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Encyclopedia > Special Economic Zone

A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws. The category 'SEZ' covers a broad range of more specific zone types, including Free Trade Zones (FTZ), Export Processing Zones (EPZ), Free Zones (FZ), Industrial Estates (IE), Free Ports, Urban Enterprise Zones and others. Usually the goal of an SEZ structure is to increase foreign investment. One of the earliest and the most famous Special Economic Zones were founded by the government of the People's Republic of China under Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980s. The most successful Special Economic Zone in China, Shenzhen, has developed from a small village into a city with a population over 10 million within 20 years. Following the Chinese examples, Special Economic Zones have been established in several countries, including Brazil, India, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. North Korea has also attempted this to a degree, but failed. Currently, Puno, Peru has been slated to become a "Zona Economica" by its president Alan Garcia. A single SEZ can contain multiple 'specific' zones within its boundaries. The two most prominent examples of this layered approach are Subic Bay in the Philippines and the Aqaba Special Economic Zone in Jordan. Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Shenzhen is a sub-provincial city of Guangdong province in southern China. ... Nickname: Location in Peru Country Peru Region Puno Region Province Puno Province Elevation 3,860 m m (12,421 ft) Population  - City 100 168 Time zone UTC-5 (UTC) Website: PUNO PERU[2] [3]Puno is a city in southeastern [[[Peru]]], located at the edge of Lake Titicaca, the world... Alan Garc rez (born May 23, 1949 in Lima) was President of Peru from 1985 to 1990. ...

According to World Bank estimates, as of 2007 there are more than 3,000 projects taking place in SEZs in 120 countries worldwide.

SEZs have been implemented using a variety of institutional structures across the world ranging from fully public (government operator, government developer, government regulator) to 'fully' private (private operator, private developer, public regulator). In many cases, public sector operators and developers act as quasi-government agencies in that they have a pseudo-corporate institutional structure and have budgetary autonomy. SEZs are often developed under a Public-Private-Partnership arrangement, in which the public sector provides some level of support (provision of off-site infrastructure, equity investment, soft loans, bond issues, etc) to enable a private sector developer to obtain a reasonable rate of return on the project (typically 10-20% depending on risk levels).


In South Asia

In India

Considering the need to enhance foreign investment and promote exports from the country and realising the need that a level playing field must be made available to the domestic enterprises and manufacturers to be competitive globally, The Government of India had in April 2000 announced the introduction of Special Economic Zones policy in the country, deemed to be foreign territory for the purposes of trade operations, duties and tariffs. As of 2007, more than 500 SEZs have been proposed, 220 of which have been created. This has raised the concern of the World Bank, which questions the sustainability of such a large number of SEZs. The Special Economic Zones in India closely follow the PRC model. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...

List of SEZs in India

The policy provides for setting up of SEZs in the public, private, joint sector or by State Governments. It was also envisaged that some of the existing Export Processing Zones would be converted into Special Economic Zones. Accordingly, the Government has converted Export Processing zones located at

Currently, India has 811 units in operations in 8 functional SEZs, each an average size of 200 acres. 8 Export Processing Zones (EPZs) have been converted into SEZs. These are fully functional. All these SEZs are in various parts of the country in the private/joint sectors or by the State Government. But this process of planning and development is under question, as the states in which the SEZs have been approved are facing intense protests, from the farming community, accusing the government of forcibly snatching fertile land from them, at heavily discounted prices as against the prevailing prices in the commercial real estate industry. Also some reputed companies like Bajaj and others have commented against this policy and have suggested using barren and wasteland for setting up of SEZs. The page wrongly redirected to Khambhat - Cambay. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Kochi ( ; Malayalam: []); formerly known as Cochin) is a city in the Indian state of Kerala. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Santa Cruz or Santacruz (Marathi:सान्ताक्रुझ) is a section of the municipality of Mumbai. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Visakhapatnam  (telugu - విశాఖపట్నం) (also Viśākhapattanamu, shortened and anglicized: Vizag or Vizagapatnam) is a port city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... For Greater Noida see Greater Noida This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Nanguneri is a panchayat town in Tirunelveli district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... , Tirunelveli district [8] is the penultimate southern most district of Tamilnadu in India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The word Bajaj can mean several things A common surname in western India Jamnalal Bajaj, a prominent businessman from India An autorickshaw, a three wheeled passenger and goods carrier built by Bajaj Auto Bajaj Auto, a manufacturer of 2 and 3-wheelers in India, Indonesia and South America Bajaj Tempo...

