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Encyclopedia > Speech disorder
Speech disorder
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 F80., R49.
ICD-9 315.3, 784.4

Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where 'normal' speech is disrupted. This can mean stuttering, lisps, vocal dysphonia etc. Someone who is totally unable to speak due to a speech disorder is considered mute. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... A communication disorder is a disease or condition that partially or totally prevents human communication. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Stuttering, also known as stammering in the United Kingdom, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases; and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds. ... A lisp is a speech impediment. ... Dysphonia is the medical term for hoarseness or other phonation disorders. ... Muteness is a speech disorder in which a person lacks the power of speech, or chooses not to speak. ...

Contents

Classification

Classifying speech into normal and disordered is more problematic than it first seems. By a strict classification, only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice, all others suffer from one disorder or another. Dysphonia, which is incomplete functionality of the vocal folds, is one of the most common and can be observed as, for example, an unusual roughness of the voice. Stuttering is also quite common: about 7% of the population suffers from it at some point in life. Cluttering, a speech disorder that has similarities to stuttering, is approximately as common as stuttering. Dysprosody is the rarest neurological speech disorder. It is characterized by alterations in intensity, in the timing of utterance segments, and in rhythm, cadency, and intonation of words. The changes to the duration, the fundamental frequency, and the intensity of tonic and atonic syllables of the sentences spoken, deprive an individual's particular speech of its characteristics. The cause of dysprosody is usually associated with neurological pathologies such as brain vascular accidents, cranioencephalic traumatisms, and brain tumors.[1] Difficulty in producing specific speech sounds (most often certain consonant, such as /s/ or /r/) may be considered a Speech sound disorder, and subdivided into Articulation Disorders (also called Phonetic Disorders) and Phonemic Disorders. Phonetic disorders are characterized by difficulty learning to physically produce sounds, and are popularly referred to as "speech impediments." Phonemic disorders are characterized by difficulty in learning the sound distinctions of a language, so that one sound may be used in place of many. However, it is not uncommon for a single person to have a mixed speech sound disorder with both phonemic and phonetic components. Lisp may mean: Lisp programming language Lisp (speech) This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... // Bold textItalic text The vocal folds, also known popularly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ... Stuttering, also known as stammering in the United Kingdom, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases; and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds. ... Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a communicative disorder characterized by speech that is difficult for listeners to understand due to rapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence. ... Speech sound disorders are speech disorders in which some speech sounds (called phonemes) in a childs (or, sometimes, an adults) native language are either not produced, not produced correctly, or are not used correctly. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Speech sound disorders are speech disorders in which some speech sounds (called phonemes) in a childs (or, sometimes, an adults) native language are either not produced, not produced correctly, or are not used correctly. ...


Causes

There are various causes of speech impediments, such as "hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse." However, in many cases the cause is unknown.[2]


Treatment

Many of these types of disorders can be treated by speech therapy, but others require medical attention by a doctor in phoniatrics. Other treatments include correction of organic conditions and psychotherapy[3]. It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Phoniatrics is the medical research and treatment of organs involved with speech production. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ...


In the United States, school-age children with a speech disorder are often placed in special education programs. More than 700,000 of the students served in the public schools’ special education programs in the 2000-2001 school year were categorized as having a speech or language impairment. This estimate does not include children who have speech/language problems secondary to other conditions such as deafness"[2].Many school districts provide the students with speech therapy during school hours, although extended day and summer services may be appropriate under certain circumstances. Special education is instruction that is modified or particularized for those students with special needs, such as learning differences, mental health problems, or specific disabilities (physical or developmental). ...


Social effects of speech disorders

Suffering from a speech disorder can have negative social effects, especially among young children. Those with a speech disorder can be targets of bullying because of their disorder. The bullying can result in decreased self-esteem. As well, having a speech disorder can cause some sufferers to be shy and have poor public speaking skills. Bullying is the tormenting of others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ...


