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Encyclopedia > Spinach
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Spinach
Spinach in flower
Spinach in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Genus: Spinacia
Species: S. oleracea
Binomial name
Spinacia oleracea
L.
Spinach, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.527 oz)
Energy 20 kcal   100 kJ
Carbohydrates     3.6 g
- Sugars  0.4 g
- Dietary fiber  2.2 g  
Fat 0.4 g
Protein 2.9 g
Folate (Vit. B9)  194 μg  49%
Vitamin C  28 mg 47%
Vitamin E  2 mg 13%
Vitamin K  483 μg 460%
Calcium  99 mg 10%
Iron  2.7 mg 22%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae, native to central and southwestern Asia. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular-based, very variable in size from about 3-30 cm long and 1-15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3-4 mm diameter, maturing into a small hard dry lumpy fruit cluster 5-10 mm across containing several seeds. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (539x703, 79 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Spinach ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Achatocarpaceae Aizoaceae (Fig-marigold family) Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Ancistrocladaceae Asteropeiaceae Barbeuiaceae Basellaceae (basella family) Cactaceae (cactus family) Caryophyllaceae (carnation family) Dioncophyllaceae Droseraceae (sundew family) Drosophyllaceae Frankeniaceae Molluginaceae (carpetweed family) Nepenthaceae Nyctaginaceae (four-oclock family) Physenaceae Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed family) Plumbaginaceae (plumbago family) Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Portulacaceae (purslane family) Rhabdodendraceae... Type Genus Amaranthus L. Subfamilies Amaranthoideae Chenopodioideae Gomphrenoideae Salicornioideae Salsoloideae The flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth family, contains about 160 genera and 2,400 species. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and gay rights campaigner[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Type Genus Amaranthus L. Subfamilies Amaranthoideae Chenopodioideae Gomphrenoideae Salicornioideae Salsoloideae The flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth family, contains about 160 genera and 2,400 species. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Culinary Information

When cooked, the volume of spinach is decreased by three quarters.


Nutrition

In popular folklore, spinach is a rich source of iron. In reality, a 60 gram serving of boiled spinach contains around 1.9 mg of iron (slightly more when eaten raw). A good many green vegetables contain less than 1 mg of iron for an equivalent serving. Hence spinach does contain a relatively high level of iron for a vegetable, but its consumption does not have special health connotations as folklore might suggest. Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, material culture, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Leaf vegetables, also called greens or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ...


Ultimately, the bioavailability of iron is dependent on its absorption. This is influenced by a number of factors. Iron enters the body in two forms: nonheme iron and heme iron. All of the iron in grains and vegetables, and about three fifths of the iron in animal food sources (meats), is nonheme iron. The much smaller remaining portion from meats is heme iron (Williams, 1993).


This larger portion of dietary iron (nonheme) is absorbed slowly in its many food sources, including spinach. This absorption may vary widely depending on the presence of binders such as fiber or enhancers, such as vitamin C. Therefore, the body's absorption of non-heme iron can be improved by consuming foods that are rich in vitamin C. However, spinach contains high levels of oxalate. Oxalates bind to iron to form ferrous oxalate and remove iron from the body. Therefore, a diet high in oxalate (or phosphate or phytate) leads to a decrease in iron absorption. An oxalate (called also: ethanedioate) is a salt or ester of oxalic acid. ...


The myth about spinach and its high iron content may have first been propagated by Dr. E. von Wolf in 1870, because a misplaced decimal point in his publication led to an iron-content figure that was ten times too high. In 1937, German chemists reinvestigated this "miracle vegetable" and corrected the mistake. It was described by T.J. Hamblin in British Medical Journal, December 1981. The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Terry J. Hamblin (b. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Spinach also has a high calcium content. However, the oxalate content in spinach binds with calcium decreasing its absorption. By way of comparison, the body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach. Oxalate is one of a number of factors that can contribute to gout and kidney stones. Equally or more notable factors contributing to calcium stones are: genetic tendency, high intake of animal protein, excess calcium intake, excess vitamin D, prolonged immobility, hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, and excess dietary fiber (Williams, 1993). General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Kidney stones, or Renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) of dissolved minerals in urine; calculi typically form inside the kidneys or ureters. ...

