FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Spectroscopy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Spectroscopy
Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism.
Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism.

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. Spectrometry is the measurement of these interactions and an instrument which performs such measurements is a spectrometer or spectrograph. A plot of the interaction is referred to as a spectrum. Image File history File links Light_dispersion_conceptual. ... Image File history File links Light_dispersion_conceptual. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Spectrometer A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. ... In most modern usages of the word spectrum, there is a unifying theme of between extremes at either end. ...


Historically, spectroscopy referred to a branch of science in which visible light was used for the theoretical study of the structure of matter and for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Recently, however, the definition has broadened as new techniques have been developed that utilise not only visible light, but many other forms of radiation. The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ...


Spectroscopy is often used in physical and analytical chemistry for the identification of substances through the spectrum emitted from or absorbed by them. Spectroscopy is also heavily used in astronomy and remote sensing. Most large telescopes have spectrometers, which are used either to measure the chemical composition and physical properties of astronomical objects or to measure their velocities from the Doppler shift of their spectral lines. Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Doppler effect is the apparent change in frequency or wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ...

Contents

Classification of spectroscopic methods

Nature of radiation measured

The type of spectroscopy depends on the physical quantity measured. Normally, the quantity that is measured is an amount or intensity of something.

Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons and spectrophotometry. ... Electron spectroscopy is an analytical technique to study the electronic structure and its dynamics in atoms and molecules. ... A charged particle beam is a group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same kinetic energy and move in approximately the same direction. ... Auger electron spectroscopy is an analytical technique in surface science and materials science. ... The Auger effect (pronounced , or Oh jeh) is a phenomenon in physics in which the emission of an electron from an atom causes the emission of a second electron. ... Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...

Measurement process

Most spectroscopic methods are differentiated as either atomic or molecular based on whether or not they apply to atoms or molecules. Along with that distinction, they can be classified on the nature of their interaction: The general meaning of atomic is irreducible. That is, reduced to the smallest possible part. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ...

Absorption spectroscopy refers to a wide range of techniques where one measures how much light of a particular wavelength (color) is absorbed by a sample. ... Atomic absorption spectroscopy In analytical chemistry, Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a technique for determining the concentration of a particular metal element in a sample. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei. ... a Headline text hi today for the first time i fucked my 14 years neighbour she was very excited when she saw my dick thouh it was a bit thick and long but she gladly become agree to let me fuck her at my first stroke i broke her seal... Luminescence is light not generated by high temperatures alone. ... Fluorescence spectroscopy or fluorometry or spectrofluorimetry is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy which analyzes fluorescence from a sample. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Common types of spectroscopy

Spectrum of light from a fluorescent lamp showing prominent mercury peaks.
Spectrum of light from a fluorescent lamp showing prominent mercury peaks.

Fluorescence spectroscopy Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1268x777, 18 KB)Spectrum with peaks labelled taken with an Ocean Optics spectrometer [1] of ambient light provided by fluorecent lamps. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1268x777, 18 KB)Spectrum with peaks labelled taken with an Ocean Optics spectrometer [1] of ambient light provided by fluorecent lamps. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... Fluorescence spectroscopy or fluorometry is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy used for analyzing fluorescent spectra. ...


Fluorescence spectroscopy uses higher energy photons to excite a sample, which will then emit lower energy photons. This technique has become popular for its biochemical and medical applications, and can be used for confocal microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and fluorescence lifetime imaging. In physics, the photon (from Greek φως, phōs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... Confocal microscopy is an imaging technique used to increase micrograph contrast and/or to reconstruct three-dimensional images by using a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of-focus light or flare in specimens that are thicker than the focal plane. ... Fluorescent proteins localize the guanosine 5-triphosphate hydrolase ARF in the Golgi apparatus of a living macrophage. ... Fluorescence lifetime imaging is a confocal microscopy technique for producing an image based on the differences in the exponential decay rate of the fluorescence from a fluorescent sample. ...


X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography When X-rays of sufficient frequency (energy) interact with a substance, inner shell electrons in the atom are excited to outer empty orbitals, or they may be removed completely, ionizing the atom. The inner shell "hole" will then be filled by electrons from outer orbitals. The energy available in this de-excitation process is emitted as radiation (fluorescence) or will remove other less-bound electrons from the atom (Auger effect). The absorption or emission frequencies (energies) are characteristic of the specific atom. In addition, for a specific atom small frequency (energy) variations occur which are characteristic of the chemical bonding. With a suitable apparatus, these characteristic X-ray frequencies or Auger electron energies can be measured. X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is used in chemistry and material sciences to determine elemental composition and chemical bonding. X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for determining the electronic structure of materials by using x-ray excitation. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ...


