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Encyclopedia > Spermicide
Spermicide
Background
B.C. type Spermicide
First use Ancient
Failure rates (per year)
Perfect use 18%
Typical use 29%
Usage
Reversibility Immediate
User reminders More effective if combined with a barrier method
Advantages
Benefits Provides lubrication
Disadvantages
STD protection No
Weight gain No
Risks Genital irritation

Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. As a contraceptive, spermicide may be used alone. However, the pregnancy rate experienced by couples using only spermicide is higher than that of couples using other methods. Usually, spermicides are combined with contraceptive barrier methods such as diaphragms, condoms, cervical caps, and sponges. Combined methods are believed to result in lower pregnancy rates than either method alone.[1] A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and ζῷον (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Barrier methods are methods of preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease by forming an impenetrable barrier between sexual partners. ... The diaphragm is a barrier method of contraception: a small rubber dome filled with a spermicidal (sperm killing) cream and placed in the vagina to wall off the cervix, the opening to the uterus, thus preventing sperm from entering. ... A 67 m long condom on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day A condom is a device, usually made of latex, or more recently polyurethane, that is used during sexual intercourse. ... Cervical cap The cervical cap is a barrier method of contraception. ... The contraceptive sponge, marketed in the U.S. under the brand Today, combines barrier and spermicidal techniques to prevent conception. ...

Contents

Types and effectiveness

The most common active ingredient of spermicides is nonoxynol-9. Spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 are available in many forms, such as jelly (gel), films, and foams. Contraceptive Technology states that spermicides have a failure rate of 18% per year when used correctly and consistently, and 29% under typical use.[2] Chemical structure of nonoxynol-9 Nonoxynol-9 is non-ionic surfactant that is used as ingredient in various cleaning and cosmetic products, but is also widely used in contraceptives for its spermicidal properties. ...


Menfegol is a spermicide manufactured as a foaming tablet.[3] It is only available in Europe.


Octoxynol-9 was previously a common spermicide, but was removed from the U.S. market in 2002 after manufacturers failed to perform new studies required by the FDA.[4]


The spermicides benzalkonium chloride and sodium cholate are used in some contraceptive sponges.[5] Benzalkonium chloride might also be available in Canada as a suppository.[6] Benzalkonium chloride is an organic compound that is used as an antiseptic and spermicide. ... The contraceptive sponge, marketed in the U.S. under the brand Today, combines barrier and spermicidal techniques to prevent conception. ...


A common urban legend suggests that Coca-Cola or other soft drinks serve as an effective spermicide. This is false,[7] as proven by the MythBusters in one episode. Urban legends are a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them (see rumor). ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... MythBusters is an American pop science television program on the Discovery Channel starring special effects experts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman, who use their skills and expertise to test the validity of various rumors and urban legends in popular culture. ...


Lemon juice solutions have been shown to immobilize sperm in the laboratory,[8] as has Krest Bitter Lemon drink.[9] While the authors of the Krest Bitter Lemon study suggested its use as a postcoital douche, this is unlikely to be effective, as sperm begin leaving the ejaculate (out of the reach of any douche) within 1.5 minutes of deposition.[10] No published studies appear to have been done on the effectiveness of lemon juice preparations in preventing pregnancy, though they are advocated by some as 'natural' spermicides.[11] Natural birth control refers to methods of birth control that are natural in that they do not rely on any artifice of medical science. ...


Lactic acid preparations have also been shown to have some spermicidal effect, and commercial lactic acid-based spermicides are available.[12][13] However, no published studies on the effectiveness of lactic acid in preventing pregnancy appear to have been done since 1936.[14] Thomas Moench, a former assistant professor of medicine, has said that research into acids as spermicides has "pretty much been abandoned."[15]


Extratives of the neem plant such as neem oil have also been proposed as spermicides based on laboratory studies.[16] Animal studies of creams and pessaries derived from neem have shown they have contraceptive effects,[17] however trials in humans to determine its effectiveness in preventing pregnancy have not yet been conducted. Neem oil is widely used as a spermicide in India.[citation needed] The spermicidal properties of neem oil last up to 5 hours after sex,[citation needed] unlike other spermicides which must be re-applied more frequently. Binomial name Azadirachta indica A.Juss. ... Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of Neem (Azadirachta indica), an evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian sub-continent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics. ...


