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Encyclopedia > Speaker (politics)
It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)

The term speaker is a title often given to the presiding officer of a legislative body. The speaker's official role is to moderate debate, make rulings on procedure, announce the results of votes, and the like. The speaker decides who may speak and has the powers to discipline members who break the procedures of the house. The speaker often also represents the body in his or her person, as the voice of the body in ceremonial and some other situations. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Speaker (politics). ...


As a parliamentary title it is typically Anglo-Saxon, first recorded in the English parliament for Thomas de Hungerford in 1377; in most other cultures other styles are used, mainly translations of Chairman or President. The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Sir Thomas (de) Hungerford (circa 1330 - 3 December 1397) was the first person to be recorded in the rolls of the English parliament as holding the (pre-existing) office of Speaker of the House of Commons[1]. Sir Thomas was the son of Thomas Hungerford and Elizabeth Fitzjohn and was... A chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) The majority of this article is about heads of states. ...

Contents

UK and "Westminster system" countries

In many nations, especially those with the Westminster System of government, the position of Speaker, modeled after the British office in the House of Commons, is ideally scrupulously politically neutral and is not concerned with substantive issues. In the event of a tie, the speaker is permitted to vote but only according to established conventions. In most cases the speaker is elected from among the members of the assembly by the members, and whips are not allowed to be among the selection. A speaker from the ruling party is usually chosen. The Westminster system is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliament in the United Kingdom and Canada. ... In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ...


Despite being an impartial position, the Speaker in a Westminster system parliament has to stand for re-election if (s)he wishes to stay. In the Republic of Ireland the Speaker (Ceann Comhairle) is deemed to have been elected if he seeks re-election; in the United Kingdom it is a constitutional convention that no major party will put up a candidate against the 'Speaker seeking re-election'. However in recent times the Scottish National Party has put up candidates against the incumbent speaker (Michael Martin). The Ceann Comhairle1 is the chairman or speaker of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ...


United States

In the United States, in the United States House of Representatives and in state legislatures and local government councils, the speaker is usually selected by the members of the majority party and functions as a leader of that party. Thus, though the speaker is expected to be fair, he or she uses procedural rulings to advance the causes and agenda of his or her own party. Ceremonially, the speaker may represent the whole house, but politically he or she is the legislative voice of the party in power. Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...


There is one case of a speaker who is not presiding officer. The New York City Council, the unicameral legislative body for New York City, has as its presiding officer the Public Advocate, a position formerly known as City Council President, who is elected by all the voters of the city. As the public advocate's role has changed with several city charter revisions, a post of Council Speaker was created. The speaker is, effectively, majority leader of the council.


The Speaker of the House of Representatives in the U.S. Congress is next in line for succession to the presidency: should the president and vice president be unable to serve, the speaker becomes president. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal      The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the lower...


Similar posts

It is fairly rare for an upper house of a bicameral legislature to use the style 'speaker' - the term is generally restricted to lower houses (as the House of Commons in the UK, and the House of Representatives in the U.S.) - though the presiding officer of the upper house, whatever the title, has substantially the same duties. An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... British House of Commons Canadian House of Commons The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliament in the United Kingdom and Canada. ... House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ...


For example, in the UK, the presiding officer of the House of Lords was until recently the Lord Chancellor, who was also a member of the government (a cabinet member) and the head of the judicial branch, though the chancellor did not have the same authority to discipline members of the Lords that the speaker of the Commons has in that house. (On 4 July 2006 the office was reformed, and the first Lord Speaker Baroness Haymen took to the woolsack.) This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ... The Woolsack is the seat of the Lord Chancellor in the House of Lords. ...


In the U.S., the Senate, the upper house of Congress, is presided over by the vice president of the United States who sits as "president of the Senate" (hence, the president of the United States begins his speeches to joint sessions of Congress addressing "Mr. President," meaning his own vice president as chair of the Senate).


Similarly, most U.S. states have bicameral state legislatures with the lower house (variously called the House of Representatives, Assembly, or House of Delegates) led by a speaker, and the upper house (invariably called the Senate) led by a president or, less often, a speaker.


The upper houses in Australia and Chile have presidents. Examples of upper house leaders being styled 'speaker' include the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Speaker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (225 words)
Speaker (politics), in politics, the presiding officer in many legislative assemblies.
In linguistics, a speaker is who utters a message, and is typically the center of deixis in the message; (s)he refers to himself or herself with the first-person pronoun.
Also in linguistics, a speaker is a user of a spoken language, as opposed to a signer, a user of a sign language; or anyone who masters and uses a language, while only a native speaker has it as his or her mother tongue.
BBC NEWS | Politics | Speaker (236 words)
The Speaker presides over the House of Commons and is responsible for keeping order during debates and ensuring that the rules of the House are obeyed.
The Speaker lives in the Speaker's House in the Palace of Westminster and presides over the House dressed in a ceremonial fl robe.
The Speaker also represents, or speaks for, the House of Commons in its dealings with the monarch and has the responsibility of maintaining the dignity and privileges of the Commons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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