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Encyclopedia > Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Special Administrative Region
Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區
Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū [[Listen]]
Cantonese
IPA: [tɐk6piːt6 hɐŋ4tsɪŋ3kʰɵy1][[Listen]]
Portuguese: Região administrativa
especial [[Listen]]

A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Each SAR has a Chief Executive as head of the region and head of government. However each region's government is not fully internationally accredited, inasmuch as foreign policy and home defense are retained as the province of the motherland and central government. Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refer to one of two standard Chinese character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language, officially simplified by the government of the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Chief Executive is a term used for certain gubernatorial offices, expressing the nature of their job being analous to a head of government. ...


The People's Republic of China, at present, has two Special Administrative Regions, Hong Kong and Macau, and they should not be confused with Special Economic Zones, which are regions fully under the administration of the Central People's Government. Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China authorizes the National People's Congress to create Special Administrative Regions.
// In the Peoples Republic of China The word special mainly means special economic systems and policies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó XiànfÇŽ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest...

Administrative divisions of the
People's Republic of China
This article is part
of the series:
Political divisions of China
Province level
Provinces
Autonomous areas
Municipalities
Special Administrative Regions
Prefecture level
Prefectures
Autonomous prefectures
Prefecture-level cities
(incl. Sub-provincial cities)
Leagues
County level
Counties
Autonomous counties
County-level cities
(incl. Sub-prefecture-level cities)
City districts
Banners
Autonomous banners
Township level
Townships
Ethnic townships
Towns
Subdistricts
Sumu
Ethnic sumu
County districts

Contents

Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... A province, in the context of China, is a translation of Sheng (Chinese: 省 ShÄ›ng), which is an administrative division of China. ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Direct-controlled municipalities are the highest-level cities in China, with status equal to that of the provinces. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A prefecture-level city (地级市 Pinyin: dìjí shì, literally region-level city) or prefecture-level municipality is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in Chinas administrative structure. ... A sub-provincial city (副省级城市), or vice-provincial city, in the Peoples Republic of China, is a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law. ... A league (Mongolian: chuulghan, Chinese: 盟, pinyin: méng) is an administrative unit in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xiàn). ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A county-level city (县级市 Pinyin: xiànjí shì) is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. ... A sub-prefecture-level city (副地級市), or vice-prefecture-level city, is an administrative division of China. ... District, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... A banner (Mongolian: khoshuu, Chinese: 旗, pinyin: qí) is an administrative division of Inner Mongolia. ... In a similar fashion to the former Soviet Unions titular nations, a number of areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities are designated as autonomous within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, township is the standard English translation of the Chinese 乡 (xiāng). ... The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ... When referring to Political Divisions of China, town is the standard English translation of the Chinese 鎮 (Simplified 镇) (zhèn; Wade-Giles chen4). ... The Subdistrict is one of the smallest Political_divisions_of_China. ... Sum in government refers to an administrative unit. ... The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ... District, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ...

Special situation

The Special Administrative Regions are shown as green dots

Two Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau (created in 1997 and 1999 respectively) each have a Basic Law which provides the region with a high degree of autonomy, a separate political system and a capitalist economy under the principle of "one country, two systems", which was proposed by Deng Xiaoping. Both are pragmatic concessions to the fact that each were formerly treaty territories under long-term leases, in practice de facto colonies left over from the era of European Imperialism and so were administered under western colonial laws by their respective European powers during the lease period. When Great Britain and Portugal's long lease-hold neared expiration, the local citizens were reluctant to abandon western laws and Chinese officials agreed to maintain most of the local laws in place, and so the foreign powers came to peacefully relinquished control. Image File history File links PR_China-SAR_&_SEZ-English. ... Image File history File links PR_China-SAR_&_SEZ-English. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... One country, two systems (Simplified Chinese: 一国两制; Traditional Chinese: 一國兩制; pinyin: yì; guó liÇŽng zhì; Jyutping: jat1 gwok3 loeng5 zai3; Yale: yāt gwok leúhng jai), is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the unification of China. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...


