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Encyclopedia > Special administrative region (People's Republic of China)
Special administrative region
Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區
Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū [[Listen]]
Cantonese
IPA: [tɐk6piːt6 hɐŋ4tsɪŋ3kʰɵy1][[Listen]]
Portuguese: Região administrativa
especial [[Listen]]

A Special administrative region (SAR) is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The PRC at present has two SARs, namely Hong Kong and Macau. Each SAR has a Chief Executive as head of the region and head of government. Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Chief Executive is a term used for certain gubernatorial offices, expressing the nature of their job being analous to a head of government. ...

Contents

Background

Administrative divisions of the
People's Republic of China
This article is part
of the series:
Political divisions of China
Province level
Provinces
Autonomous areas
Municipalities
Special administrative regions
Prefecture level
Prefectures
Autonomous prefectures
Prefecture-level cities
(incl. Sub-provincial cities)
Leagues
County level
Counties
Autonomous counties
County-level cities
(incl. Sub-prefecture-level cities)
Districts
Banners
Autonomous banners
Township level
Townships
Ethnic townships
Towns
Subdistricts
Sumu
Ethnic sumu
District public offices

Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China authorizes the National People's Congress to create special administrative regions. Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in Chinas administrative structure. ... A sub-provincial city (副省级城市), or vice-provincial city, in the Peoples Republic of China, is a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law. ... A league (Mongolian: chuulghan, Chinese: 盟, pinyin: méng) is an administrative unit in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A county-level city (县级市 Pinyin: xiànjí shì) is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. ... A sub-prefecture-level city (副地級市), or vice-prefecture-level city, is an administrative division of China. ... District, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... A banner (Mongolian: khoshuu, Chinese: 旗, pinyin: qí) is an administrative division of Inner Mongolia. ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, township is the standard English translation of the Chinese 乡 (xiāng). ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, town is the standard English translation of the Chinese 鎮 (Simplified 镇) (zhèn; Wade-Giles chen4). ... The Subdistrict is one of the smallest Political_divisions_of_China. ... Sum in government refers to an administrative unit. ... The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ... District, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó XiànfÇŽ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest...


Current situation

Enlarge
The Special Administrative Regions are shown in green dots

Two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau, were created in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Each of the SARs has a Basic Law which provides the region with a high degree of autonomy, a separate political system and a capitalist economy under the principle of "one country, two systems", which was proposed by Deng Xiaoping. Image File history File links PR_China-SAR_&_SEZ-English. ... Image File history File links PR_China-SAR_&_SEZ-English. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... One country, two systems (Simplified Chinese: 一国两制; Traditional Chinese: 一國兩制; pinyin: yì; guó liÇŽng zhì; Jyutping: jat1 gwok3 loeng5 zai3; Yale: yāt gwok leúhng jai), is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the unification of China. ... Deng Xiaoping with US President Jimmy Carter Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dèng XiÇŽopíng; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


High degree of autonomy

Currently, the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for all issues except acts of state like diplomatic relations and national defence: consequently, they have their own judiciaries and courts of final appeal, their own legislature, immigration policies, currencies and extradition processes. The pre-existing legal systems, namely common law in Hong Kong and Portuguese law in Macau, are preserved except consequential to establishment of courts of final appeal. This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory; usually via fortifications. ... In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Court of Final Appeal usually refers to the last court in which one can appeal cases brought before the highest level. ... Extradition is a formal process by which a criminal suspect held by one government is handed over to another government for trial or, if the suspect has already been tried and found guilty, to serve his or her sentence. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Anthem: A Portuguesa Capital (and largest city) Lisbon Portuguese1 Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Aníbal Cavaco Silva  - Prime Minister José Sócrates Formation 868   - Independence June 24, 1128   - Kingdom July 25, 1139   - Recognized October 5, 1143  Accession to EU January 1, 1986 Area  - Total 92,391 km² (110th...


With listed exceptions, national laws applying in the mainland do not apply in a SAR. These listed exceptions must involve diplomacy, national defence or something beyond the scope of the SAR's autonomy.


Suffrage in the National People's Congress

Like other administrative divisions of the PRC, Hong Kong and Macau are represented in the National People's Congress, although suffrage is not well-defined and is not open to the general public. However, their representation is not prescribed in the constitution of the PRC, unlike provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and the People's Liberation Army. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Before Hong Kong and Macau became Special Administrative Regions of the PRC, they were under colonial rules by Britain and Portugal respectively. They had representation in the National People's Congress of the PRC through Guangdong Province, which shares the borders with Hong Kong and Macau. It has been suggested that Colonisation be merged into this article or section. ... China, and should not be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...


External affairs

Special Administrative Regions are empowered to contract a wide range of agreements with other countries and territories such as mutual abolition of visa requirement, mutual legal aid, air services, extradition, handling of double taxation and others. In diplomatic talks involving an SAR, the SAR concerned may send officials to be part of the Chinese delegation.


The two territories compete separately from Mainland China in international sporting events.


Defence and military

The People's Liberation Army is garrisoned in both the SARs. The garrison and its members must obey all SAR laws as well as national laws applicable to them. They do not participate in the governance of the SAR but the SAR may send for them in times of emergency such as natural disasters. According to the basic laws, defence is the responsibility of the Central People's Government. There is no law providing for enrollment of Hong Kong and Macau residents in the forces during ordinary times, and no Hong Kong and Macau residents are currently enrolled. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ...


Immigration and nationality

Each of the SARs issue passports on its own, only to its permanent residents who are concurrently nationals of the PRC, that is, PRC nationals satisfying one of the following conditions:

  • born in the SAR;
  • born anywhere while either parent was a permanent resident of the SAR;
  • resided continuously for seven or more years in the SAR.

Apart from affording the holder consular protection by the People's Republic of China, these passports also specify that the holder has right of abode in the issuing SAR. The right of abode refers to an individuals freedom from immigration control in a particular country. ...


The National People's Congress has also put each SAR in charge of administering the PRC's Nationality Law in its respective realms, namely naturalisation, renunciation and restoration of PRC nationality and issuance of proof of nationality. Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China This law is applicable to the acquisition, loss and restoration of nationality of the Peoples Republic of China. ... -1...


Offer to Taiwan

The People's Republic of China (PRC) has offered Taiwan a similar status to that of a SAR if it accepts PRC sovereignty; however the government of the Republic of China (ROC) that is governing Taiwan refuses to accept the offer. Moreover, most surveys indicate that only around 10 percent of the electorate in Taiwan support it. Unlike Hong Kong and Macau, the proposed Taiwan SAR would keep its own armed forces rather than receiving a garrison. The promise of a high-degree of autonomy, as afforded to Hong Kong and Macau, among other things, is enshrined in the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China enacted in 2005. Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As for the government of a Taiwan SAR would have a locally run administration, but be appointed by Beijing. The provincial Legislature would still be elected legislature and multi-party system would still exist within the legislature. Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: ), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Proposal for Taiwan as a SAR: [1] [2]


See also

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