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Encyclopedia > Speciesism
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Animal rights
Activists
Greg Avery
David Barbarash
Steven Best  · Rod Coronado
Barry Horne  · Ronnie Lee
Keith Mann
Ingrid Newkirk
Alex Pacheco
Robin Webb
Groups
Animal Aid  · Animal Liberation Front
Animal Rights Law Project
Animal Rights Militia
BUAV
Great Ape Project
Justice Department
PETA  · SPEAK
SHAC  · Viva!
Issues
Animal rights · Animal testing
Covance
Declaration on Great Apes
Personhood  · Speciesism
Vivisection
Writers
Steven Best  · Jeremy Bentham
Stephen Clark  · Gary Francione
Tom Regan  · Richard D. Ryder
Peter Singer
Category
Animal liberation movement

Speciesism involves assigning different values or rights to beings on the basis of their species. The term was coined by Richard D. Ryder in 1970 and is used to denote prejudice similar in kind to sexism and racism. The term has not entered everyday language. Image File history File links Diamond-caution. ... Image File history File links Chimpanzee_head_sketch. ... The logo of the Great Ape Project, which is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Greg Avery (born 1963), also known as Greg Jennings and Greg Harrison, is a British animal rights activist and co-founder of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC), an international campaign to force the closure of Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), a controversial animal-testing company with bases in Huntingdon, England, and... David Barbarash is the North American press officer for the Animal Liberation Front. ... -1... Rod Coronado Rodney Adam Coronado is a prominent American eco-anarchist and animal rights activist. ... Barry Horne Barry Horne was a British animal rights activist who died of kidney failure in Ronkswood Hospital, Worcester on November 5, 2001, following a series of four hunger strikes while serving an 18-year sentence for planting incendiary devices. ... Ronnie Lee is a British animal rights activist, and founder of the Animal Liberation Front. ... Keith Mann is a British animal-rights campaigner, believed to be a senior Animal Liberation Front activist. ... Ingrid Newkirk founder and president of PETA Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ... Alex Pacheco is an animal rights activist and co-founder (and former chairman) of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). ... Robin Webb appearing on Channel 4s Dispatches Robin Webb runs the Animal Liberation Press Office in the UK. He was previously a member of the ruling council of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA), and a director of Animal Aid. ... Animal Aid is the United Kingdoms largest animal rights group and one of the longest established in the world, having been founded in 1977. ... Beagles removed by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... The Animal Rights Militia (ARM) is a name used by animal-rights activists who are prepared to carry out acts of violence against human beings. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... The Great Ape Project aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... The Justice Department is a militant animal-rights organization, set up in Britain in 1993, and active there and in the United States. ... PETA redirects here. ... SPEAK is a British animal rights campaign that aims to end animal experimentation and vivisection in the UK. The campaign was born out of Stop Primate Experimentation at Cambridge (SPEAC), [1] a campaign set up to oppose the construction at the University of Cambridge of a new primate research facility... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States [1] Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) is an international animal rights campaign against Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), Europes largest contract animal-testing laboratory, based in Huntingdon and Occold, England, and East Millstone, New Jersey in the United States. ... Viva!, or Vegetarians International Voice For Animals, Founded by Juliet Gellatley in 1995, is an animal-rights based organisation which promotes vegetarianism and veganism. ... The logo of the Great Ape Project, which is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Covance (NYSE: CVD), formerly Hazleton Laboratories, with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... In colloquial English, person is often synonymous with human. ... Etymologically, vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living animal including humans. ... -1... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (February 15, 1748 – June 6, 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Stephen Richard Lyster Clark (born October 30, 1945) is a British philosopher and international authority on animal rights, currently professor of philosophy and Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. ... Gary Lawrence Francione (1954) is an American law professor at Rutgers University. ... Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... Peter Albert David Singer (born July 6, 1946 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) is an Australian Humanist and philosopher. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A right is the power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or a thing to which one has a just claim. ... A being, in the most general sense, is anything that is alive. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all differentiations based on sex. ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ...


The idea of speciesism is used mostly by advocates of animal rights, who believe that it is irrational or morally wrong. The logo of the Great Ape Project, which is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... In philosophy, the word rationality has been used to describe numerous religious and philosophical theories, especially those concerned with truth, reason, and knowledge. ...


