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Encyclopedia > Speech recognition
The display of the Speech Recognition screensaver on a Toshiba laptop, in which the character responds to questions, i.e. "Where are you?" or statements, i.e. "Hello."
The display of the Speech Recognition screensaver on a Toshiba laptop, in which the character responds to questions, i.e. "Where are you?" or statements, i.e. "Hello."

Speech recognition (also known as automatic speech recognition or computer speech recognition) converts spoken words to machine-readable input (for example, to keypresses, using the binary code for a string of character codes). The term voice recognition may also be used to refer to speech recognition, but more precisely refers to speaker recognition, which attempts to identify the person speaking, as opposed to what is being said. The display of the Speech Recognition screensaver on a Toshiba laptop, in which the character responds to questions, i. ... A screensaver is a computer program originally designed to conserve the image quality of computer displays by blanking the screen or filling them with moving images or patterns when the computers are not in use. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... An ultraportable IBM X31 with 12 screen on an IBM T43 Thin & Light laptop with a 14 screen A laptop computer, or simply laptop (also notebook computer, notebook and notepad) is a small mobile computer, typically weighing 3-12 pounds (around 1. ... Speaker recognition, or voice recognition is the task of recognizing people from their voices. ...


Speech recognition applications include voice dialing (e.g., "Call home"), call routing (e.g., "I would like to make a collect call"), domotic appliance control and content-based spoken audio search (e.g., find a podcast where particular words were spoken), simple data entry (e.g., entering a credit card number), preparation of structured documents (e.g., a radiology report), speech-to-text processing (e.g., word processors or emails), and in aircraft cockpits (usually termed Direct Voice Input). Domotics is the application of computer and robot technologies to domestic appliances. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... VC-10 (1960s) Airliner Cockpit. ... A style of Human-Machine Interaction HMI where the user makes voice commands to issue instructions to the machine. ...

Contents

History

One of the most notable domains for the commercial application of speech recognition in the United States has been health care and in particular the work of the medical transcriptionist (MT)[citation needed]. According to industry experts, at its inception, speech recognition (SR) was sold as a way to completely eliminate transcription rather than make the transcription process more efficient, hence it was not accepted. It was also the case that SR at that time was often technically deficient. Additionally, to be used effectively, it required changes to the ways physicians worked and documented clinical encounters, which many if not all were reluctant to do. The biggest limitation to speech recognition automating transcription, however, is seen as the software. The nature of narrative dictation is highly interpretive and often requires judgment that may be provided by a real human but not yet by an automated system. Another limitation has been the extensive amount of time required by the user and/or system provider to train the software.


A distinction in ASR is often made between "artificial syntax systems" which are usually domain-specific and "natural language processing" which is usually language-specific. Each of these types of application presents its own particular goals and challenges.


Applications

Health care

In the health care domain, even in the wake of improving speech recognition technologies, medical transcriptionists (MTs) have not yet become obsolete. Many experts in the field anticipate that with increased use of speech recognition technology, the services provided may be redistributed rather than replaced. Speech recognition has not yet made the skills of MTs obsolete. A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


Speech recognition can be implemented in front-end or back-end of the medical documentation process.


Front-End SR is where the provider dictates into a speech-recognition engine, the recognized words are displayed right after they are spoken, and the dictator is responsible for editing and signing off on the document. It never goes through an MT/editor.


Back-End SR or Deferred SR is where the provider dictates into a digital dictation system, and the voice is routed through a speech-recognition machine and the recognized draft document is routed along with the original voice file to the MT/editor, who edits the draft and finalizes the report. Deferred SR is being widely used in the industry currently.


Many Electronic Medical Records (EMR) applications can be more effective and may be performed more easily when deployed in conjunction with a speech-recognition engine. Searches, queries, and form filling may all be faster to perform by voice than by using a keyboard. An electronic medical record (commonly abbreviated EMR) is a generic term used to describe computer-based patient medical records. ...


Military

High-performance fighter aircraft

Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decade to the test and evaluation of speech recognition in fighter aircraft. Of particular note are the U.S. program in speech recognition for the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)/F-16 aircraft (F-16 VISTA), the program in France on installing speech recognition systems on Mirage aircraft, and programs in the UK dealing with a variety of aircraft platforms. In these programs, speech recognizers have been operated successfully in fighter aircraft with applications including: setting radio frequencies, commanding an autopilot system, setting steer-point coordinates and weapons release parameters, and controlling flight displays. Generally, only very limited, constrained vocabularies have been used successfully, and a major effort has been devoted to integration of the speech recognizer with the avionics system. The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ...