Use as microbicide

Previously, it was believed that nonoxynol-9 reduced the risk of HIV infection, as it prevents transmission of the virus in the laboratory. However, many human studies have shown no protective effect. Because nonoxynol-9 creates abrasions in the vaginal and rectal walls, it may even make transmission of HIV and other STDs more likely, especially if used frequently.[18] Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — also known as sexually transmissible diseases, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or (infrequently) venereal diseases (VD) or social disease — are diseases or infections that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and/or anal sex. ...


While lemon juice has been proposed as a microbicide based on laboratory studies,[19] human testing has shown that, at the concentrations needed to kill HIV, it causes the same abrasions as nonoxynol-9. Because these abrasions increase risk of pathogen transmission, lemon juice is not recommended as a microbicide.[20]


Neem extracts have also been researched as microbicides, as they have anti-microbial properties in the laboratory. In the Phase I clinical trial (to determine safety), almost half of the study participants reported negative side effects such as genital itching, burning, and pain. Because there were no serious adverse health effects, though, the researchers recommended continuing to a Phase II clinical trial (to determine efficacy).[21] The Phase II trial has not yet been completed.


Use with condoms

Some condoms are lubricated at the manufacturer with a small amount of nonoxynyl-9. According to Consumer Reports, spermicidally lubricated condoms have no additional benefit in preventing pregnancy, have a shorter shelf life, and may cause urinary-tract infections in women.[22] The World Health Organization says that spermicidally lubricated condoms should no longer be promoted. However, they recommend using a nonoxynol-9 lubricated condom over no condom at all.[23] Consumer Reports is an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union, a non-profit organization founded in 1936 by Arthur Kallet, Colston Warne, and others who felt that the established Consumers Research organization was not aggressive enough. ... Flag of World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


In contrast, application of separately packaged spermicide is believed to increase the contraceptive efficacy of condoms.[1]


Side effects

Nonoxynyl-9 has a number of possible side effects. These include irritation, itching, or burning of the sex organs (either partner), and in women, urinary tract infections, yeast infection, and bacterial vaginosis.[24] These side effects are uncommon; one study found that only 3-5% of women who try spermicides discontinue use due to side effects.[25] A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the urinary tract. ... Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. ... Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal infection (vaginitis). ...


Concern has been raised over possible increased risk of birth defects in children conceived despite spermicide use, and also in children of women who, not yet aware of their condition, continued spermicide use during early pregnancy.[26] However, a review in 1990 of large studies on spermicides concluded "there appears to be no increased risk of congenital anomalies, altered sex ratio, or early pregnancy loss among spermicide users."[27]


History

The first written record of spermicide use is found in the Kahun Papyrus, an Egyptian document dating to 1850 BCE. It described a pessary of crocodile dung and fermented dough.[28] It is believed that the low pH of the dung may have had a spermicidal effect.[29]


Further formulations are found in the Ebers Papyrus from approximately 1500 BCE. It recommended mixing seed wool, acacia, dates and honey, and placing the mixture in the vagina. It probably had some effectiveness, in part as a physical barrier due to the thick, sticky consistency, and also because of the lactic acid (a known spermicide) formed from the acacia.[29] The Ebers Papyrus of about 1550 BCE is among the most important ancient Egyptian medical papyri. ...


Writings by Soranus, a 2nd century Roman gynecologist, contained formulations for a number of acidic concoctions claimed to be spermicidal. His instructions were to soak wool in one of the mixtures, then place near the cervix.[28]


