the word nephesh is commonly used. Nephesh, as referred to by Kabbalists, is one of the five parts of the Jewish soul, where "nephesh" (animal) refers to the physical being and its animal instincts. Similarly, both the Scandinavian languages and the Chinese language uses the term "breath" to refer to the spirit. Pneumatology refers to the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... Akasha is the Hindi/Sanskrit word meaning aether in both its elemental and mythological senses. ... Atman may refer to a concept in Hindu and Buddhist traditions: Atman (Hinduism) Atman (Buddhism) See also Anatta (anatman) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... In Rabelais Pantagruel, Ruach is the Isle of Winds. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Nephesh is the Hebrew word largely translated by soul in english. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


See also

Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... Cryptids are creatures presumed extinct, hypothetical species, or creatures known from anecdotal evidence and/or other evidence insufficient to prove their existence with scientific certainty. ... Cryptozoology (from Greek: κρυπτός, kryptós, hidden; ζῷον, zôon, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge or study – zoology) is the search for animals hypothesized to exist, but for which conclusive proof is missing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... This is the term used in Akilattirattu Ammanai the holy book of Ayyavazhi to represent The Ultimate Oneness, and in Thiruvasakam - 2 it was stated that it was from this Ekam all this objects including the separate Godheads, Devas, Asuras etc of the Universe formed. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... Akh redirects here. ... A legendary creature is a mythological or folkloric creature (often known as fabulous creatures in historical literature). ... J.F. Bertuch, Kinderbuch Fabelwesen 2, Anno 1806 This is a list of legendary creatures. ... This article is about the legendary creature. ... Pneumatology refers to the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... Pneumatology is the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
SPIRITS (5169 words)
Spirits appear to have the ability to move from one location to another instantly, perhaps by merely thinking themselves where they want to be.
Spirits can create tastes, odors and fragrances such as pipe tobacco, perfume, or the smell of oranges, as well as foul stenches such as sulfur and animal feces when no animal is present.
Once a person has given a spirit permission, directly or indirectly through channeling or even seemingly innocent ties to the occult, the spirit appears to be able to read that person's thoughts, as well as planting thoughts in the person's mind.
Spirits - LoveToKnow 1911 (12368 words)
A small part of the spirit coming from the coil passes through this box into the hydrometer jars, where its strength is taken by means of the hydrometers and its behaviour towards water ascertained by mixing with a known volume of the same.
The fusel oil of British pot-still spirits is chiefly composed of amyl and butyl alcohols, whereas in patent spirits propyl alcohol preponderates, that is, in the finished or fine spirit, since the fusel oil separated from patent spirit in the course of distillation consists mainly of amyl and butyl alcohols.
Thus one inventor, acting on the alleged fact that spirits are improved by lengthy journeys, suggests that a miniature railway, with numerous obstacles to augment the rolling and shaking action, be laid down in the distiller's warehouse.
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