Philosophers Tom Regan and Peter Singer have both criticized speciesism. Regan rejects it because it permits unjustified violations of animals' inherent rights; Singer, because it violates the principle of equal consideration of interests. Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... Peter Albert David Singer (born July 6, 1946 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) is an Australian Humanist and philosopher. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Equal consideration of interests is the name of a moral principle that states that one should both include all affected interests when calculating the rightness of an action and weigh those interests equally. ...


Speciesism can be defined as a prejudice against taking the interests of members of other species into equal consideration based on the idea that all members of one's own species are more valuable than all members of other species, no matter what characteristics individuals might possess.


Great Ape personhood is a related concept, in which the various attributes of the Great Apes are deemed by some people, to merit recognition of their sentience and personhood within the law, as opposed to mere protection under animal cruelty legislation. This would cover matters such as their own best interest being taken into account in their treatment by people. Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Sentience is a capacity for basic consciousness—the ability to feel or perceive, not necessarily including the faculty of self-awareness. ... Law (from the late Old English lagu of probable North Germanic origin) in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, forbid or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, intended to provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment which causes unacceptable suffering to animals. ...


Some religions are less speciesist than others. While animists may believe in the equality of all sentient beings, monotheists tend to believe that human beings are superior to other lifeforms by divine intention. The teachings of Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism emphasizes ideals such as sarva jeeva sama bhava (सर्व जीव सम भाव), that is, "all sentient beings are equal", and are examples of religions that tilt towards being less speciesist, though the extent to which this is reflected in daily life in countries where those religions are influential depends on the local culture. In religion, the term Animism is used in a number of ways. ... Sentience is a capacity for basic consciousness—the ability to feel or perceive, not necessarily including the faculty of self-awareness. ... Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one God, or in the oneness of God. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, one of the manifestations of the ultimate reality or God in Hinduism This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Jaina redirects here. ... Hinduism {Sanskrit - HindÅ« Dharma, also known as Sanātana (eternal) Dharma and Vaidika (of the Vedas) Dharma} is the religion based on the Vedas as well as other traditional scriptures and beliefs. ... Buddhism is a religion and philosophy focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), who probably lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following the Buddhas death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and East Asia...


In science fiction

Speciesism is a popular theme in science fiction, referring to a prejudice against other intelligent species, equivalent to racism. For example, during the reign of the Galactic Empire in Star Wars, many alien species were oppressed by the ruling government, which consisted mainly of humans. In this context, it is sometimes referred to as xenophobia. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ... In the fictional Star Wars universe, the Galactic Empire was the regime established by then Supreme Chancellor Palpatine to replace the Galactic Republic. ... The cover of the 2004 DVD widescreen release of the modified original Star Wars Trilogy. ... Extraterrestrial, as an adjective, refers to something that originates, occurs, or is located outside Earth or its atmosphere. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

The logo of the Great Ape Project, which is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality, common history, experience, and belief. ... Painism is a moral theory popular with animal rights theorists. ... Peter Albert David Singer (born July 6, 1946 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) is an Australian Humanist and philosopher. ... Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... -1... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, man, human being, κέντρον, kentron, center) Anthropocentrism is the knowledge, the theory, the belief, the creed, the “religion” et al, which states that human beings are and have to be (for human-beings) the most important and respected and venerated beings. ... Human exceptionalism refers to a belief that humans are exempt from some principles shared between species, due to their very nature. ...

References

  • Rights for animals
  • Anti-speciesism
  • "All beings that feel pain deserve human rights" by Richard Ryder, The Guardian, August 6, 2005

  Results from FactBites:
 
Speciesism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (382 words)
The idea of speciesism is used mostly by advocates of animal rights, who believe that it is irrational or morally wrong.
Speciesism can be defined as a prejudice against taking the interests of members of other species into equal consideration based on the idea that all members of one's own species are more valuable than all members of other species, no matter what characteristics individuals might possess.
Speciesism is a popular theme in science fiction, referring to a prejudice against other intelligent species, equivalent to racism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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