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Encyclopedia > Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
Speaker of the House of
Representatives

Official seal
Incumbent:
Nancy Pelosi
Took office: January 4, 2007
Appointer vote within the Representatives
Inaugural Frederick Muhlenberg
Formation April 1, 1789

The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. The current Speaker is Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat representing California's 8th congressional district. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 289 × 386 pixelsFull resolution (289 × 386 pixel, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg (January 1, 1750 – June 4, 1801), was an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Map The 8th congressional district of California covers most of the City and County of San Francisco except for a corner in the southwest -- the Sunset District and St. ...


The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and before the president pro tempore of the U.S. Senate.[1] The Speaker does not normally personally preside over debates, instead delegating the duty to other members of Congress of the same political party. Aside from duties relating to heading the House and the majority political party, the Speaker also performs administrative and procedural functions, and remains the Representative of his or her congressional district. The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...

Contents

Election

The Speaker is elected on the first day of a new session of Congress. The election is presided over by the Clerk of the House of Representatives and each party nominates a candidate. Whoever receives a simple majority of the votes is elected and, after election, is sworn in by the Dean of the House, the chamber's longest-serving member. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In modern practice, the Speaker is chosen by the majority party in the House; it is usually obvious within two to three weeks of a House election who the new Speaker will be. As a result, every Speaker election since 1923 (see below) has been a formality.


Whenever majority status changes hands, the highest-ranking returning member of the new majority party is almost always presumed to be the new Speaker. For example, when the Republicans gained control of the House after the 1994 elections, Newt Gingrich was immediately presumed as Speaker-elect because he had been House Minority Whip in the previous Congress and Minority Leader Bob Michel had retired. Similarly, when the Democrats regained power in the 2006 elections, Nancy Pelosi was immediately presumed to be the new Speaker as she had been Minority Leader in the previous Congress. GOP redirects here. ... The U.S. House election, 1994 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1994 which occurred in the middle of President Bill Clintons first term. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... The Minority Whip is a member of the minority party in the U.S. House of Representatives who assists the Minority Leader in coordinating the party caucus in its responses to legislation and other matters. ... The Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the minority counterpart to the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives. ... ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Elections for the United States House of Representatives will be held on November 7, 2006, with all of the 435 seats in the House being contested. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ...


It is expected that members of the House vote for their party's candidate. If they don't do so, they usually vote for someone else in their party or vote "present." Voting for the other party's candidate is dealt with very severely. For example, when Democrat Jim Traficant voted for Republican Dennis Hastert in the 2001 election for Speaker, the Democrats stripped him of his seniority. James Traficant James A. Traficant Jr. ... John Dennis Denny Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is an American politician. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


History

The first Speaker was Frederick Muhlenberg, who was elected as a Federalist for the first four US Congresses.[2] The position of Speaker was not a very influential one, however, until the tenure of Henry Clay (1811–1814, 1815–1820, and 1823–1825). In contrast with many of his predecessors, Clay participated in several debates, and used his influence to procure the passage of measures he supported—for instance, the declaration of the War of 1812, and various laws relating to Clay's "American System". Furthermore, when no candidate received an Electoral College majority in the 1824 presidential election causing the president to be decided by the House, Speaker Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson, thereby ensuring the former's victory. Following Clay's retirement in 1825, the power of the Speakership once again began to decline; at the same time, however, Speakership elections became increasingly bitter. As the Civil War approached, several sectional factions nominated their own candidates, often making it difficult for any candidate to attain a majority. In 1855 and again in 1859, for example, the Speakership contest lasted for two months before the House achieved a result. Speakers tended to have very short tenures; for example, from 1839 to 1863 there were eleven Speakers, only one of whom served for more than one term. Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg (January 1, 1750 – June 4, 1801), was an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... The Monkey System or Every One For Himself Henry Clay says Walk in and see the new improved original grand American System! The cages are labeled: Home, Consumption, Internal, Improv. This 1831 cartoon ridiculing Clays American System depicts monkeys, labeled as being different parts of a nations economy... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Henry Clay used his influence as Speaker to ensure the passage of measures he favored
Henry Clay used his influence as Speaker to ensure the passage of measures he favored