Attempts to set up a Special Economic Zone in Nandigram have led to protests by villagers in the area. A Parliamentary Committee to study and give recommendations on SEZs has said that no further SEZs be notified unless the existing law is amended to incorporate the changes related to the land acquisitions. [1] , For the recent controversy over the proposed chemical hub of the Salim group under the SEZ policy which led to the massacre of at least 14 villagers, see Nandigram SEZ controversy Nandigram is a rural area in Purba Medinipur district of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... The Nandigram SEZ controversy started when the West Bengal government decided that the Salim Group of Indonesia[1] would set up a chemical hub under the SEZ policy at Nandigram, a rural area in the district of Purba Medinipur. ...

Genpact has announced its plans to expand its presence in Hyderabad by setting up a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) across 50 acres in the city at Jawahar Nagar. Genpact is a BPO company in India. ... Hyderabad may refer to: Hyderabad, the independent state Hyderabad State, the pre-1956 state India Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad district (India) Begumpet Airport, also known as Hyderabad Airport Hyderabad Central, a huge shopping mall in Hyderabad Hyderabad, Uttar Pradesh, a...

In Pakistan

Taking the example of the Chinese success with their SEZs, China is helping Pakistan develop the Haier-Ruba economic zone on the outskirts of Lahore.

Other economic zones include the China-Pakistan economic zone open only to Chinese investors and also the future crown jewel of Pakistan, Gwadar. Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. ...

There are also talks of creating a Japanese city for foreign investors from Japan only.

There has also been new SEZ proposed on the currently under construction Sialkot-Lahore motorway, Qatar has proposed an investment for $1 billion in a new SEZ along the motorway.

There is also a new zone under construction in Faislababd, which will be the biggest industrial estate of Pakistan when complete, it has sections for each country and the first phrase is already complete with a special Chinese zone in it.

In the People's Republic of China

Main article: Special Economic Zones of the People's Republic of China
Special Economic Zones of the People's Republic of China
Special Economic Zones of the People's Republic of China

The word "special" mainly means special economic systems and policies. In the People's Republic of China, the central government gives SEZs special policies and flexible measures, allowing SEZs to utilize a special economic management system. Special Economic Zones of the Peoples Republic of China are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) located in mainland China. ... Image File history File links PR_China-SAR_&_SEZ-English. ... Image File history File links PR_China-SAR_&_SEZ-English. ...

  1. Special tax incentives
  2. Greater independence on international trade activities.
  3. Economic characteristics are represented as "4 principles":
    1. Construction primarily relies on attracting and utilising foreign capital
    2. Primary economic firms are sino-foreign joint ventures and partnerships as well as wholly foreign-owned enterprises
    3. Products are primarily export-oriented
    4. Economic activities are primarily driven by market

SEZ are listed separately in the national planning (including financial planning) and have province-level authority on economic administration. SEZs local congress and government have legislation authority. A joint venture (often abbreviated JV) is an entity formed between two or more parties to undertake economic activity together. ...

In Kazakhstan

Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e...

In Iran

Mah Shahr is an ancient city and port in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Kish, an ancient city in Sumer, now in Iraq Kish, an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf Kish, a person in Bible The Kish Bank is a shallow in the Irish Sea, a fishing ground. ... Sarakhs is a city located in the northeastern part of the province of Khorassan, Iran. ... Sirjan is a city in South of Iran, in Kerman province. ... Bandar-e Anzali (in Persian: بندر انزلی), known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (بندر پهلوی) before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province of Gilan, close to Rasht. ...

In North Korea

The Rajin-Sonbong Economic Special Zone was established under a UN economic development programme in 1994. Located on the bank of the Tuman River, the zone borders on the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture (or, Yeonbyeon in Korean) of the People's Republic of China, as well as Russia. In 2000 the name of the area was shortened to Rason and became separate from the North Hamgyeong Province. The Rajin-Sonbong Economic Special Zone was established by the North Korean government (DPRK) near Rason to promote economic growth through foreign investment. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Korean: 연변 조선족 자치주 Yeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju) is an autonomous prefecture in Jilin province, in the northeastern part of China. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Rasŏn (formerly Rajin-Sŏnbong) is a Directly Governed City in North Korea, which borders with Jilin province of China and Primorsky Krai of Russia. ... North Hamgyŏng (Hamgyŏng-pukto) is a province of North Korea. ...

