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Encyclopedia > Speed hump
Speed hump made of asphalt.
Speed hump made of asphalt.
Speed hump made of rubber.
Speed hump made of rubber.

A speed hump (sometimes colloquially called a speed bump) is a rounded traffic calming device used to address issues of excessive vehicle speed and volume on residential streets. Humps are placed across the road to slow traffic and are often installed in a series of several humps[1] in order to prevent cars from speeding before and after the hump. Common speed hump shapes are parabolic, circular, and sinusoidal. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,675 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,675 pixels, file size: 1. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,798 × 1,199 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,798 × 1,199 pixels, file size: 1. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Speed bump (disambiguation). ... Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the amenity of the street for residents and visitors. ... A parabola A graph showing the reflective property, the directrix (light blue), and the lines connecting the focus and directrix to the parabola (blue) In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane... In trigonometry, an ideal sine wave is a waveform whose graph is identical to the generalized sine function y = Asin[ω(x − α)] + C, where A is the amplitude, ω is the angular frequency (2π/P where P is the wavelength), α is the phase shift, and C...


Generally, speed humps are 12 to 14 feet in length and span the width of the road. The height of humps ranges from 3 to 4 inches.[1] The length and height of the speed humps determine the speed at which traffic will travel over the devices. Shorter lengths and greater heights slow cars most drastically. When placed in a series 350–550 feet apart, humps will reduce 85 percentile speeds by 8–10 mph.[2]


A warning sign notifies motorists before the first hump in a series. Humps generally have pavement markings to enhance visibility and a taper edge near the curb to allow a gap for drainage.[1]


Speed humps are used in locations where very low speeds are desired and reasonable.[3] Speed humps are typically placed on residential roads and are not used on major roads, bus routes, or primary emergency response routes. Placement is generally mid-block between intersections.

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Typical speeds resulting from speed humps are 10–20 mph. Studies show an average 18% reduction in traffic volume and an average 13% reduction in collisions.[1]


Comparison to speed bumps

While similar to the more well known speed bumps, humps are less aggressive than speed bumps and are used on actual streets as opposed to bumps which are primarily placed in parking lots. While speed bumps generally slow cars to 5–10 mph, humps slow cars to 10–20 mph. For other uses, see Speed bump (disambiguation). ...


Composition

Speed humps are constructed of asphalt, concrete, or rubber. While traditionally most humps were constructed of asphalt or concrete, rubber is becoming increasingly popular due to several factors. Asphalt and concrete can be difficult to construct precisely while rubber products are pre-shaped to standardized sizes and thus consistently meet industry standards. An additional advantage is ease of installation, which is particularly beneficial when a city wants to test streets before deciding where to keep the devices. The simple installation process also allows for relocation during the winter when snow is a concern, which prevents damage to the humps by snowplows. In addition, unlike concrete and asphalt, which necessitate frequent and high cost replacement, rubber products are longer lasting and thus more cost-efficient. The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... This article is about the construction material. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A large snowplough mounted on a dump truck on a main street in Washington, DC A snowplough (also spelled snow plow, snowplow or snow plough, see miscellaneous spelling differences) is a vehicle, or a device intended for mounting on a vehicle, for removing snow and sometimes ice from outdoor surfaces...


Criticisms

One of the most oft heard criticism of speed humps is their effect on emergency vehicles. Response time is slowed by 3–5 seconds per hump for fire trucks and up to 10 seconds for ambulances with patients on-board.[1] Speed humps are thus usually not placed on primary response routes. Speed cushions may be placed on these routes instead. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ambulance An ambulance is a vehicle designated for the transport of sick or injured people. ... View of speed cushions at night Emergency vehicle driving over speed cushions Speed cushions are traffic calming devices designed as several small speed humps installed across the width of the road with spaces between them. ...


Occasionally, there is an increase in traffic noise from braking and acceleration of vehicles on streets with speed humps, particularly from buses and trucks. For the type of ferns known as brakes, see brake (fern). ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity and/or direction, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. ...


Damage caused by snow plows during the winter months is an additional concern. This issue can be alleviated by installing rubber devices and removing them during the snow season. A small sidewalk clearing plow in Ottawa, Canada A snowplow (or snow plow) is a vehicle or device used for removing snow from roadways, driveways, runways, and other surfaces. ...


Heavy sedans, trucks, and SUVs are less affected by speed humps, and may not have to slow down as dramatically. A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ... The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ...


Similar measures

  • Speed tables are longer than speed humps with a flat section in the middle. Cars are slowed to higher speeds than with speed humps.
  • Speed cushions are a series of three humps that are ideal for use on streets when emergency vehicle response time is a concern.
  • Speed bumps are significantly smaller than speed humps and used in areas where speed must be slowed nearly to a halt.

speed table with leading street lines speed table Speed tables are traffic calming devices designed as long speed humps with a flat section in the middle. ... View of speed cushions at night Emergency vehicle driving over speed cushions Speed cushions are traffic calming devices designed as several small speed humps installed across the width of the road with spaces between them. ... For other uses, see Speed bump (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e ITE. Traffic Calming Measures – Speed Hump. Institute of Transportation Engineers.
  2. ^ Peter Partington. Speed Humps. Trafficcalming.net.
  3. ^ trafficcalming.org. Speed Humps. Fehr and Peers.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Study on Speed Humps (2443 words)
Speed humps are designed for public residential roadways that have two lanes or less at a posted speed limit of 30 mph or less, and 85th percentile speeds of 31-34 mph.
Unlike speed bumps, at excessive speeds, the effects of speed humps are increased sometimes to the point of acting like a bump and jolting both the driver and their cargo.
Speed humps are designed for residential roads that have two lanes or less at a posted speed limit of 30 mph or less, and 85th percentile speeds of 31-34 mph.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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