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the office of Speaker began to develop into a very powerful one. One of the most important sources of the Speaker's power was his position as Chairman of the Committee on Rules, which, after the reorganization of the committee system in 1880, became one of the most powerful standing committees of the House. Furthermore, several Speakers became leading figures in their political parties; examples include Democrats Samuel J. Randall, John Griffin Carlisle, and Charles F. Crisp, and Republicans James G. Blaine, Thomas Brackett Reed, and Joseph Gurney Cannon. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (419x625, 28 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (419x625, 28 KB) http://hdl. ... For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... The Committee on Rules, or (more commonly) Rules Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Samuel Jackson Randall (October 10, 1828–April 13, 1890) was a prominent U.S. politician during the late 19th century. ... John G. Carlisle (September 5, 1834 - July 31, 1910) was a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party during the last quarter of the 19th century. ... Charles Frederick Crisp (1845 - 1896) was a U.S. political figure. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Thomas Reed, see Thomas Reed (disambiguation). ... Joseph Cannon at the 1904 Republican Convention Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican party; historians consider him one of the most powerful Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1903 through 1911. ...


The power of the Speaker was greatly augmented during the tenure of the Republican Thomas Brackett Reed (1889–1891 and 1895–1899). "Czar Reed," as he was called by his opponents,[3] sought to end the obstruction of bills by the minority, in particular by countering the tactic known as the "disappearing quorum".[4] By refusing to vote on a motion, the minority could ensure that a quorum would not be achieved, and that the result would be invalid. Reed, however, declared that members who were in the chamber but refused to vote would still count for the purposes of determining a quorum. Through these and other rulings, Reed ensured that the Democrats could not block the Republican agenda. The Speakership reached its apogee during the term of Republican Joseph Gurney Cannon (1903–1911). Cannon exercised extraordinary control over the legislative process; he determined the agenda of the House, appointed the members of all committees, chose committee chairmen, headed the Rules Committee, and determined which committee heard each bill. He vigorously used his powers to ensure that the proposals of the Republican Party were passed by the House. In 1910, however, Democrats and several dissatisfied Republicans joined together to strip the Speaker of many of his powers, including the ability to name committee members and chairmanship of the Rules Committee. Much—but not all—of the lost influence of the position was restored over fifteen years later by Speaker Nicholas Longworth. For other persons named Thomas Reed, see Thomas Reed (disambiguation). ... The disappearing quorum was a practice used by the minority party to prevent voting in the US House of Representatives. ... Joseph Cannon at the 1904 Republican Convention Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican party; historians consider him one of the most powerful Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1903 through 1911. ... Cover of Time Magazine (March 9, 1925) Nicholas Longworth (November 5, 1869-April 9, 1931) was a prominent American politician in the Republican Party during the first third of the 20th century. ...

Joseph Gurney Cannon is often considered the most powerful Speaker in the history of the House
Joseph Gurney Cannon is often considered the most powerful Speaker in the history of the House

The middle of the 20th century saw the service of one of the most influential Speakers in history, Democrat Sam Rayburn.[5] Rayburn was the longest serving Speaker in history, holding office from 1940 to 1947, 1949 to 1953, and 1955 to 1961. He helped shape many bills, working quietly in the background with House committees. He also helped ensure the passage of several domestic measures and foreign assistance programs advocated by Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman. Rayburn's successor, Democrat John William McCormack (served 1962–1971), was a somewhat less influential Speaker, particularly because of dissent from younger members of the Democratic Party. During the mid-1970s, the power of the Speakership once again grew under Democrat Carl Albert. The Committee on Rules ceased to be a semi-independent panel, as it had been since the Revolt of 1910; instead, it once again became an arm of the party leadership. Moreover, in 1975, the Speaker was granted the authority to appoint a majority of the members of the Rules Committee. Meanwhile, the power of committee chairmen was curtailed, further increasing the relative influence of the Speaker. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (620 × 877 pixel, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date copyright 1915 Oct. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (620 × 877 pixel, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date copyright 1915 Oct. ... Joseph Cannon at the 1904 Republican Convention Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican party; historians consider him one of the most powerful Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1903 through 1911. ... For the current professional American football player, see Sam Rayburn (football player). ... FDR redirects here. ... For the victim of Mt. ... John William McCormack (December 21, 1891 – November 22, 1980) was an American politician from Boston, Massachusetts. ... Carl Bert Albert (May 10, 1908 – February 4, 2000) was a lawyer and a Democratic American politician from Oklahoma. ...