Some important conclusions from the work were as follows:

  • 1. Speech recognition has definite potential for reducing pilot workload, but this potential was not realized consistently.
  • 2. Achievement of very high recognition accuracy (95% or more) was the most critical factor for making the speech recognition system useful - with lower recognition rates, pilots would not use the system.
  • 3. More natural vocabulary and grammar, and shorter training times would be useful, but only if very high recognition rates could be maintained.

Laboratory research in robust speech recognition for military environments has produced promising results which, if extendable to the cockpit, should improve the utility of speech recognition in high-performance aircraft.


Working with Swedish pilots flying in the JAS-39 Gripen cockpit, Englund (2004) found recognition deteriorated with increasing G-loads. It was also concluded that adaptation greatly improved the results in all cases and introducing models for breathing was shown to improve recognition scores significantly. Contrary to what might be expected, no effects of the broken English of the speakers were found. It was evident that spontaneous speech caused problems for the recognizer, as could be expected. A restricted vocabulary, and above all, a proper syntax, could thus be expected to improve recognition accuracy substantially.[1] The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (Griffin or Gryphon) is a fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. ...


The Eurofighter Typhoon currently in service with the UK RAF employs a speaker-dependent system, i.e. it requires each pilot to create a template. The system is not used for any safety critical or weapon critical tasks, such as weapon release or lowering of the undercarriage, but is used for a wide range of other cockpit functions. Voice commands are confirmed by visual and/or aural feedback. The system is seen as a major design feature in the reduction of pilot workload, and even allows the pilot to assign targets to himself with two simple voice commands or to any of his wingmen with only five commands.[2] This article is about a fighter aircraft. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... VC-10 (1960s) Airliner Cockpit. ... A precise definition of workload is an elusive term, but a commonly accepted definition is the hypothetical relationship between a human operator and task demands. ...


Helicopters

The problems of achieving high recognition accuracy under stress and noise pertain strongly to the helicopter environment as well as to the fighter environment. The acoustic noise problem is actually more severe in the helicopter environment, not only because of the high noise levels but also because the helicopter pilot generally does not wear a facemask, which would reduce acoustic noise in the microphone. Substantial test and evaluation programs have been carried out in the post decade in speech recognition systems applications in helicopters, notably by the U.S. Army Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and by the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) in the UK. Work in France has included speech recognition in the Puma helicopter. There has also been much useful work in Canada. Results have been encouraging, and voice applications have included: control of communication radios; setting of navigation systems; and control of an automated target handover system.


As in fighter applications, the overriding issue for voice in helicopters is the impact on pilot effectiveness. Encouraging results are reported for the AVRADA tests, although these represent only a feasibility demonstration in a test environment. Much remains to be done both in speech recognition and in overall speech recognition technology, in order to consistently achieve performance improvements in operational settings.


Battle management

Battle management command centres generally require rapid access to and control of large, rapidly changing information databases. Commanders and system operators need to query these databases as conveniently as possible, in an eyes-busy environment where much of the information is presented in a display format. Human machine interaction by voice has the potential to be very useful in these environments. A number of efforts have been undertaken to interface commercially available isolated-word recognizers into battle management environments. In one feasibility study, speech recognition equipment was tested in conjunction with an integrated information display for naval battle management applications. Users were very optimistic about the potential of the system, although capabilities were limited.


Speech understanding programs sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the U.S. has focused on this problem of natural speech interface.. Speech recognition efforts have focused on a database of continuous speech recognition (CSR), large-vocabulary speech which is designed to be representative of the naval resource management task. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art in CSR have been achieved, and current efforts are focused on integrating speech recognition and natural language processing to allow spoken language interaction with a naval resource management system.


Training air traffic controllers

Training for military (or civilian) air traffic controllers (ATC) represents an excellent application for speech recognition systems. Many ATC training systems currently require a person to act as a "pseudo-pilot", engaging in a voice dialog with the trainee controller, which simulates the dialog which the controller would have to conduct with pilots in a real ATC situation. Speech recognition and synthesis techniques offer the potential to eliminate the need for a person to act as pseudo-pilot, thus reducing training and support personnel. Air controller tasks are also characterized by highly structured speech as the primary output of the controller, hence reducing the difficulty of the speech recognition task.