X-ray crystallography is a scattering process; crystalline materials scatter X-rays at well-defined angles. If the wavelength of the incident X-rays is known, this allows calculation of the distances between planes of atoms within the crystal. The intensities of the scattered X-rays give information about the atomic positions and allow the arrangement of the atoms within the crystal structure to be calculated.


Flame Spectroscopy

Liquid solution samples are aspirated into a burner or nebulizer/burner combination, desolvated, atomized, and sometimes excited to a higher energy electronic state. The use of a flame during analysis requires fuel and oxidant, typically in the form of gases. Common fuel gases used are acetylene (ethyne) or hydrogen. Common oxidant gases used are oxygen, air, or nitrous oxide. These methods are often capable of analyzing metallic element analytes in the part per million, billion, or possibly lower concentration ranges. Light detectors are needed to detect light with the analysis information coming from the flame. Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...

  • Atomic Emission Spectroscopy - This method uses flame excitation; atoms are excited from the heat of the flame to emit light. This method commonly uses a total consumption burner with a round burning outlet. A higher temperature flame than atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) is typically used to produce excitation of analyte atoms. Since analyte atoms are excited by the heat of the flame, no special elemental lamps to shine into the flame are needed. A high resolution polychromator can be used to produce an emission intensity vs. wavelength spectrum over a range of wavelengths showing multiple element excitation lines, meaning multiple elements can be detected in one run. Alternatively, a monochromator can be set at one wavelength to concentrate on analysis of a single element at a certain emission line. Plasma emission spectroscopy is a more modern version of this method. See Flame emission spectroscopy for more details.
  • Atomic absorption spectroscopy (often called AA) - This method commonly uses a pre-burner nebulizer (or nebulizing chamber) to create a sample mist and a slot-shaped burner which gives a longer pathlength flame. The temperature of the flame is low enough that the flame itself does not excite sample atoms from their ground state. The nebulizer and flame are used to desolvate and atomize the sample, but the excitation of the analyte atoms is done by the use of lamps shining through the flame at various wavelengths for each type of analyte. In AA, the amount of light absorbed after going through the flame determines the amount of analyte in the sample. A graphite furnace for heating the sample to desolvate and atomize is commonly used for greater sensitivity. The graphite furnace method can also analyze some solid or slurry samples. Because of its good sensitivity and selectivity, it is still a commonly used method of analysis for certain trace elements in aqueous (and other liquid) samples.
  • Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy - This method commonly uses a burner with a round burning outlet. The flame is used to solvate and atomize the sample, but a lamp shines light at a specific wavelength into the flame to excite the analyte atoms in the flame. The atoms of certain elements can then fluoresce emitting light in a different direction. The intensity of this fluorescing light is used for quantifying the amount of analyte element in the sample. A graphite furnace can also be used for atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. This method is not as commonly used as atomic absorption or plasma emission spectroscopy.

Plasma Emission Spectroscopy In some ways similar to flame atomic emission spectroscopy, it has largely replaced it. A polychromator is an optical device. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input. ... Flame Emission Spectroscopy (FES) is a form of emission spectroscopy in which energy is provided to a sample through use of a flame. ... Atomic absorption spectroscopy In analytical chemistry, Atomic absorption spectroscopy is a technique for determining the concentration of a particular metal element in a sample. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ...

  • Direct-current plasma (DCP)

A direct-current plasma (DCP) is created by an electrical discharge between two electrodes. A plasma support gas is necessary, and Ar is common. Samples can be deposited on one of the electrodes, or if conducting can make up one electrode.

  • Glow discharge-optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES)
  • Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)
  • Microwave-induced plasma (MIP)

Spark or arc (emission) spectroscopy - is used for the analysis of metallic elements in solid samples. For non-conductive materials, a sample is ground with graphite powder to make it conductive. In traditional arc spectroscopy methods, a sample of the solid was commonly ground up and destroyed during analysis. An electric arc or spark is passed through the sample, heating the sample to a high temperature to excite the atoms in it. The excited analyte atoms glow emitting light at various wavelengths which could be detected by common spectroscopic methods. Since the conditions producing the arc emission typically are not controlled quantitatively, the analysis for the elements is qualitative. Nowadays, the spark sources with controlled discharges under an argon atmosphere allow that this method can be considered eminently quantitative, and its use is widely expanded worldwide through production control laboratories of foundries and steel mills. ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer) uses ICP (inductively coupled plasma) to produce excited atoms that emit radiation at a wavelength characteristic of a particular element. ... Schematic LIBS Setup () Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which utilises a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. ...