Albert's successor, Democrat Tip O'Neill, was a prominent Speaker because of his public opposition to the policies of President Ronald Reagan. O'Neill is the longest-serving Speaker without a break (1977 through 1987). He challenged Reagan on domestic programs and on defense expenditures. Republicans made O'Neill the target of their election campaigns in 1980 and 1982; nevertheless, Democrats managed to retain their majorities in both years. The roles of the parties were reversed in 1994, when the Republicans regained control of the House after spending forty years in the minority. Republican Speaker Newt Gingrich regularly clashed with Democratic President Bill Clinton; in particular, Gingrich's "Contract with America" was a source of contention. Gingrich was ousted in 1998 when the Republican Party fared poorly in the congressional elections—although retaining a small majority—his successor, Dennis Hastert, played a much less prominent role. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats won majority of the House. Nancy Pelosi became the Speaker when the 110th Congress convened on January 4, 2007, making her the first female Speaker. Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Contract with America was a document released by the Republican Party of the United States during the 1994 Congressional election campaign. ... John Dennis Denny Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is an American politician. ... President Bush meets with Nancy Pelosi and Steny Hoyer (then House Minority Leader and Minority Whip, respectively) at the Oval Office in the White House. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Notable elections

United States

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States
Image File history File links US-GreatSeal-Obverse. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ...



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Historically, there have been several controversial elections to the Speakership, such as the contest of 1839. In that case, even though the House convened on December 2, it could not begin the Speakership election until December 14 because of an election dispute in New Jersey known as the "Broad Seal War". Two rival delegations—one Whig and another Democratic—had been certified as elected by different branches of the New Jersey government. The problem was compounded because the result of the dispute would determine whether the Whigs or the Democrats held the majority. Neither party agreed to permit a Speakership election with the opposite party's delegation participating. Finally, it was agreed to exclude both delegations from the election; a Speaker was finally chosen on December 17. Another, more prolonged fight occurred in 1855. The two primary candidates were the Republican Nathaniel Prentiss Banks and the Democrat William Aiken. However, there were nineteen other candidates; thus, neither of the main candidates could achieve a majority. The House remained deadlocked for two months, before it adopted a special resolution allowing a speaker to be chosen by a plurality, instead of an absolute majority. Hence, Banks was finally elected on the 133rd vote. The House found itself in the same dilemma in 1859, again enduring an election that lasted for two months. Throughout, voting was interspersed with speeches by the members, and the Clerk proved unwilling to interfere. On the 54th ballot, the House finally agreed to elect the dark horse candidate William Pennington. Ironically, Pennington had been the New Jersey governor who certified the disputed Whig candidates during the earlier Broad Seal War controversy. This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... For the current presidential election see: United States presidential election, 2008 United States presidential election determines who serves as president and vice president of the United States for a four-year term, starting at midday on Inauguration Day, which is January 20 of the year after the election. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Midterm elections are elections in the United States in which members of Congress, state legislatures, and... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Current party control of Governors offices (2006). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      All United States states are required to possess a legislative branch. ... In the U.S., a state court has jurisdiction over disputes which occur in a state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Local government in the United States (sometimes referred to as municipal government) is generally structured... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Broad Seal War was a controversy over the results of a Congressional election in New Jersey in 1838. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nathaniel Prentice Banks [sometimes spelled incorrectly Prentiss] (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... William Aiken, Jr. ... This article describes dark horse candidates. ... William Pennington (May 4, 1796–February 16, 1862) was an American Whig Party and early Democratic-Republican Party politician and lawyer, the 13th Governor of New Jersey, and Speaker of the House during his one term in Congress. ...