Laboratory testing of substances to see if they inhibited sperm motility began in the 1800s. Modern spermicides nonoxynol-9 and menfegol were developed from this line of research.[28] However, many other substances of dubious contraceptive value were also promoted. Especially after the illegallization of contraception in the U.S. by the 1873 Comstock Act, spermicides - the most popular of which was Lysol - were marketed only as "feminine hygiene" products and were not held to any standard of effectiveness. Worse, many manufacturers recommended using the products as a douche after intercourse, too late to affect all the sperm. Medical estimates during the 1930s placed the pregnancy rate of women using many over-the-counter spermicides at seventy percent per year.[30] The symbol of Comstocks Society for the Suppression of Vice. ... Lysol is a brand name for a dettol solution used as a disinfectant cleaner. ... A vaginal bulb syringe. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Kestelman P, Trussell J. "Efficacy of the simultaneous use of condoms and spermicides it also is great ofr men too.". Fam Plann Perspect 23 (5): 226-7, 232. PMID 1743276.
  2. ^ Hatcher, RA, Trussel J, Stewart F, et al (2000). Contraceptive Technology, 18th Edition, New York: Ardent Media. ISBN 0-9664902-6-6.
  3. ^ Spermicides: Neo-Sampoon (Menfegol). RemedyFind. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  4. ^ Status of Certain Additional Over-the-Counter Drug Category II and III Active Ingredients. Federal Register. Food and Drug Administration (May 9, 2002). Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
  5. ^ Sponges. Cervical Barrier Advancement Society (2004). Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  6. ^ Spermicides (Vaginal). MayoClinic.com (August 1997). Retrieved on 2006-10-16.
  7. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara (November 2003). Cokelore (Killer Sperm). Snopes.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  8. ^ Roger Short, Scott G. McCoombe, Clare Maslin, Eman Naim and Suzanne Crowe (2002). "Lemon and Lime juice as potent natural microbicides" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  9. ^ Nwoha P (1992). "The immobilization of all spermatozoa in vitro by bitter lemon drink and the effect of alkaline pH". Contraception 46 (6): 537-42. PMID 1493713.
  10. ^ Ellington, Joanna (2004). Sperm Leaking Out After Intercourse- Lessons in Sperm Transport Through the Cervix. Frequently Asked Questions with Dr. E. INGfertility Inc. Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  11. ^ MoonDragon's Contraception Information: Spermicides. MoonDragon Birthing Services (1997?). Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  12. ^ Femprotect - Lactic Acid Contraceptive Gel. Woman's Natural Health Practice. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  13. ^ Contragel Green. Condomerie Webshop. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  14. ^ Stone H (1936). "Contraceptive jellies: a clinical study". J Contracept 1 (12): 209-13. PMID 12259192.
  15. ^ Venere, Emil (September 1996). On Research: New Contraceptive Gel Prevents Pregnancy and STDs. The Gazette, The Newspaper of the John Hopkins University. Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  16. ^ Sharma S, SaiRam M, Ilavazhagan G, Devendra K, Shivaji S, Selvamurthy W (1996). "Mechanism of action of NIM-76: a novel vaginal contraceptive from neem oil.". Contraception 54 (6): 373-8. PMID 8968666.
  17. ^ Talwar G, Raghuvanshi P, Misra R, Mukherjee S, Shah S (1997). "Plant immunomodulators for termination of unwanted pregnancy and for contraception and reproductive health.". Immunol Cell Biol 75 (2): 190-2. PMID 9107574.
  18. ^ Nonoxynol-9 and the Risk of HIV Transmission. HIV/AIDS Epi Update. Health Canada, Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control (April 2003). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  19. ^ Lemons and AIDS (August 2004). Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  20. ^ (June 2006). "Why women should NOT use Lemon or Lime Juice as a microbicide" (PDF). Global Campaign for Microbicides. Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  21. ^ Joshi S, Katti U, Godbole S, Bharucha K, B K, Kulkarni S, Risbud A, Mehendale S (2005). "Phase I safety study of Praneem polyherbal vaginal tablet use among HIV-uninfected women in Pune, India.". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99 (10): 769-74. PMID 16084547.
  22. ^ Condoms: Extra protection. ConsumerReports.org (February 2005). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  23. ^ Microbicides. World Health Organization (2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  24. ^ Drug Information: Nonoxynol-9 cream, film, foam, gel, jelly, suppository. Medical University of South Carolina (March 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  25. ^ Xu J, Shi L, Zhou X, Xiao Z (2003). "Contraceptive efficacy of bioadhesive nonoxynol-9 Gel: comparison with nonoxynol-9 suppository". Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 38 (10): 629-31. PMID 14728869.
  26. ^ (1981) "Study raises question of spermicide safety.". Contracept Technol Update 2 (5): 57-61. PMID 12265917.
  27. ^ Huggins G, Cullins V (1990). "Fertility after contraception or abortion.". Fertil Steril 54 (4): 559-73. PMID 2209874.
  28. ^ a b c (February 2000) "Evolution and Revolution: The Past, Present, and Future of Contraception". Contraception Online (Baylor College of Medicine) 10 (6).
  29. ^ a b Towie, Brian (January 19, 2004). 4,000 years of contraception on display in Toronto museum. torontObserver. Centennial College journalism students.
  30. ^ Tone, Andrea (Spring 1996). "Contraceptive consumers: gender and the political economy of birth control in the 1930s". Journal of Social History. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.