High degree of autonomy

Currently, the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for all issues except acts of state like diplomatic relations and national defence: consequently, they have their own judiciaries and courts of final appeal, their own legislature, immigration policies, currencies and extradition processes. The pre-existing legal systems, namely common law in Hong Kong and Portuguese law in Macau, are preserved except consequential to establishment of courts of final appeal. This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory; usually via fortifications. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Court of Final Appeal usually refers to the last court in which one can appeal cases brought before the highest level. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Anthem: A Portuguesa Location of Portugal (dark orange) in the European Union (light orange) and in Europe (light orange and white)[ Legend] Capital (and largest city)  Lisbon Official languages Portuguese1 Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Aníbal Cavaco Silva  - Prime Minister José Sócrates Formation 868   - Independence 24 June 1128   - Kingdom...


With listed exceptions, national laws applying in the mainland do not apply in a SAR. These listed exceptions must involve diplomacy, national defence or something beyond the scope of the SAR's autonomy.


Suffrage in the National People's Congress

Like other administrative divisions of the PRC, Hong Kong and Macau are represented in the National People's Congress, although suffrage is not well-defined and is not open to the general public. However, their representation is not prescribed in the constitution of the PRC, unlike provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and the People's Liberation Army. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Before Hong Kong and Macau became Special Administrative Regions of the PRC, they were under colonial rules by Britain and Portugal respectively. They had representation in the National People's Congress of the PRC through Guangdong Province, which shares the borders with Hong Kong and Macau. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


External affairs

Special Administrative Regions are empowered to contract a wide range of agreements with other countries and territories such as mutual abolition of visa requirement, mutual legal aid, air services, extradition, handling of double taxation and others. In diplomatic talks involving an SAR, the SAR concerned may send officials to be part of the Chinese delegation.


The two territories compete separately from Mainland China in international sporting events.


Defence and military

The People's Liberation Army is garrisoned in both the SARs. The garrison and its members must obey all SAR laws as well as national laws applicable to them. They do not participate in the governance of the SAR but the SAR may send for them in times of emergency such as natural disasters. According to the basic laws, defence is the responsibility of the Central People's Government. There is no law providing for enrollment of Hong Kong and Macau residents in the forces during ordinary times, and no Hong Kong and Macau residents are currently enrolled. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ...


Immigration and nationality

Each of the SARs issue passports on its own, only to its permanent residents who are concurrently nationals of the PRC, that is, PRC nationals satisfying one of the following conditions:

  • born in the SAR;
  • born anywhere while either parent was a permanent resident of the SAR;
  • resided continuously for seven or more years in the SAR.

Apart from affording the holder consular protection by the People's Republic of China, these passports also specify that the holder has right of abode in the issuing SAR. The right of abode refers to an individuals freedom from immigration control in a particular country. ...


The National People's Congress has also put each SAR in charge of administering the PRC's Nationality Law in its respective realms, namely naturalisation, renunciation and restoration of PRC nationality and issuance of proof of nationality. Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China This law is applicable to the acquisition, loss and restoration of nationality of the Peoples Republic of China. ... -1...


Offer to Taiwan

The People's Republic of China (PRC) has offered Taiwan a similar status to that of a SAR if it accepts PRC sovereignty. However, the government of the Republic of China (ROC) that is governing Taiwan refuses to accept the offer. Moreover, most surveys indicate that only around 10 percent of the electorate in Taiwan support the proposition. Unlike Hong Kong and Macau, the proposed Taiwan SAR would keep its own armed forces rather than receiving a garrison. The promise of a high-degree of autonomy, as afforded to Hong Kong and Macau, among other things, is enshrined in the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China enacted in 2005. Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As for the government of a Taiwan SAR would have a locally run administration, but be appointed by Beijing. The provincial Legislature would still be elected legislature and multi-party system would still exist within the legislature. Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Proposal for Taiwan as a SAR: [1] [2]


See also

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