The U.S. Naval Training Equipment Center has sponsored a number of developments of prototype ATC trainers using speech recognition. Generally, the recognition accuracy falls short of providing graceful interaction between the trainee and the system. However, the prototype training systems have demonstrated a significant potential for voice interaction in these systems, and in other training applications. The U.S. Navy has sponsored a large-scale effort in ATC training systems, where a commercial speech recognition unit was integrated with a complex training system including displays and scenario creation. Although the recognizer was constrained in vocabulary, one of the goals of the training programs was to teach the controllers to speak in a constrained language, using specific vocabulary specifically designed for the ATC task. Research in France has focussed on the application of speech recognition in ATC training systems, directed at issues both in speech recognition and in application of task-domain grammar constraints.[3]


The USAF, USMC, US Army, and FAA are currently using ATC simulators with speech recognition provided by Adacel Systems Inc (ASI). Adacel's MaxSim software uses speech recognition and synthetic speech to enable the trainee to control aircraft and ground vehicles in the simulation without the need for pseudo pilots. Adacel's ATC In A Box Software provideds a synthetic ATC environment for flight simulators. The "real" pilot talks to a virtual controller using speech recognition and the virtual controller responds with synthetic speech. It will be an application format


Telephony and other domains

ASR in the field of telephony is now commonplace and in the field of computer gaming and simulation is becoming more widespread. Despite the high level of integration with word processing in general personal computing, however, ASR in the field of document production has not seen the expected increases in use.


People with Disabilities

People with disabilities are another part of the population that benefit from using speech recognition programs. It is especially useful for people who have difficulty with or are unable to use their hands, from mild repetitive stress injuries to involved disabilities that require alternative input for support with accessing the computer. In fact, people who used the keyboard a lot and developed RSI became an urgent early market for speech recognition.[4][5] A repetitive strain injury (RSI), also called cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), occupational overuse syndrome, or work related upper limb disorder (WRULD), is any of a loose group of conditions resulting from overuse of a tool, eg. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Further applications

Ford Sync is a factory-installed, in-car communications and entertainment system developed by Ford and Microsoft. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Light control computerized system Home automation (also called domotics) is a field within building automation, specializing in the specific automation requirements of private homes and in the application of automation techniques for the comfort and security of its residents. ... IVR redirects here. ... Medical transcription, also known as MT, is an allied health profession which encompasses the process of transcription or converting voice-recorded reports as dictated by physicians and/or other healthcare professionals into text format. ... Cellular redirects here. ... Multimodal interaction provides the user with multiple modes of interfacing with a system beyond the traditional keyboard and mouse input/output. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ...

Performance of speech recognition systems

The performance of speech recognition systems is usually specified in terms of accuracy and speed. Accuracy may be measured in terms of performance accuracy which is usually rated with word error rate (WER), whereas speed is measured with the real time factor. Other measures of accuracy include Single Word Error Rate (SWER) and Command Success Rate (CSR). Word Error Rate (WER) is a common metric of measuring the performance of a speech recognition system. ... The real time factor (RTF) is a common metric of measuring the speed of an automatic speech recognition system. ...


Most speech recognition users would tend to agree that dictation machines can achieve very high performance in controlled conditions. There is some confusion, however, over the interchangeability of the terms "speech recognition" and "dictation".


Commercially available speaker-dependent dictation systems usually require only a short period of training (sometimes also called `enrollment') and may successfully capture continuous speech with a large vocabulary at normal pace with a very high accuracy. Most commercial companies claim that recognition software can achieve between 98% to 99% accuracy if operated under optimal conditions. `Optimal conditions' usually assume that users:

  • have speech characteristics which match the training data,
  • can achieve proper speaker adaptation, and
  • work in a clean noise environment (e.g. quiet office or laboratory space).

This explains why some users, especially those whose speech is heavily accented, might achieve recognition rates much lower than expected. Speech recognition in video has become a popular search technology used by several video search companies.


Limited vocabulary systems, requiring no training, can recognize a small number of words (for instance, the ten digits) as spoken by most speakers. Such systems are popular for routing incoming phone calls to their destinations in large organizations.


Both acoustic modeling and language modeling are important parts of modern statistically-based speech recognition algorithms. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are widely used in many systems. Language modeling has many other applications such as smart keyboard and document classification. An acoustic model is created by taking audio recordings of speech, and their text transcriptions, and using software to create statistical representations of the sounds that make up each word. ... Statistical language models are probability distributions defined on sequences of words, P(w1. ... Document classification/categorization is a problem in information science. ...