The last Speakership election in which the House had to vote more than once occurred in 1923. Neither the Republican nor the Democratic candidate could attain a majority because many members of the Progressive Party voted for other candidates. The Republican leadership agreed to a number of procedural reforms and to the appointment of Progressives to certain committees; in return, the Progressives ensured the election of Republican Frederick H. Gillett as Speaker. This is the only example in U.S. history of a form of coalition government in either house of Congress. The name Progressive Party has been assigned to a collection of parties in the United States over the past century or so. ... Frederick Huntington Gillett (October 16, 1851–July 31, 1935) was a prominent U.S. politician during the early 20th century. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ...


One of the most notable recent elections was that of 1999. Speaker Newt Gingrich, who was widely blamed for the poor showing of the Republican Party during the general elections of 1998, declined to seek another term as Speaker and announced his resignation from the House. His expected successor was chairman of the Appropriations Committee, Bob Livingston, who received the nomination of the Republican conference without opposition. However, Livingston—who had been publicly critical of President Bill Clinton's perjury during his sexual harassment trial—abruptly resigned from the House after it was revealed that he had been engaged in an extramarital affair. As a result the chief deputy, Dennis Hastert, was chosen to serve as Speaker. Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... This article is about the politician. ... John Dennis Denny Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is an American politician. ...


On November 16, 2006, Pelosi, who was then the House Democratic leader, had been selected by her party to be the next speaker.[6] When the 110th Congress convened on January 4, 2007, she was nominated by Representative Rahm Emanuel, the incoming Chairman of the Democratic Caucus and elected as 60th Speaker, 233-202, over the Republican challenger John Boehner. Pelosi is the first woman to be elected Speaker of the House and second in the line of succession to the presidency. is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives acts as the leader of the party that has a majority control of the seats in the house (currently at least 218 of the 435 seats). ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Rahm Emanuel (born November 29, 1959) is an American politician. ... The House Democratic Caucus, nominates and elects the Democratic Party leadership in the United States House of Representatives. ... John Andrew Boehner (pronounced Bay-Ner), born November 17, 1949, is an American politician of the Republican Party who served as House Majority Leader in the 109th Congress, and a U.S. Representative from Ohios 8th congressional district, which includes parts of the city of Dayton as well as...


Partisan role

The Constitution does not spell out the political role of the Speaker. As the office has developed historically, however, it has taken on a clearly partisan cast, very different from the speakership of the British House of Commons, which is scrupulously non-partisan. The Speaker in the United States is, by tradition, the head of the majority party in the House of Representatives, outranking the Majority Leader. However, the Speaker usually does not participate in debate (though he or she has the right to do so) and rarely votes on the floor. In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ...


The Speaker is responsible for ensuring that the House passes legislation supported by the majority party. In pursuing this goal, the Speaker may utilize his or her power to determine when each bill reaches the floor. He or she also chairs the majority party's House steering committee. While the Speaker is the functioning head of the House majority party, the same is not true of the President pro tempore of the Senate, whose office is primarily ceremonial and honorary.


When the Speaker and the President belong to the same party, the Speaker normally plays a less prominent role as the leader of the majority party.—For example, Speaker Dennis Hastert played a very low-key role during the presidency of fellow Republican George W. Bush. On the other hand, when the Speaker and the President belong to opposite parties, the public role and influence of the Speaker tend to increase. The Speaker is the highest-ranking member of the opposition party and is normally the chief public opponent of the President's agenda. Recent examples include Tip O'Neill, who was a vocal opponent of President Ronald Reagan's domestic and defense policies; Newt Gingrich, who fought a bitter battle with President Bill Clinton for control of domestic policy; and Nancy Pelosi, who has clashed with George W. Bush over domestic policy and the Iraq War. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Thomas Phillip ONeill, Jr. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Presiding officer

The Speaker holds a variety of powers as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, but normally delegates them to another member of the majority party. The Speaker may designate any Member of the House to act as Speaker pro tempore and preside over the House. During important debates, the Speaker pro tempore is ordinarily a senior member of the majority party who may be chosen for his or her skill in presiding.[7] At other times, more junior members may be assigned to preside to give them experience with the rules and procedures of the House. The Speaker may also designate a Speaker pro tempore for special purposes; for example, during long recesses, a Representative whose district is near Washington, D.C. may be designated as Speaker pro tempore for the purpose of signing enrolled bills.