Boiled Spinach
Boiled Spinach

Spinach still has a large nutritional value, especially when fresh, steamed, or quickly boiled. It is a rich source of Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, and several vital antioxidants. Recently, opioid peptides called rubiscolins have also been found in spinach. It is a source of folic acid, and this vitamin was first purified from spinach. To benefit from the folate in spinach, it is better to steam it than to boil it. Boiling spinach for four minutes can halve the level of folate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (911x568, 90 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spinach ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (911x568, 90 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spinach ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... Opioid Peptides are short sequences of amino acids which mimick the effect of opiates in the brain. ... The rubiscolins are a group of opioid peptides which are formed during digestion of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) protein from spinach leaves. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ...

Types of spinach

A distinction can be made between older varieties of spinach and more modern varieties. Older varieties tend to bolt too early in warm conditions. Newer varieties tend to grow more rapidly but have less of an inclination to run up to seed. The older varieties have narrower leaves and tend to have a stronger (although more bitter) taste. Most newer varieties have broader leaves and round seeds. Bolting is a condition which occurs in plants of the cabbage family which include broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, Kale and, of course, cabbage amongst others. ...


There are 3 basic types of Spinach:

  • Savoy has dark green, crinkly and curly leaves. It is the type sold in fresh bunches in most supermarkets. One heirloom variety of savoy is Bloomsdale. Bloomsdale is also somewhat bolt resistant.
  • Flat/smooth leaf spinach has broad smooth leaves that are easier to clean than savoy. This type is often grown for canned and frozen spinach, as well as soups, baby foods, and processed foods.
  • Semi-savoy is a hybrid variety. It has slightly crinkled leaves. It has the same texture as savoy, but it is not as difficult to clean. It is grown for both fresh market and processing. Five Star is a widely grown variety and has good resistance to running up to seed.

Rosemary Stanton, in her Complete Book of Food and Nutrition, notes that silverbeet (or chard), is commonly referred to as spinach, particularly in Australia. Hence, there may be some popular confusion between the two vegetables. Bolting is a condition which occurs in plants of the cabbage family which include broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, Kale and, of course, cabbage amongst others. ... For other uses, see Chard (disambiguation). ...


Marketing and storage

Spinach is sold loose, in prepackaged bags, canned, or frozen. Fresh spinach loses much of its nutritional value with storage of more than a few days. While refrigeration slows this effect to about eight days, spinach will lose most of its folate and carotenoid content, so for longer storage it is frozen, cooked and frozen, or canned. Storage in the freezer can be for up to eight months.


Reheating spinach leftovers may cause the formation of poisonous compounds by certain bacteria that thrive on prepared nitrate-rich foods, such as spinach and many other green vegetables. These bacteria can convert the nitrates into nitrites, which may be especially harmful to infants younger than six months. The nitrate-converting enzymes produced by the bacteria can convert even more at elevated temperatures during the second heating. For older children and adults, small concentrations of nitrites are harmless, although formation of nitrosamine compounds from the nitrites could be of concern for adults as well. [1] Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Spinach in popular culture

  • Popeye the Sailor has a strong affinity for spinach, becoming much stronger after consuming it. This is partially due to the iron content being mistakenly reported ten times the actual value, a value that was unchecked during the 1930's. [1]

A Popeye comic book cover shows Popeye, with his characteristic corncob pipe and single good eye, and his girlfriend Olive Oyl. ...

2006 United States E. coli outbreak

See Wikinews article:
E. coli outbreak kills 1 sickens nearly 100

In September 2006, there was an outbreak of disease caused by the E. coli strain O157:H7 in 21 U.S. states. On 2006-09-14, the E. coli was linked to bags of fresh spinach, after which the FDA issued a warning not to eat uncooked fresh spinach or products containing it. As of 2006-09-24, over a hundred cases have been reported, including three deaths. Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Warning: Wikipedia does not give medical advice. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The US Food and Drug Administration issued a press release updating the available information. According to the FDA release as on 2006-10-4, one hundred and ninety two cases of E. coli O157:H7 infection have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) including 30 cases of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome; there was one death and 98 hospitalizations. The infection affected 26 states. By early 2007, there were 206 illnesses and 3 deaths attributed to E. coli-tainted spinach. FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... In medicine, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, abbreviated HUS) is a disease characterised by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure and a low platelet count (thrombopenia). ...


Based on epidemiological and laboratory evidence, FDA determined that the implicated spinach originated from Natural Selection Foods LLC of San Juan Bautista, California. Epidemiology (Greek epi = upon, among; demos = people, district; logos = word, discourse), defined literally, is the study of epidemics in humans. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... San Juan Bautista is a city located in San Benito County, California. ...


