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Encyclopedia > Spasticity
Spasticity
Classification & external resources
DiseasesDB 20872
eMedicine neuro/706  pmr/177
MeSH D009128

Spasticity is a disorder of the body's motor system,and especially the Central Nervous System's (CNS), in which certain muscles are continuously contracted. This contraction causes stiffness or tightness of the muscles and may interfere with gait, movement, and speech. The person with the spastic muscles may or may not feel it, know about it or want to do something about it. The human motor system is not always linked with the sensory systems, nor the voluntary-muscle systems. The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Structure of a skeletal muscle Muscle is one of the four tissue types. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... A gait can refer to: a particular way or manner of moving on foot: walking and running are the two basic human gaits; see also gait analysis and Gait (human). ... Look up movement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ...

Contents

Causes

Voluntary movement is controlled by several interacting systems within the nervous system. Primary control is through the upper motor neurons in the motor cortex of the brain, which send their axons via the cortico-spinal tract to connect to lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Spasticity is caused by damage to upper motor neurons or to the cortico-spinal tract. It may occur in association with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy (see Spastic Diplegia), anoxic brain damage, brain trauma, severe head injury, some metabolic diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, and phenylketonuria. The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Spinal cord injury, or myelopathy, is a disturbance of the spinal cord that results in loss of sensation and/or mobility. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Spastic diplegia is a neuromuscular type of cerebral palsy involving hypertonia and spasticity in the muscles of the lower extremities, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled... Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a degenerative disorder of myelin, a complex fatty neural tissue that insulates many nerves of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). ...


Presentation

Symptoms may include hypertonia (increased muscle tone), clonus (a series of rapid muscle contractions), exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, muscle spasms, scissoring (involuntary crossing of the legs), and fixed joints. The degree of spasticity varies from mild muscle stiffness to severe, painful, and uncontrollable muscle spasms. An increase in stiffness, tension, and spasticity of a muscle. ... Clonus (from the Greek for violent, confused motion) is a series of involuntary muscular contractions due to sudden stretching of the muscle. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ...


The condition can interfere with rehabilitation in patients with certain disorders, and often interferes with daily activities. Over the years, it may increase in its effect, so more severe treatments may be needed later. Cold weather and fatigue can trigger spasms more severely than other times. Multi-tasking (such as walking, talking, eating and other activities) can also trigger more severe spasticity.


Possible benefits

  • May help some patients to ambulate, stand or transfer (e.g., stand pivot transfers)
  • May assist in maintaining muscle bulk
  • May assist in preventing DVTs
  • May assist in preventing osteoporosis pressure ulcer formation over bony prominences can be used as “diagnostic tool” (with in spasticity been a sign of exposure to a noxious stimuli—infection, bowel impaction, urinary retention, etc)

Treatment

If the cause is fatigue, the first remedy is rest. Massage seems to not be helpful. Stretching or relaxing the muscles involved may also work. Chronic spasms can lead to shortening of the muscles and ligaments. Regular (daily) exercises over the years ahead of these ligaments and muscles are needed to prevent the pain and the crippling of movement.


Treatment may include such medications as baclofen, diazepam, dantrolene, or clonazepam; muscle stretching, range of motion exercises, and other physical therapy regimens to help prevent joint contractures (shrinkage or shortening of a muscle) and reduce the severity of symptoms; or surgery for tendon release or to block the connection between nerve and muscle, so that the muscle does not contract. The connection between nerve and muscle may also be blocked temporarily, without surgery, by injecting botulinum toxin into the muscle. Baclofen (brand names Kemstro® and Lioresal®) is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid, and is an agonist specific to mammalian but not fruit fly (Drosophila) GABAB receptors[1][2]. It is used for the treatment of spastic movement, especially in instances of spinal cord injury, spastic diplegia and multiple sclerosis. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Dantrolene sodium is a muscle relaxant that is currently the only specific and effective treatment for malignant hyperthermia. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril in Europe, South America, Canada, India, and Australia) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ...


Some USA states have also issued medical marijuana to help treat spasticity. Cannabis sativa extract. ...


Prognosis

The prognosis for those with spasticity depends on the severity of the spasticity and the associated disorder(s). To a small degree spasticity performs the helpful role of exercise, but it is usually bothersome to normal activities in life.


See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Spastic diplegia is a neuromuscular type of cerebral palsy involving hypertonia and spasticity in the muscles of the lower extremities, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis. ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid (usually abbreviated to GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Baclofen (brand names Kemstro® and Lioresal®) is a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid, and is an agonist specific to mammalian but not fruit fly (Drosophila) GABAB receptors[1][2]. It is used for the treatment of spastic movement, especially in instances of spinal cord injury, spastic diplegia and multiple sclerosis. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Dantrolene sodium is a muscle relaxant that is currently the only specific and effective treatment for malignant hyperthermia. ... Clonazepam (marketed by Roche under the trade-names Klonopin in the United States and Rivotril in Europe, South America, Canada, India, and Australia) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Tizanidine (Zanaflex, Sirdalud) is a centrally acting α-2 adrenergic agonist. ... Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder caused by a loss of the myelin encasing the spinal cord, also known as demyelination. ...

References

  • Maureen E. Neistadt and Elizabeth Blesedell Crepeau, ed. (1998). Willard and Spackman's occupational therapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 233. ISBN 0-397-55192-4. 
  • This article contains text from the public domain document at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/spasticity_doc.htm

This article is about the university in Coral Gables, Florida. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cerebral palsy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2885 words)
Spastic cerebral palsy is further classified by topography, dependent on the region of the body affected.
The classical symptoms are spasticity, unsteady gait, and dysarthria, and soft tissue findings consist largely of decreased muscle mass, but taken on the whole, CP symptomatology is as diverse as the individuals who have it.
The term "spastic" describes the attribute of spasticity in types of spastic CP.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Spasticity (427 words)
Spasticity is marked by stiff or rigid muscles and exaggerated, deep tendon reflexes.
Spasticity generally results from damage to the motor area of the brain (the portion of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary movement) and to any portion of the subcortical white matter (nerves traveling from brain down to spinal cord).
Severe, long term spasticity may lead to contracture of muscles causing joints to be bent at a fixed position.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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