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Encyclopedia > Speculum (medical)
Two varieties of 19th-century speculums.
Two varieties of 19th-century speculums.

A speculum is a medical tool for investigating body cavities, with a form dependent on the body cavity for which it is designed. In old texts, the speculum may also be referred to as a diopter or dioptra.[1] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Vaginal specula were used by the Romans, and speculum artifacts have been found in Pompeii.[2] A vaginal speculum, developed by J. Marion Sims, consists of a hollow cylinder with a rounded end that is divided into two hinged parts, somewhat like the beak of a duck. The speculum is inserted into the vagina to dilate it for examination of the vagina and cervix. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Look up artifact in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... J. Marion Sims, born James Marion Sims on January 25, 1813 in Hanging Rock, South Carolina is a surgical pioneer and considered the father of American gynecology. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ...


A specialized form of vaginal speculum is the weighted speculum, which consists of a broad half tube which is bent at about a 90 degree angle, with the channel of the tube on the exterior side of the angle. One end of the tube has a roughly spherical metal weight surrounding the channel of the speculum. A weighted speculum is placed in the vagina during vaginal surgery with the patient in the lithotomy position. The weight holds the speculum in place and frees the surgeon's hands for other tasks. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... The Lithotomy position is the position of lying on the back with knees bent and elevated above the hips with the thighs apart. ...

A Ricord-type vaginal speculum
A Ricord-type vaginal speculum

Vaginal specula are also used for anal surgery, although several other forms of anal specula exist. One common form, the sigmoidoscope, resembles a tube that has a removable bullet shaped insert. When the speculum is inserted into the rectum, the insert dilates the rectum to the diameter of the tube. The insert is then removed, leaving the tube to allow examination of the rectum. This style of anal speculum is one of the oldest designs for surgical instruments still in use, with examples dating back many centuries. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1094x470, 113 KB) A Ricord-type vaginal speculum Photo taken by myself at the museum of History of Medicine at University Paris 5 Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Speculum (medical) Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1094x470, 113 KB) A Ricord-type vaginal speculum Photo taken by myself at the museum of History of Medicine at University Paris 5 Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Speculum (medical) Metadata This file... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Sigmoidoscopy is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the last part of the colon. ... This article is about firearms projectiles. ...


Ear specula resemble a funnel, and come in a variety of sizes. For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... A typical kitchen funnel. ...


Nasal specula have two relatively flat blades with handle. The instrument is hinged so that when the handles are squeezed together the blades spread laterally, allowing examination. For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ...


All specula were formerly made of metal, and sterilized after use. However, many, especially those used in Emergency Departments and Doctor's offices, are now made of plastic, and are sterile, disposable, single-use items. Those used in surgical suites are still commonly made of metal.


Vaginal and anal specula are also sometimes used as sex toys. A sex toy is a term for any object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. ...


Contrary to some previously-held opinions, the speculum does not cause damage to the vaginal opening, as many gynecological teachers will attest. In very few states in the United States, vaginal specula are illegal for personal use, but since there was a popular cervical self-examination component to the second-wave feminist movement, many states are either much more lenient or have completely relinquished restrictions on speculum use. However, distributors still face specific guidelines about which specula may or may not be sold.


Notes

  1. ^ The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1971 - see entry for diopter
  2. ^ Cecilia Mettler. History of Medicine. 

Cecilia Charlotte Asper Mettler was a medical historian. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Speculum - Search Results - MSN Encarta (102 words)
Speculum, medical instrument to aid examination of an opening into the body—for example, the nose or vagina.
- medical instrument: a medical instrument used to hold open a body passage such as the anus or vagina so that it can be examined
awl, drill, hammer, jigsaw, mallet, sander, saw, screwdriver, vise, level chisel, lathe, forceps, lancet, probe, scalpel, speculum, stethoscope,...
Medical Skills for Homeschoolers - ReliableAnswers.com (2715 words)
Medical Supplies - Medical supply stores carry a variety of items, they can also place a special order for you if you know what you are looking for, or you could ask to see a catalog of the medical manufacturers.
The medical reference librarian is the person I prefer to deal with because she knows the holdings so well.
A true medical education must commence with the revelation of God, otherwise all capacities that are developed within a medical system are either for others or for self.
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