On the floor of the House, the presiding officer is always addressed as "Mister Speaker" or "Madam Speaker" (even if the Speaker him- or herself is not the individual presiding). When the House resolves itself into a Committee of the Whole, the Speaker designates a member to preside over the Committee as the Chairman, who is addressed as "Mister Chairman" or "Madam Chairman." Before any member may speak, he or she must seek the presiding officer's recognition. The presiding officer may call on members as he or she pleases, and may therefore control the flow of debate. The presiding officer also rules on all points of order, but such rulings may be appealed to the whole House (although the appeal is invariably tabled on a party-line vote). The Speaker is responsible for maintaining decorum in the House, and may order the Sergeant-at-Arms to enforce the rules. In the United States House of Representatives, the Committee of the Whole, short for Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, is a parliamentary device in which the House of Representatives is considered one large Congressional committee. ... The United States House of Representatives Sergeant at Arms is an officer of the House with law enforcement, protocol, and administrative responsibilities. ...


The Speaker's powers and duties extend beyond presiding in the chamber. In particular, the Speaker has great influence over the committee process. The Speaker selects nine of the thirteen members of the powerful Committee on Rules, subject to the approval of the conference of the majority party. (The remaining four members are chosen by the leadership of the minority party.) Furthermore, the Speaker appoints all members of select committees and conference committees. Moreover, when a bill is introduced, the Speaker determines which committee shall consider it. As a member of the House, the Speaker is entitled to participate in debate and to vote. By custom, however, he or she does so only in exceptional circumstances. Normally, the Speaker votes only when his or her vote would be decisive, and on matters of great importance (such as constitutional amendments). The Committee on Rules, or (more commonly) Rules Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Other functions

Because joint sessions and joint meetings of both houses of Congress are held in the Hall of the House of Representatives, the Speaker presides over all such joint sessions and meetings, except that under the Twelfth Amendment and 3 U.S.C. § 15, the President of the Senate presides over joint sessions of Congress assembled to count electoral votes and declare the results of a presidential election. (The distinction arises because the Twelfth Amendment explicitly provides: "The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the [electoral vote] certificates.") Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution alterd Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ... Title 3 of the United States Code outlines the role of the President of the United States in the United States Code. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution alterd Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ...


The Speaker is further responsible for overseeing the officers of the House — the Clerk, the Sergeant-at-Arms, the Chief Administrative Officer, and the Chaplain. The Speaker can dismiss any of these officers, with the exception of the Chaplain. The Speaker appoints the House Historian and the General Counsel and, jointly with the Majority and Minority Leaders, appoints the House's Inspector General. The Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives is an employee of the United States House of Representatives. ... The United States House of Representatives Sergeant at Arms is an officer of the House with law enforcement, protocol, and administrative responsibilities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The election of William Linn as Chaplain of the House on May 1, 1789, continued the tradition established by the Continental Congresses of each days proceedings opening with a prayer by a chaplain. ... The Historian of the United States House of Representatives is an official appointed by that legislative body to study and document its past. ...


The Speaker is second in the presidential line of succession, immediately after the Vice President, under the Presidential Succession Act of 1947. He or she is followed in the line of succession by the President pro tempore of the Senate and by the heads of federal executive departments. Some scholars, however, have argued that this provision of the succession statute is unconstitutional.[8] The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ... The Presidential Succession Act of 1947 (codified as Title 3, Chapter 1, Section 19 of the United States Code) establishes the order of succession to the office of President of the United States in the event neither a President nor Vice President is able to discharge the powers and duties...


To date, the implementation of the Presidential Succession Act has never been necessary; thus, no Speaker has ever acted as president. Implementation of the law almost became necessary in 1973, after the resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew. Many at the time believed that President Richard Nixon would resign because of the Watergate scandal, allowing Speaker Carl Albert to succeed. However, before he resigned, Nixon appointed Gerald Ford to the Vice Presidency in accordance with the Twenty-fifth Amendment. Nevertheless, the United States government takes the place of the Speaker in the line of succession seriously enough that, for example, since shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Speakers have used military jets to fly back and forth to their districts and for other travel. The Speaker of the House is one of the officers to whom declarations of presidential inability or of ability to resume the presidency must be addressed under the Twenty-fifth Amendment. Finally, the Speaker continues to represent the voters in his or her congressional district. However, as noted above, the Speaker does not normally vote or participate in debate. Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Watergate redirects here. ... Carl Bert Albert (May 10, 1908 – February 4, 2000) was a lawyer and a Democratic American politician from Oklahoma. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


See also

List of Speakers of the United States House of Representatives Speakers of the United States House of Representatives: Categories: United States House of Representatives ...