Hidden Markov model (HMM)-based speech recognition

Modern general-purpose speech recognition systems are generally based on HMMs. These are statistical models which output a sequence of symbols or quantities. One possible reason why HMMs are used in speech recognition is that a speech signal could be viewed as a piecewise stationary signal or a short-time stationary signal. That is, one could assume in a short-time in the range of 10 milliseconds, speech could be approximated as a stationary process. Speech could thus be thought of as a Markov model for many stochastic processes. State transitions in a hidden Markov model (example) x — hidden states y — observable outputs a — transition probabilities b — output probabilities A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a statistical model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unknown parameters, and the challenge is to... In the mathematical sciences, a stationary process (or strict(ly) stationary process) is a stochastic process in which the probability density function of some random variable X does not change over time or position. ... In mathematics, a (discrete-time) Markov chain is a discrete-time stochastic process with the Markov property. ...


Another reason why HMMs are popular is because they can be trained automatically and are simple and computationally feasible to use. In speech recognition, the hidden Markov model would output a sequence of n-dimensional real-valued vectors (with n being a small integer, such as 10), outputting one of these every 10 milliseconds. The vectors would consist of cepstral coefficients, which are obtained by taking a Fourier transform of a short time window of speech and decorrelating the spectrum using a cosine transform, then taking the first (most significant) coefficients. The hidden Markov model will tend to have in each state a statistical distribution that is a mixture of diagonal covariance Gaussians which will give a likelihood for each observed vector. Each word, or (for more general speech recognition systems), each phoneme, will have a different output distribution; a hidden Markov model for a sequence of words or phonemes is made by concatenating the individual trained hidden Markov models for the separate words and phonemes. A cepstrum (pronounced ) is the result of taking the Fourier transform (FT) of the decibel spectrum as if it were a signal. ... In mathematics, the Fourier transform is a certain linear operator that maps functions to other functions. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sine transform. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


Described above are the core elements of the most common, HMM-based approach to speech recognition. Modern speech recognition systems use various combinations of a number of standard techniques in order to improve results over the basic approach described above. A typical large-vocabulary system would need context dependency for the phonemes (so phonemes with different left and right context have different realizations as HMM states); it would use cepstral normalization to normalize for different speaker and recording conditions; for further speaker normalization it might use vocal tract length normalization (VTLN) for male-female normalization and maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) for more general speaker adaptation. The features would have so-called delta and delta-delta coefficients to capture speech dynamics and in addition might use heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis (HLDA); or might skip the delta and delta-delta coefficients and use splicing and an LDA-based projection followed perhaps by heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis or a global semitied covariance transform (also known as maximum likelihood linear transform, or MLLT). Many systems use so-called discriminative training techniques which dispense with a purely statistical approach to HMM parameter estimation and instead optimize some classification-related measure of the training data. Examples are maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error (MCE) and minimum phone error (MPE). In probability theory and, in particular, information theory, the mutual information, or transinformation, of two random variables is a quantity that measures the mutual dependence of the two variables. ...


Decoding of the speech (the term for what happens when the system is presented with a new utterance and must compute the most likely source sentence) would probably use the Viterbi algorithm to find the best path, and here there is a choice between dynamically creating a combination hidden Markov model which includes both the acoustic and language model information, or combining it statically beforehand (the finite state transducer, or FST, approach). The Viterbi algorithm, named after its developer Andrew Viterbi, is a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the most likely sequence of hidden states – known as the Viterbi path – that result in a sequence of observed events, especially in the context of hidden Markov models. ... A finite state transducer (FST) is a finite state machine with two tapes. ...


Dynamic time warping (DTW)-based speech recognition

Main article: Dynamic time warping

Dynamic time warping is an approach that was historically used for speech recognition but has now largely been displaced by the more successful HMM-based approach. Dynamic time warping is an algorithm for measuring similarity between two sequences which may vary in time or speed. For instance, similarities in walking patterns would be detected, even if in one video the person was walking slowly and if in another they were walking more quickly, or even if there were accelerations and decelerations during the course of one observation. DTW has been applied to video, audio, and graphics – indeed, any data which can be turned into a linear representation can be analyzed with DTW. Dynamic time warping is an algorithm for measuring similarity between two sequences which may vary in time or speed. ...


A well known application has been automatic speech recognition, to cope with different speaking speeds. In general, it is a method that allows a computer to find an optimal match between two given sequences (e.g. time series) with certain restrictions, i.e. the sequences are "warped" non-linearly to match each other. This sequence alignment method is often used in the context of hidden Markov models.