Other species called spinach

The name spinach has been applied to a number of leaf vegetables, both related and unrelated to spinach:

Related species
  • Chard (Beta vulgaris, Amaranthaceae), also known as spinach beet or perpetual spinach.
  • Orache (Atriplex species, Amaranthaceae), also called "French spinach" or "mountain spinach".
  • Good King Henry (Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Amaranthaceae) and other Chenopodium species, also called "Lincolnshire spinach".

In Indonesia, the word bayam is applied both to certain species of amaranth commonly eaten as a leafy vegetable, and to spinach, which is rarely seen, only in certain supermarkets but well known from Popeye cartoons. For other uses, see Chard (disambiguation). ... Type Genus Amaranthus L. Subfamilies Amaranthoideae Chenopodioideae Gomphrenoideae Salicornioideae Salsoloideae The flowering plant family Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth family, contains about 160 genera and 2,400 species. ... Species About 100-200 species, including: Atriplex alaskensis (Alaska Orach) Atriplex amnicola (River Saltbush) Atriplex californica Atriplex calotheca Atriplex canescens (Four Wing Saltbush) Atriplex confertifolia Atriplex coronata (Crownscale Saltbush) Atriplex glabriuscula Atriplex halimus Atriplex heterosperma Atriplex hortensis (Garden or Red Orache) Atriplex hymenelytra Atriplex laciniata (Frosted Orache) Atriplex lentiformis Atriplex... Binomial name Chenopodium bonus-henricus L. Good King Henry, also called mercury, lincolnshire spinach or poor mans asparagus is a species of goosefoot native to much of central and southern Europe. ... Species See text Chenopodium is a genus of about 150 species of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae, known generically as the Goosefoots. ... Amarant redirects here. ...

Unrelated species

Species About 50-60 species, including: Tetragonia angustifolia Tetragonia arbuscula Tetragonia copiapina Tetragonia coronata Tetragonia cristata Tetragonia crystallina Tetragonia decumbens Tetragonia diptera Tetragonia eremaea Tetragonia espinosae Tetragonia fruticosa Tetragonia herbacea Tetragonia implexicoma Tetragonia macrocarpa Tetragonia maritima Tetragonia ovata Tetragonia moorei Tetragonia nigrescens Tetragonia pedunculata Tetragonia tetragonioides Tetragonia trigyna Tetragonia vestita... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. ... Genera See text The Convolvulaceae, the bindweed or morning glory family, is a group of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs. ... Binomial name Basella alba L. Malabar spinach is a perennial tropical vine, popular as a leaf vegetable, only distantly related to spinach. ... Genera Anredera Basella Boussingaltia Ullucus Basellaceae is a family of typically succulent, mucilaginous, herbaceous, perennial, vining plants. ... Species See text Solanum is a genus of annuals, perennials, sub-shrubs, shrubs and climbers. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...

References and external links

  • D. Maue, S. Walia, S. Shore, M. Parkash, S. K. Walia, S. K. Walia (2005). "Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Ready-to-Eat Bagged Salads". American Society for Microbiology meeting. June 5-9: Atlanta.  Abstract
  • Overview of Spinach from Innvista
  • Rogers, Jo. What Food is That?: and how healthy is it?. The Rocks, Sydney, NSW: Lansdowne Publishing Pty Ltd, 1990. ISBN 1-86302-823-4.
  • Cardwell, Glenn. Spinach is a Good Source of What?. The Skeptic. Volume 25, No 2, Winter 2005. Pp 31-33. ISSN 0726-9897
  • Blazey, Clive. The Australian Vegetable Garden: What's new is old. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers, 1999. ISBN 1-86436-538-2
  • Stanton, Rosemary. Complete Book of Food and Nutrition. Australia, Simon & Schuster, Revised Edition, 1995. ISBN 0-7318-0538-0
  • Health Benefits of Spinach
  • Williams, S.R. (1993) Nutrition and Diet Therapy 7th ed. Mosby: St. Loius, MO
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Spinach
  • The nutritional benefits of spinach were discussed in detail in the Skeptic magazine, (Winter 2005).
  • Powell, D. and Chapman "Fresh and Risky" Food Safety Network, September 15, 2006

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spinach - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1537 words)
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae, native to central and southwestern Asia.
Spinach is an important leaf vegetable, now grown throughout the temperate regions of the world.
Spinach was first cultivated in southwestern Asia, perhaps in Persia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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