Visible spectroscopy

Many atoms emit or absorb visible light. In order to obtain a fine line spectrum, the atoms must be in a gas phase. This means that the substance has to be vaporised. The spectrum is studied in absorption or emission. Visible absorption spectroscopy is often combined with UV absorption spectroscopy in UV/Vis spectroscopy. Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ...


Ultraviolet spectroscopy

All atoms absorb in the UV region because these photons are energetic enough to excite outer electrons. If the frequency is high enough, photoionisation takes place. UV spectroscopy is also used in quantifying protein and DNA concentration as well as the ratio of protein to DNA concentration in a solution. Several amino acids usually found in protein, such as tryptophan, absorb light in the 280nm range and DNA absorbs light in the 260nm range. For this reason, the ratio of 260/280nm absorbance is a good general indicator of the relative purity of a solution in terms of these two macromolecules. Reasonable estimates of protein or DNA concentration can also be made this way using Beer's law. Photoionisation is a physical process in which a photon strikes an atom, ion or molecule, resulting in the ejection of an electron. ... In optics, the Beer-Lambert law, also known as Beers law or the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law is an empirical relationship in relating the absorption of light to the properties of the material the light is travelling through. ...


Infrared spectroscopy

Main article: Infrared Spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy offers the possibility to measure different types of interatomic bond vibrations at different frequencies. Especially in organic chemistry the analysis of IR absorption spectra shows what type of bonds are present in the sample. Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well...


Raman Spectroscopy

Main article: Raman Spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy uses the inelastic scattering of light to analyse vibrational and rotational modes of molecules. The resulting 'fingerprints' are an aid to analysis. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Main article: NMR spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyzes the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei to determine different electronic local environments of hydrogen, carbon, or other atoms in an organic compound or other compound. This is used to help determine the structure of the compound. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ...


Photoemission spectroscopy

X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS, formerly known as ESCA - Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) was developed at Uppsala University, Sweden in the 60s by a group headed by Kai Siegbahn, who in 1981 won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his work in developing the technique. ...

Mössbauer spectroscopy

Transmission or conversion-electron (CEMS) modes of Mössbauer spectroscopy probe the properties of specific isotope nuclei in different atomic environments by analyzing the resonant absorption of characteristic energy gamma-rays known as the Mössbauer effect. Mößbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... The Mössbauer effect, a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1957, refers to the resonant and recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma rays by atoms bound in a solid form. ...


Less frequently used / combined spectroscopy

Photo-acoustic spectroscopy The discovery of the photo-acoustic effect dates back to 1880 when Alexander Graham Bell showed that thin discs emitted sound when exposed to a beam of sunlight that was rapidly interrupted with a rotating slotted disk. ... Photothermal Spectroscopy is a group of high sensitivity spectroscopy techniques used to measure optical absorption and thermal characteristics of a sample. ... Circular dichroism (CD) is a form of spectroscopy based on the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light. ... Raman optical activity (ROA) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that is reliant on the difference in intensity of Raman scattered right and left circularly polarised light due to molecular chirality. ... Terahertz frequency radiation for spectroscopy is typically generated in one of three ways: time domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS), using ultrashort laser pulses frequency domain terahertz spectroscopy (FDTS), mixing two radiation sources to generate their sum or difference Fourier transform spectroscopy, using a blackbody radiation source      Spectroscopy Atomic spectroscopy • Emission spectroscopy... In condensed matter research, inelastic neutron scattering is a experimental technique to study atomic and molecular motion as well as magnetic excitations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Auger electron spectroscopy is an analytical technique in surface chemistry and materials science. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) is a form of laser absorption spectroscopy, also known as Cavity Ring-down Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (CRLAS). ... In mathematics, the Fourier transform is a certain linear operator that maps functions to other functions. ... FTIR of a thin film of ethanol in the liquid phase. ... NMR redirects here. ... In physics and physical chemistry, time-resolved spectroscopy is the study of dynamical processes in materials or chemical compounds by means of spectroscopic techniques. ... A phonon is a quantized mode of vibration occurring in a rigid crystal lattice, such as the atomic lattice of a solid. ... A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... This article is about compression waves. ... In physics and physical chemistry, time-resolved spectroscopy is the study of dynamical processes in materials or chemical compounds by means of spectroscopic techniques. ... Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... A dielectric permittivity spectrum over a wide range of frequencies. ... Thermal infrared spectroscopy (TIR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the thermal and infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Mineralogy is an earth science that involves the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. ... Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ...

Background Subtraction

Background subtraction is a term typically used in spectroscopy when one explains the process of acquiring a background radiation level (or ambient radiation level) and then makes an algorithmic adjustment to the data to obtain qualitative information about any deviations from the background, even when they are an order of magnitude less decipherable than the background itself.