Famous people with speech impediments

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arcade Fire is a Grammy nominated indie rock band formed in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... Kele Okereke (birthname Kelechukwu Rowland Okereke, born October 13, 1981 in Liverpool to Nigerian parents), is the vocalist and guitarist for English art rock band Bloc Party. ... Bloc Party is an English indie rock band. ... Stuttering is a speech disorder in which pronunciation of the (usually) first letter or syllable of a word is repeated involuntarily. ... Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American actor. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... Isaac Brock (born on July 9, 1975 in Issaquah, Washington) is the lead singer, guitarist, and songwriter for the American indie rock band Modest Mouse, as well as his side project band, Ugly Casanova. ... Modest Mouse is an American indie rock band. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... Truman Capote (pronounced ) (30 September 1924 – 25 August 1984) was an American writer whose non-fiction, stories, novels and plays are recognized literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffanys (1958) and In Cold Blood (1965), which he labeled a non-fiction novel. ... This article is 95 kilobytes or more in size. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portrait of Camille Desmoulins Lucie Simplice Camille Benoist Desmoulins (March 2, 1760 – April 5, 1794) was a French journalist and politician who played an important part in the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, OM, PC (November 11, 1920 – January 5, 2003) was a British politician and a prominent Labour Member of Parliament in the 1960s and 1970s, and founding member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Rhotacism may refer to several phenomena related to the usage of the consonant r (whether as an alveolar tap, alveolar trill, or the rarer uvular trill). ... Stephan Douglas Jenkins (born on September 27, 1964 in Oakland, California, USA), attended Henry M. Gunn Senior Highschool, is best known as the lead singer, songwriter and guitarist for Third Eye Blind. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... Scatman John John Paul Larkin, (March 13, 1942 — December 3, 1999), better known as Scatman John, was a famous stuttering jazz musician who perfected a unique fusion of scat singing and disco, best known for his 1994 hit Scatman (Ski Ba Bop Ba Dop Bop). As he liked to say... Scat singing is vocalizing either wordlessly or with nonsense words and syllables (e. ... James Earl Jones (b. ... Robert Francis Kennedy Jr. ... Anybody Killa, or ABK is the stage name of James Lowery (born June 26, 1973), a horrorcore rap artist. ... Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music; it is a form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pogues are a popular band of mixed Irish and English background, playing traditional Irish folk with influences from the English punk movement. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson on June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, model and pop icon. ... Frank Muir (5 February 1920 - 2 January 1998) was an English comedy writer, radio and television personality, and raconteur. ... Diane Rehm Diane Rehm (born 1936 in Washington, D.C.) is an American public radio talk show host. ... A talk show (U.S.) or chat show (Brit. ... Spasmodic dysphonia (or laryngeal dystonia) is a voice disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx (vocal folds or voice box) during speech. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sedaris in 2005. ... Shannon Sharpe (born June 26, 1968 in Chicago, Illinois) is a former AFC tight end and wide receiver who played 12 of his 14 seasons with the Denver Broncos in the NFL. Sharpe is known most for his creative commentary and trash talking as well as for being the premier... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... A color commentator (or colour commentator in Canada), sometimes known as a color analyst (or colour analyst), is a member of the broadcasting team for a sporting event who assists the play-by-play announcer by filling in any time when play is not in progress. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... A drawl is a perceived feature of some varieties of spoken English, and generally infers longer vowel sounds and/or dipthongs. ... Brigadier General James Maitland Jimmy Stewart (May 20, 1908 – July 2, 1997) was an iconic, Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his self-effacing screen persona. ... John Graham Mellor (August 21, 1952 – December 22, 2002) better known as Joe Strummer, was the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist and lead singer of the English punk rock band The Clash, The Mescaleros and (temporarily) The Pogues. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Richard Thompson, see Richard Thompson (disambiguation). ... the very definition of a guitarist is cody allen and taylor hines because of there un ending guitar skills and awsomnes. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Lonnie Melvin Tillis (born August 8th, 1932 in Tampa, Florida) is a country music singer/songwriter, and actor. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Barbara Jill Walters[1] (born September 25, 1929- [2]) is an American journalist and media personality who has been a regular fixture on morning television shows (Today and The View), evening news magazine (20/20), and on The ABC Evening News, as the first female evening news anchor. ... Convenience store window poster featuring Willis, Prague, Czech Republic (2002) Bruce Willis (born Walter Bruce Willis on March 19, 1955) is a two-time Emmy Award-winning, Golden Globe-winning American actor and singer. ... Personal Information Birth December 30, 1975 ) (age 31) Cypress, California Height 6 ft 1 in (1. ... Nicholas Brendon (born April 12, 1971 as Nicholas Brendon Schultz in Los Angeles, California), is an actor best known for his character Xander Harris in the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997-2003). ... Gareth Paul Gates (born July 12, 1984, Bradford, England) is an English pop singer who shot to fame in 2002 when he came second in the first series of the ITV talent show Pop Idol. ... William Robert Young (born January 20, 1979) is an English singer and actor. ... Biography From Keith Malleys website One of the few true originals, Keith Malley was born April 15, 1974 in the town of Somerset, Pennsylvania. ... Anthony Kiedis (born November 1, 1962) is the lead singer and a co-founder of the American rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers. ... The Red Hot Chili Peppers are a multiple Grammy Award-winning American rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1983. ... Donald Duck is an animated cartoon and comic-book character from Walt Disney Productions. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Elmer J. Fudd is a fictional cartoon character and one of the most famous Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies characters. ... Looney Tunes opening title Looney Tunes is a Warner Brothers animated cartoon series which ran in many movie theatres from 1930 to 1969. ... Rick Parfitt (born 12 October 1948 in Woking, Surrey, England) is best known for being a singer and the rhythm guitarist in the English rock band Status Quo. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Types of speech disorders

Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a communicative disorder characterized by speech that is difficult for listeners to understand due to rapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence. ... Stuttering, also known as stammering in the United Kingdom, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases; and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds. ... Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... Rhotacism may refer to several phenomena related to the usage of the consonant r (whether as an alveolar tap, alveolar trill, or the rarer uvular trill). ... Spasmodic dysphonia (or laryngeal dystonia) is a voice disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx (vocal folds or voice box) during speech. ... Look up aphasia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up dysarthria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... Selective mutism is a social anxiety disorder, in which a person who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak in given situations. ... Specific language impairment (SLI) is a form of language disorder that affects both expressive and receptive language. ... Speech sound disorders are speech disorders in which some speech sounds (called phonemes) in a childs (or, sometimes, an adults) native language are either not produced, not produced correctly, or are not used correctly. ... Voice disorders are medical conditions affecting the production of speech. ...

References

  1. ^ Pinto JA, Corso RJ, Guilherme AC, Pinho SR, Nobrega Mde O.: Dysprosody nonassociated with neurological diseases--a case report (2004), found on: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15070228&dopt=Abstract
  2. ^ a b "Disability Info: Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet (FS11)." National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs11txt.htm
  3. ^ "Speech Defect." Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-speechde.html
  4. ^ "Famous people with disabilities." Disabled-World. http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/article_0060.shtml

External links

  • Speech and Language Disorders
  • listing of the German mute language
  • Natural Late Talkers [1]

  Results from FactBites:
 
speech: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (3208 words)
Speech sounds are made with air exhaled from the lungs, which passes between the vocal cords in the larynx and out through the vocal tract (pharynx and oral and nasal cavities).
Speech can be described as an act of producing voice through the use of the vocal cords and vocal apparatus or other means, such as sign language, to create linguistic acts in the form of language that communicate information from an initiator to a recipient.
The success of a speech act depends on numerous factors, including the presence or absence of a variety of speech disorders, the ability of the speaker to express the intended message, and the ability and willingness of the audience to play the role of recipient.....
Disability Info: Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet (FS11) (967 words)
Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function.
Speech disorders may be problems with the way sounds are formed, called articulation or phonological disorders, or they may be difficulties with the pitch, volume or quality of the voice.
Because all communication disorders carry the potential to isolate individuals from their social and educational surroundings, it is essential to find appropriate timely intervention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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