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Birth control edit

Natural methods: Coitus interruptus, Fertility awareness methods: Natural family planning, BBT, Billings, Creighton, Rhythm Method, Lactational. Birth control is a regimen of one or more actions, devices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of a woman becoming pregnant or giving birth. ... Natural birth control refers to methods of birth control that are natural in that they do not rely on any artifice of medical science. ... Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the man removes his penis from the womans vagina just before he reaches orgasm. ... Fertility Awareness (FA) is the practice of observing one or more of a woman’s primary fertility signs to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her cycle. ... Natural Family Planning (NFP) is a set of Catholic-sanctioned methods of family planning, which help women to achieve or avoid pregnancy by identifying times of infertility and potential fertility. ... One of the many changes that take place in a womans body during her menstrual cycle is an increase in body temperature at the onset of ovulation. ... The Billings ovulation method is a form of natural family planning. ... The Creighton Model teaches women to observe certain biological signs to monitor their own gynaecological health, and to identify times of fertility and infertility. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ...

Avoidance Methods: Celibacy, Abstinence. Barrier: Condom, Diaphragm, Shield, Cap, Sponge. Spermicide, Intra-uterine: IUD, IUS (progesterone). Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... A 67 m long condom on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day A condom is a device, usually made of latex, or more recently polyurethane, that is used during sexual intercourse. ... The diaphragm is a barrier method of contraception. ... Leas Shield (Canda Brand, in US: Lea Contraceptive, in Europe: LEA contraceptivum) is a female barrier method of contraception. ... Cervical cap The cervical cap is a barrier method of contraception. ... The contraceptive sponge, marketed in the U.S. under the brand Today, combines barrier and spermicidal techniques to prevent conception. ... An intrauterine device (intra meaning within, and uterine meaning of the uterus) is a birth control device also known as an IUD or a coil (this colloquialism is based on the coil-shaped design of early IUDs). ... The IntraUterine System or IUS is an IntraUterine Device (IUD or coil) that has a coating of levonorgestrel (a progesterone) on its shaft, rather than the traditional copper wire. ...

Hormonal: Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ...

Combined: COCP pill, Patch, Nuvaring. Progesterone only: POP mini-pill, Depo Provera. Implants: Norplant, Implanon. Anti-Estrogen: Centchroman Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations. ... A contraceptive patch is a transdermal patch applied to the skin that releases synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones to prevent pregnancy. ... - This is a copy of manufacturers copyrighted patient information leaflet, rather than an encylopedic entry - please edit. ... Progesterone Only Pill (POP) are contraceptive pills that only contain progesterone (or, as used in the USA, the term Progestin for synthetic progesterones). ... Depo-Provera is a contraceptive or birth control product which is injected every 3 months. ... Implants (from Latin in-, in ; and Latin plantere, to plant) are artificial devices which made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. ... Norplant is a form of birth control released in 1991 by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, consisting of a set of six small, silicone capsules filled with levonorgestrel, a synthetic progestin used in many birth control pills. ... Implanon, made by Organon International, is a contraceptive technology that is inserted under the skin of a womans upper arm. ... Centchroman is a non-hormonal, non-steroidal form of birth control that is marketed in India, under the trade names Centron® and Saheli®. Centchroman is a pill which is taken once per week. ...

Post-intercourse: Emergency contraception & Abortion methods: Surgical, Chemical, Herbal/Drug. Sterilization: Tubal ligation, Vasectomy. Wikinews has news related to: FDA to move on approval of over-the-counter sale of Plan B birth control Emergency contraception (EC) (also known as Emergency Birth Control (EBC), the morning-after pill, or postcoital contraception) refers to measures, that if taken after sex, may prevent a pregnancy. ... An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in, or caused by, its death. ... A chemical abortion is a type of abortion in which a drug is used to induce the abortion, rather than a surgical procedure. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... Tubal ligation is a permanent, but sometimes reversible form of female sterilization, in which the fallopian tubes are severed and sealed, in order to prevent fertilization. ... A Vasectomy is a birth control method in which all or part of a males vas deferens are surgically removed, thus sterilizing the patient. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spermicide (575 words)
Spermicides can be used alone but are more effective when used with another method of birth control, such as a condom or diaphragm.
Spermicides immobilize and kill the sperm before they are able to swim into the uterus.
Spermicides are not as effective on their own as other forms of birth control.
Birth Control (900 words)
Spermicides provide lubrication and can be used with other methods of birth control.
Spermicide can be used alone or with other birth control methods to reduce the risk of pregnancy.
Spermicide and barrier methods of birth control, like the diaphragm, female condom, and cervical cap, work by covering the cervix and preventing sperm from entering the uterus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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