References

  1. ^ See the United States Presidential Line of Succession statute, 3 U.S.C. § 19
  2. ^ "Frederick A. Muhlenberg (1750-1801)". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on July 05, 2007.
  3. ^ Robinson, William A. "Thomas B. Reed, Parliamentarian". The American Historical Review, October, 1931. pp. 137-138.
  4. ^ Oleszek, Walter J. "A Pre-Twentieth Century Look at the House Committee on Rules". U.S. House of Representatives, December. 1998. Retrieved on July 05, 2007.
  5. ^ "Sam Rayburn House Museum". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved on July 05, 2007.
  6. ^ . San Francisco Commission on the Status of Women. City & County of San Francisco, November 16, 2006. Retrieved on July 5, 2007.
  7. ^ "House Rules: Presiding Officer". (PDF). Legislative Research Council. Retrieved on July 05, 2007.
  8. ^ See Akhil Reed Amar & Vikram Amar,Is The Presidential Succession Law Constitutional?, 48 Stan. L. Rev. 113 (1995). This issue is discussed in the entry on the United States Presidential Line of Succession

The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ... Title 3 of the United States Code outlines the role of the President of the United States in the United States Code. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Stanford Law Review is a legal journal produced independently by Stanford Law School students. ... The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office (by impeachment and subsequent conviction) of a sitting president or a president-elect. ...

External links

  • "Capitol Questions." C-SPAN (2003). Notable elections and role.
  • The Cannon Centenary Conference: The Changing Nature of the Speakership. (2003). House Document 108-204. History, nature and role of the Speakership.
  • Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress, 5th ed. (2000). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press.
  • Speaker of the House of Representatives. (2005). Official Website. Information about role as party leader, powers as presiding officer.
  • Wilson, Woodrow. (1885). Congressional Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
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It is the only House Office Building that is not connected underground to either one of the other office buildings or to the Capitol itself. ... The Longworth House Office Building The Longworth House Office Building (LHOB) is one of three office buildings used by the United States House of Representatives. ... The ONeill House Office Building is the name of a former Congressional Office Building, located near the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. It was named after former Speaker of the House Thomas Tip ONeill (December 9, 1912 – January 5, 1994). ... The Rayburn House Office Building (RHOB), named after former Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn, is located between South Capitol Street and First Street in Southwest Washington, D.C. // History The newest of three U.S. House of Representatives office buildings, the Rayburn House Office Building was completed in early... This Washington, DC congressional office building is named for former Senate Minority Leader Everett Dirksen (R-IL). ... Located on Constitution Avenue, between 1st and 2nd Streets, NE The Hart Senate Office Building, the third U.S. Senate office building, was built in the 1970s. ... This photograph, taken from southwest of the building, shows the main entrance along Constitution Avenue, N.E. The rotunda of the Russell Building featuring the sculpture by Frederick Hart. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... Congressional Quarterly (CQ) produces a number of publications that report primarily on the United States Congress. ... The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The Hill is a non-partisan, non-ideological newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It is written for and about the U.S. Congress. ... For other senses of this term, see roll call (disambiguation). ... Look up Thomas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is an incomplete list of lists pertaining to the United States Congress. ... Congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives are determined after each census. ... This is a complete list of congressional districts by area for current representation in the United States House of Representatives. ... The Mace of the US House of Representatives The Mace of the United States House of Representatives is one of the oldest symbols of the United States government. ... A number of amendments to the United States Constitution include a Congressional power of enforcement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

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Speaker of the United States House of Representat...: Information from Answers.com (2802 words)
The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives.
The Speaker is elected by the House of Representatives, and is its highest-ranking officer.
Speaker Newt Gingrich, who was widely blamed for the poor showing of the Republican Party during the general elections of 1998, declined to seek another term as Speaker and announced his resignation from the House.
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