FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Spasmodic dysphonia

Spasmodic dysphonia (or laryngeal dystonia) is a voice disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx (vocal folds or voice box) during speech. Individuals who have spasmodic dysphonia may have occasional difficulty saying a word or two or they may experience sufficient difficulty to interfere with communication. Spasmodic dysphonia causes the voice to break or to have a tight, strained or strangled quality. Human voice consists of sound made by a person using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, screaming or crying. ... Voice disorders are medical conditions affecting the production of speech. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse, referring to muscles like the biceps which pop up as though a mouse were scurrying about under the skin [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ...


Spasmodic dysphonia can affect anyone. The first signs of this disorder are found most often in individuals between 30 and 50 years of age. Women, more than men, appear to be affected by spasmodic dysphonia.

Contents

Types of spasmodic dysphonia

The three types of spasmodic dysphonia are adductor spasmodic dysphonia, abductor spasmodic dysphonia and mixed spasmodic dysphonia.


Adductor spasmodic dysphonia

In adductor spasmodic dysphonia, sudden involuntary muscle movements or spasms cause the vocal folds (or vocal cords) to slam together and stiffen. These spasms make it difficult for the vocal folds to vibrate and produce voice. Words are often cut off or difficult to start because of the muscle spasms. Therefore, speech may be choppy and sound similar to stuttering. The voice of an individual with adductor spasmodic dysphonia is commonly described as strained or strangled and full of effort. Surprisingly, the spasms are usually absent while whispering, laughing, singing, speaking at a high pitch or speaking while breathing in. Stress, however, often makes the muscle spasms more severe. Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... Stuttering, also known as stammering in the United Kingdom, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases; and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds. ...


Abductor spasmodic dysphonia

In abductor spasmodic dysphonia, sudden involuntary muscle movements or spasms cause the vocal folds to open. The vocal folds cannot vibrate when they are open. The open position of the vocal folds also allows air to escape from the lungs during speech. As a result, the voices of these individuals often sound weak, quiet and breathy or whispery. As with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, the spasms are often absent during activities such as laughing or singing.


Mixed spasmodic dysphonia

Mixed spasmodic dysphonia involves muscles that open the vocal folds as well as muscles that close the vocal folds and therefore has features of both adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia.


Origins

The cause of spasmodic dysphonia is unknown. Because the voice can sound normal or near normal at times, spasmodic dysphonia was once thought to be psychogenic, that is, originating in the affected person's mind rather than from a physical cause. While psychogenic forms of spasmodic dysphonia exist, research has revealed increasing evidence that most cases of spasmodic dysphonia are in fact neurogenic or having to do with the nervous system (brain and nerves). Spasmodic dysphonia may co-occur with other movement disorders such as blepharospasm (excessive eye blinking and involuntary forced eye closure), tardive dyskinesia (involuntary and repetitious movement of muscles of the face, body, arms and legs), oromandibular dystonia (involuntary movements of the jaw muscles, lips and tongue), torticollis (involuntary movements of the neck muscles), or tremor (rhythmic, quivering muscle movements). Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of the human mind, brain, and behavior. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... A blepharospasm (from blepharo (eyelid) and spasm (uncontrolled muscle contraction)) is any abnormal tic or twitch of the eyelid. ... Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term and/or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics and among them especially the typical antipsychotics. ... Torticollis, or wry neck, is a condition in which the head is tilted toward one side, and the chin is elevated and turned toward the opposite side. ...


In some cases, spasmodic dysphonia may run in families and is thought to be inherited. Research has identified a possible gene on chromosome 9 that may contribute to the spasmodic dysphonia that is common to certain families. In some individuals the voice symptoms begin following an upper respiratory infection, injury to the larynx, a long period of voice use, or stress.


Diagnosis

The diagnosis of spasmodic dysphonia is usually made based on identifying the way the symptoms developed as well as by careful examination of the individual. Most people are evaluated by a team that usually includes an otolaryngologist (a physician who specializes in ear, nose and throat disorders), a speech-language pathologist (a professional trained to diagnose and treat speech, language and voice disorders) and a neurologist (a physician who specializes in nervous system disorders). The otolaryngologist examines the vocal folds to look for other possible causes for the voice disorder. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopy, a method whereby a small lighted tube is passed through the nose and into the throat, is a helpful tool that allows the otolaryngologist to evaluate vocal cord movement during speech. The speech-language pathologist evaluates the patient's voice and voice quality. The neurologist evaluates the patient for signs of other muscle movement disorders. Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it. ...


Treatment

There is currently no cure for spasmodic dysphonia. Current treatments only help reduce the symptoms of this voice disorder. Voice therapy may reduce some symptoms, especially in mild cases. An operation that cuts the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the vocal folds has improved the voice of many for several months to several years but the improvement is often temporary. Others may benefit from psychological counseling to help them to accept and live with their voice problem. Still others may benefit from job counseling that will help them select a line of work more compatible with their speaking limitations. Diane Rehm, of National Public Radio, and Robert F. Kennedy Jr., of Air America Radio, have managed to continue their careers in radio despite having the disorder. The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... Diane Rehm Diane Rehm (born 1936 in Washington, D.C.) is an American public radio talk show host. ... NPR redirects here. ... Robert Francis Kennedy Jr. ... Logo of Air America Radio, a U.S. radio network and program syndication sevice with a liberal point of view. ...


A treatment for reducing the symptoms of spasmodic dysphonia is injections of very small amounts of botox directly into the affected muscles of the larynx. The toxin weakens muscles by blocking the nerve impulse to the muscle. The botox injections generally improve the voice for a period of three to four months after which the voice symptoms gradually return. Reinjections are necessary to maintain a good speaking voice. Initial side effects that usually subside after a few days to a few weeks may include a temporary weak, breathy voice or occasional swallowing difficulties. Botox may relieve the symptoms of both adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia. Botulin toxin or botox is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ...


Recently (October 2006), Scott Adams of Dilbert fame has posted an account of how he regained full use of his vocal chords by repeating nursery rhymes at the onset of spasmodic dysphonia symptoms.[1] Although this solution has not been confirmed and may require other methods in other individuals, countering the effects of spasmodic dysphonia using rhyme, which is similar to normal speech, is neurologically reasonable.[citation needed] Scott Adams (born June 8, 1957) is the creator of the Dilbert comic strip and the author of several business commentaries, social satires, and experimental philosophy books. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Famous people with spasmodic dysphonia

  • Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.
  • Scott Adams, the creator of the famous cartoon Dilbert. In October 2006, he claimed on his blog to have developed a method to work around the disorder and has been able to speak normally since, which would make him the first known person in history to recover from this disorder. This claim has not been confirmed by medical authorities.[1]
  • Diane Rehm, an American public radio talk show host.

Robert Francis Kennedy Jr. ... Scott Adams (born June 8, 1957) is the creator of the Dilbert comic strip and the author of several business commentaries, social satires, and experimental philosophy books. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Diane Rehm Diane Rehm (born 1936 in Washington, D.C.) is an American public radio talk show host. ...

References

  1. ^ a b http://dilbertblog.typepad.com/the_dilbert_blog/2006/10/good_news_day.html
  • U.S. National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders Publication No. 97-4214

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spasmodic dysphonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1034 words)
Spasmodic dysphonia (or laryngeal dystonia) is a voice disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx (vocal folds or voice box) during speech.
As with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, the spasms are often absent during activities such as laughing or singing.
While psychogenic forms of spasmodic dysphonia exist, research has revealed increasing evidence that most cases of spasmodic dysphonia are in fact neurogenic or having to do with the nervous system (brain and nerves).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m