Further information

Popular speech recognition conferences held each year or two include ICASSP, Eurospeech/ICSLP (now named Interspeech) and the IEEE ASRU. Conferences in the field of Natural Language Processing, such as ACL, NAACL, EMNLP, and HLT, are beginning to include papers on speech processing. Important journals include the IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing (now named IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing), Computer Speech and Language, and Speech Communication. Books like "Fundamentals of Speech Recognition" by Lawrence Rabiner can be useful to acquire basic knowledge but may not be fully up to date (1993). Another good source can be "Statistical Methods for Speech Recognition" by Frederick Jelinek which is a more up to date book (1998). Even more up to date is "Computer Speech", by Manfred R. Schroeder, second edition published in 2004. A good insight into the techniques used in the best modern systems can be gained by paying attention to government sponsored evaluations such as those organised by DARPA (the largest speech recognition-related project ongoing as of 2007 is the GALE project, which involves both speech recognition and translation components). Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... Lawrence Rabiner is an electrical engineer working in the fields of digital signal processing and speech processing; in particular in digital signal processing for automatic speech recognition. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...


In terms of freely available resources, the HTK book (and the accompanying HTK toolkit) is one place to start to both learn about speech recognition and to start experimenting. Another such resource is Carnegie Mellon University's SPHINX toolkit. The AT&T libraries FSM Library, GRM library, and DCD library are also general software libraries for large-vocabulary speech recognition. HTK (Hidden Markov Model Toolkit) is software toolkit for handling HMMs. ... Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


A useful review of the area of robustness in ASR is provided by Junqua and Haton (1995).


See also

Audio mining is a technique by which the content of an audio signal can be automatically analysed and searched. ... Audio visual speech recognition is a technique that uses image processing capabilities in lip reading to aid speech recognition systems in recognizing undeterministic phones or giving preponderance among near probability decisions. ... An acoustic model is created by taking audio recordings of speech, and their text transcriptions, and using software to create statistical representations of the sounds that make up each word. ... Digital dictation is a method of recording and editing the spoken word in real-time within a [digital audio] format. ... A style of Human-Machine Interaction HMI where the user makes voice commands to issue instructions to the machine. ... Keyword spotting is a subfield of speech recognition that deals with the identification of keywords in utterances. ... Microphones redirects here. ... A mondegreen is the mishearing (usually accidental) of a phrase as a homophone or near-homophone in such a way that it acquires a new meaning. ... Multimodal interaction provides the user with multiple modes of interfacing with a system beyond the traditional keyboard and mouse input/output. ... Semi-official ODF logo Not to be confused with Open Document Architecture, an unrelated, earlier standard document file format. ... Speech Analytics is a term used to describe automatic methods of analyzing speech to extract useful information about the speech content or the speakers. ... In computer science, speaker identification (also, speaker verification) is the problem of identifying a person solely by their speech. ... A speech corpus (or spoken corpus) is a database of speech audio files and text transcriptions in a format that can be used to create acoustic models (which can then be used with a speech recognition engine). ... Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals. ... Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... Speech verification is a new speech technology that appeared after the notable advancements in speech recognition with the aim to verify the correctness of the pronounced speech. ... Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... VoiceXML (VXML) is the W3Cs standard XML format for specifying interactive voice dialogues between a human and a computer. ... VoxForge is a free speech corpus and acoustic model repository for open source speech recognition engines. ... Windows Speech Recognition in Sleep mode Windows Speech Recognition is a speech recognition application included in Windows Vista. ... Speech technology includes several subfields: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Speaker recognition Speaker verification Speech compression See also Speech processing Categories: | ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.speech.kth.se/prod/publications/files/1664.pdf
  2. ^ Eurofighter Direct Voice Input
  3. ^ Opportunities for Advanced Speech Processing in Military Computer-Based Systems*
  4. ^ Speech recognition for disabled people
  5. ^ Friends international support group

External links

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Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... In physics or engineering, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...

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Speech Recognition Grammar Specification Version 1.0 (11104 words)
The grammars are intended for use by speech recognizers and other grammar processors so that developers can specify the words and patterns of words to be listened for by a speech recognizer.
For speech recognition, a token is typically an orthographic entity of the language being recognized.
Language and results: The language used in the recognition of a token is not considered a part of the speech result even in the case that a language declaration is associated with a token.
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