Background subtraction can effect a number of statistical calculations (Continuum, Compton, Bremsstrahlung) leading to improved overall system performance.


See also

Electromagnetic radiation may be characterised by its wavelength. ... High resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines). ... Atomic spectroscopy is the determination of elemental composition by its electromagnetic or mass spectrum. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Tekran Model 2537A Mercury Analyzer Cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, sometimes referred to by the acronym CVAFS, is a subset of the analytical technique known as atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). ... Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) is a unique and powerful tool for the study of electrically active defects (known as traps) in semiconductors. ... Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) or Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic technique which detects species that have unpaired electrons, generally meaning that the molecule in question is a free radical if it is an organic molecule, or that it has transition metal ions if it is an inorganic complex. ... Gamma spectroscopy is a radiochemistry measurement method that determines the energy and count rate of gamma rays emitted by radioactive substances. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Schematic of a LIBS system - Courtesy of US Army Research Laboratory Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which utilises a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. ... Metamerism is a psychophysical phenomenon commonly defined as the situation when two samples match in color under one condition, but fail to match under another condition. ... The rigid rotor is a mechanical model that is used to explain rotating systems. ... Rotational spectroscopy or microwave spectroscopy studies the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation (typically in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum) by molecules associated with a corresponding change in the rotational quantum number of the molecule. ... Saturated spectroscopy is the method by which the exact energy of the hyperfine transitions within an atom can be found. ... Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a technique which gives information about the local density of electronic states on surfaces at atomic or molecular scale. ... Scattering theory is a branch of physics and especially of quantum mechanics whose aim is the study of scattering events. ... The spectral power distribution (SPD) of a light source is a measurement of the energy output at points (usually 31) along the visible spectrum. ... Spectral reflectance curves are generated by spectrophotometers. ... Spectrometer A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. ... Spectrophotometer In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of electromagnetic spectra. ... Before the atom electron states were known, spectroscopists saw distinctive series in atom spectra, and so they assigned letters to characteristic spectra. ... Origins: There is considerable evidence that spectrum analysis actually had its origin in western Pennsylvania. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... The vibrational states of a molecule can be probed in a variety of ways. ... Joseph von Fraunhofer Joseph von Fraunhofer (March 6, 1787 – June 7, 1826) was a German physicist. ... Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (31 March 1811 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhof (March 12, 1824 – October 17, 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ...

External links

Spectroscopy Atomic spectroscopy is the determination of elemental composition by its electromagnetic or mass spectrum. ... a Headline text hi today for the first time i fucked my 14 years neighbour she was very excited when she saw my dick thouh it was a bit thick and long but she gladly become agree to let me fuck her at my first stroke i broke her seal... Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) or Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic technique which detects species that have unpaired electrons, generally meaning that the molecule in question is a free radical if it is an organic molecule, or that it has transition metal ions if it is an inorganic complex. ... Fluorescence spectroscopy or fluorometry is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy used for analyzing fluorescent spectra. ... Gamma spectroscopy is a radiochemistry measurement method that determines the energy and count rate of gamma rays emitted by radioactive substances. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Schematic of a LIBS system - Courtesy of US Army Research Laboratory // Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which utilises a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. ... Mößbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) is a technique applied to the spectroscopy of atoms and small molecules. ... Rotational spectroscopy or microwave spectroscopy studies the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation (typically in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum) by molecules associated with a corresponding change in the rotational quantum number of the molecule. ... Terahertz frequency radiation for spectroscopy is typically generated in one of three ways: time domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS), using ultrashort laser pulses frequency domain terahertz spectroscopy (FDTS), mixing two radiation sources to generate their sum or difference Fourier transform spectroscopy, using a blackbody radiation source      Spectroscopy Atomic spectroscopy • Emission spectroscopy... Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons and spectrophotometry. ... A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion. ... X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for determining the electronic structure of materials by using x-ray excitation. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spectroscopy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1765 words)
Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency.
Spectroscopy is often used in physical and analytical chemistry for the identification of substances, through the spectrum emitted or absorbed.
Raman spectroscopy uses the inelastic scattering of light to analyse vibrational and rotational modes of molecules.
Zoom Astronomy Glossary: Spectroscopy (1518 words)
Spectroscopy is a technique in which the visible light that comes from objects (like stars and nebulae) is examined to determine the object's composition, temperature, motion, and density.
Spectroscopy was discovered in 1859 by Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (of Bunsen burner fame).
Spectroscopy is a scientific technique in which the visible light coming from objects (like stars and nebulae) is examined to determine the object's composition, temperature, density, and velocity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m