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Encyclopedia > Spinning Jenny
Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany
Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany

The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, Lancashire in the northwest of England (although Thomas Highs is another candidate identified as the inventor). The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once. Spinning Jenny, a literary magazine founded in 1994 and first printed in 1995, primarily publishes poetry by emerging writers. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Spool can mean the following: Bobbin, cylinder or reel for winding yarn, thread, cable, or film. ... A spinning wheel is a device for making thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton. ... James Hargreaves (also known as James Hargraves [1]) (1720 – 22 April 1778) was a weaver, carpenter and an inventor in Lancashire, England. ... This article is about the town in Lancashire, England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A drawing of Thomas Highs spinning jenny, taken from Edward Bainess History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain Thomas Highs (1718 – 1803) was a talented English reed-maker and inventor known for his creation of the spinning jenny, the throstle (a machine for the continuous twisting and winding... Look up Candidate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ...

Contents

Components

The main idea was developed as a machine with eight wooden spindles at one end, spun from a much larger wheel at the other. A set of eight rovings were attached to a beam that could roll. A clamp-like device in the roving beam allowed the operator to then release all the threads at once, to be collected on spools. The flying shuttle had increased yarn demand by the weavers by doubling their productivity, and now the spinning jenny could supply that demand by increasing the spinners' productivity even more. The machines were often operated by children, who could more easily move about them. The machine produced coarse yarn that lacked strength, but it was still suitable for filling out the weft of fabric, using stronger yarn for the warp. Later developments slightly lowered the quality of the yarn, but increased the number of spindles to eighty or more. A spindle (sometimes called a drop spindle) is a wooden spike weighted at one end with a wheel and an optional hook at the other end. ... A tow is an untwisted bundle of continuous filaments. ... The flying shuttle was developed by John Kay in 1733, and was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution. ... WEFT Champaign 90. ... WaRp. ...


History

James Hargreaves was born in Oswaldtwistle, near Blackburn, in 1720. He received no formal education and was never taught how to read or write. He moved to Stanhill looking for work and raised a family there, working as a spinner and carpenter. , Oswaldtwistle (pronounced Oswald-twistle) is a town on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Lancashire, 3 miles east-south-east of Blackburn. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ...


Blackburn was known for the production of Blackburn greys, a type of fabric that combined linen warp and cotton weft. At the time cotton production could not keep up with demand, and Hargreaves spent some time considering how to improve the process. The most common story told about the invention of the device is that his daughter, Jenny, knocked over one of their own spinning wheels. The device kept working as normal, with the spindle now pointed upright. Hargreaves realized there was no particular reason the spindles had to be horizontal, as they always had been, and he could place them vertically in a row. Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... WaRp. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... WEFT Champaign 90. ...


The name is variously said to derive from the tale above (although Hargreaves did not have a daughter called Jenny); from the daughter of Thomas Highs (another craftsman, who is the possible true inventor of the spinning jenny); or from engine (see also cotton gin). For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... A cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum. ...


Success

Hargreaves kept the machine secret for some time, but produced a number for his own growing industry. The price of yarn fell, angering the large spinning community in Blackburn. Eventually they broke into his house and smashed his machines, forcing him to flee to Nottingham in 1732. There he set up shop producing jennies in secret for one Mr. Shipley, with the assistance of a joiner named James. For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ...


Eventually Hargreaves applied for a patent on the jenny in July 1770. By this time a number of spinners in Lancashire were already using copies of the machine, and Hargreaves sent notice that he was taking legal action against them. The manufacturers met, and offered Hargreaves £3000. He at first demanded £7000, and at last stood out for £4000, but the case eventually fell apart when it was learned he had already sold several in the past.


The partnership with Barney carried on "with moderate success" until Hargreaves' unfortunate death on April 22, 1778. That year Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule, combining the spinning jenny with Richard Arkwright's spinning frame and again dramatically increasing yarn production. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Samuel Crompton (December 3, 1753 – June 26, 1827), English inventor, was born at Firwood, in Bolton, Lancashire. ... The spinning mule was created by Samuel Crompton. ... Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... The spinning frame was an invention developed during the 18th century British Industrial Revolution. ...


The spinning jenny was a huge success due to the fact that it could hold more than one ball of yarn, therefore making more clothing materials in a shorter amount of time while reducing the overall cost.


See also

The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... Timeline of clothing and textiles technology. ... With the establishment of overseas colonies, the British Empire at the end of the 17th century/beginning of the 18th century had a vast source of raw materials and a vast market for goods. ...

External links

  • Essay from http://www.cottontown.org on Hargreaves and the spinning jenny.
  • Essay from http://www.cottonttimes.co.uk on Highs and the spinning jenny.
  • Source for alternate name of spinning ginny
A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... --212. ... A rolag prepared using handcarders. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A sliver (rhymes with diver) is a long bundle of fiber that is generally used to spin worsted yarn. ... Two wool samples of different staple lengths Staple is a term referring to fiber that comes in discrete and consistent lengths, measured in millimeters. ... A tow is an untwisted bundle of continuous filaments. ... Woolen (British spelling woollen) is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool. ... Worsted is the name of a dick the cloth made from this yarn, as well as a yarn weight category. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... -1... Combing is a method for preparing fiber for spinning by use of combs. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Spinning Flax from a distaff As a noun, a distaff is a tool used in spinning. ... A niddy noddy is a tool used to make skeins from yarn. ... A spindle (sometimes called a drop spindle) is a wooden spike weighted at one end with a wheel and an optional hook at the other end. ... A spinning wheel is a device for making thread or yarn from fibrous material such as wool or cotton. ... Spinners weasel (left) and spinning wheel (right) Spinners weasel is a mechanical yarn measuring device consisting of a spoked wheel with an internal ratcheting mechanism that clicks every two revolutions and makes a pop sound after the desired length of yarn is measured. ... COTTON-SPINNING MACHINERY: Eventually the hand mule became a machine in which most of the work was done automatically; the spinner being chiefly required, to regulate the velocity of the backing off, and the inward run of the carriage, and to actuate the fallers. ... The spinning frame was an invention developed during the 18th century British Industrial Revolution. ... The spinning mule was created by Samuel Crompton. ... Model of a Water frame at the Historical Museum in Wuppertal. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
spinning - HighBeam Encyclopedia (641 words)
SPINNING [spinning] the drawing out, twisting, and winding of fibers into a continuous thread or yarn.
James Hargreaves invented c.1765 the spinning jenny, a frame capable of spinning from 8 to 11 threads at once.
Spinning yarn to order is order of the day in Japan.
James Hargreaves - inventor (1099 words)
It was a sort of half-way house, something to bridge the gap between the spinning wheel and the heavier, more complicated machinery that came later and required factory conditions in which to operate.
THERE is a romantic but inaccurate story about why Hargreaves named his machine "jenny." One day, it is claimed, his daughter Jenny accidentally knocked over the family spinning wheel and, as the wheel continued to rotate, Hargreaves suddenly saw the possibility of one wheel producing several threads simultaneously.
Sadly, Hargreaves did not have a daughter called Jenny and the word is simply a corruption of "gin", as in Eli Whitney's cotton gin, and that itself is a shortened form of the word "engine."
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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