In the Philippines

Philippine economic zones (ecozones) are collections of industries, brought together geographically for the purpose of promoting economic development. Although designed to operate separately from the political and economic milieu of surrounding communities, Philippine economic zones do in fact interact with their neighbors. There are 41 private-owned economic zones and 4 government owned economic zones in the Philippines. Of the 41 private economic zones, the biggest exporter is Gateway Business Park in General Trias, Cavite and the second biggest private ecozone is Laguna Technopark Inc. The four governmentally owned are Cavite Economic Zone, Bataan Economic Zone, Mactan Economic Zone and Baguio City Economic Zone. Thus it is a useful act for the growth of economic zone of the country. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Cavite Region: CALABARZON (Region IV-A) Capital: Trece Martires City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—2,163,161 (5th largest) Density—1,590 per km² (Highest) Area: 1,297. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bataan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Balanga City Founded: —1754 Population: 2000 census—557,659 (46th largest) Density—406 per km² (12th highest) Area: 1,373. ... Nickname: Benguet Province map locating Baguio City Coordinates: , Country Philippines Region Cordillera Administrative Region Province Benguet Barangays 129 Congressional Districts 1 Incorporated (city) September 1, 1909 Government  - Congressman Mauricio Domogan (Elect)  - Mayor Reinaldo Bautista, Jr. ...

List of SEZs in the Philippines

The Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA) is the operating and implementing arm of the Government of the Philippines for the development the 262 square mile (670 square kilometer) area of Subic Bay Freeport (SBF) or what was the former US Naval facility in Subic Bay into a self-sustaining tourism... Proper name for Clark Air Base, Republic of the Philippines, during 1919-48 when it was under U.S. Army jurisdiction. ...

In Poland

  • Kamiennogórska SSE
  • Katowicka SSE
  • Kostrzyńsko-Słubicka SSE
  • Krakowski Park Technologiczny
  • Legnicka SSE
  • Łódzka SSE
  • Słupska SSE
  • SSE Starachowice
  • Suwalska SSE
  • Pomorska SSE
  • Tarnobrzeska SSE
  • Wałbrzyska SSE
  • Warmińsko-Mazurska SSE

The Kostrzyn-Slubice Special Economic Zone is in the centre of Europe, in western Poland, along the Polish-German border. ... Special Economic Zone EURO-PARK MIELEC is the oldest and the biggest SEZ in Poland. ...

In Ukraine

Map of Ukraine with Donetsk highlighted. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Mykolaiv highlighted. ... Slavutych (Ukrainian: ) is a city in northern Ukraine, named after the Old Slavic name of the near-by Dnieper River. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


  1. ^ "Parliamentary panel for no new SEZs until law is amended", AndhraNews.net. 

External links

  • Citizens' Research Collective on SEZ
  • Regularly updated news about SEZs in India
  • Russian Special Economic Zones
  • PEZA Philippines
  • Haryana Technology Park (HTP) - An approved SEZ located 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) from the Delhi - Faridabad border
  • The New Maharajas of India

  Results from FactBites:
--:: SURAT SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE ::-- (1113 words)
A Special Economic Zone is a deemed Foreign land for the purpose of trade operations, duties and tariffs.
In such cases, bonding is to be done with the authorities to ensure that the goods are going to come back to the Zone.
Development Commissioner, Surat Special Economic Zone has consistently been positive and proactive to see that no impediments come in the way of the units.
People's Daily Online -- Special economic zone law to be enacted in Myanmar: spokesman (551 words)
According to the business circle, the Thilawa SEZ zone, about 25 kilometers (km) south of Yangon and covers an area of 12.8 square-km, will become the first export concentration zone of its kind in the country in which all formalities for export of the zone's products will be handled with one-stop service.
Concerning the Thilawa SEZ, a master plan for the establishment of the zone was designed by Chinese experts for feasibility study for the Myanmar side.
Besides, Myanmar is also likely to establish one more special industrial zone in Rakhine state, western part of the country, and invite foreign investment mainly from Bangladesh for the development, local reports said.
  More results at FactBites »



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