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Encyclopedia > Spartacus
Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830
Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830

Spartacus (ca. 120 BC[1] – ca. 70 BC), according to Roman historians, was a gladiator-slave who became the leader (or possibly one of several leaders) in the unsuccessful slave uprising against the Roman Republic known as the Third Servile War. Little is known about Spartacus beyond the events of the war, and the surviving historical accounts are inaccurate and often contradictory. Spartacus' struggle, often perceived as the struggle of an oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning aristocracy, has found new meaning for modern writers since the 19th century. The figure of Spartacus, and his rebellion, has become an inspiration to many modern literary and political writers, who have made the character of Spartacus an ancient/modern folk hero. Spartacus, and its derivations and translations such as Spartacist, Spartak or Espartaco may refer to: Spartacus, the Thracian who led a slave uprising against Roman slavery. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 648 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 648 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC 122 BC 121 BC - 120 BC - 119 BC 118 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators...

Contents

Ancient depictions of Spartacus

Spartacus' origins

Thracian tribes & Spartacus clique,the Maedi
Thracian tribes & Spartacus clique,the Maedi

The ancient sources agree that Spartacus was a Thracian who had served as an auxiliary in the Roman army. Plutarch describes him as "a Thracian of nomadic stock",[2] although this reading is disputed: where some editions give Νομαδικοῦ, others give Μαιδικοῦ, which Konrad Ziegler argues, refers to the Thracian tribe of the Medi.[citation needed] Plutarch also says Spartacus' wife, a prophetess of the same tribe, was enslaved with him. Appian says he was "a Thracian by birth, who had once served as a soldier with the Romans, but had since been a prisoner and sold for a gladiator".[3] Florus says he "had become a Roman soldier, of a soldier a deserter and robber, and afterwards, from consideration of his strength, a gladiator".[4] "Thracian" was a style of gladiatorial combat in which the gladiator fought with a round shield and a short sword or dagger,[5] and it has been argued that this may have confused the sources about his geographical origins, although no alternative origin is attested. The name Spartacus is otherwise attested in the Black Sea region: kings of Cimmerian Bosporus[6] and Pontus[7] are known to have borne it, and a Thracian "Spardacus"[8] or "Sparadokos",[9] father of Seuthes I of the Odrysae, is also known. Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... The Maedi (also Maidans, Maedans, or Medi) were a Thracian tribe who, in historic times, occupied the area between Paionia and Thrace, on the southwestern fringes of Thrace, along the middle course of the Strymon and the upper course of the Nestus (now the Mesta) rivers. ... Appian (c. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Bosporan Kingdom, which was located on the Crimea peninsula, existed in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Seuthes I was king of the Odrysian Thracians from 424 BC until 410 BC. He was the nephew of Sitalkes. ... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ...


Third Servile War

For more details on this topic, see Third Servile War.

Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators...

Revolt leading to the Third Servile War

Spartacus was trained at the gladiatorial school (ludo) near Capua, belonging to Lentulus Batiatus. In 73 BC, Spartacus and some seventy[10] followers escaped from the gladiator school of Lentulus Batiatus. Seizing the knives in the cook's shop and a wagon full of weapons, the slaves fled to the caldera of Mount Vesuvius, near modern day Naples. There they were joined by other rural slaves. Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... Lentulus Batiatus was the owner of the Roman gladiatorial school owner in Capua (near Mount Vesuvius) who owned Spartacus, the hero of the Third Servile War. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Satellite image of Santorini. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


The group overran the region, plundering and pillaging. Spartacus' intention was to leave Italy and return home.[citation needed] His chief aides were gladiators from Gaul and Germania, named Crixus, Castus, Gannicus and Oenomaus.[citation needed] The Senate sent an inexperienced[citation needed] praetor, Claudius Glaber (his nomen may have been Clodius; his praenomen is unknown), against the rebels, with a militia of about 3,000. They besieged the rebels on Vesuvius blocking their escape, but Spartacus had ropes made from vines and with his men climbed down a cliff on the other side of the volcano, to the rear of the Roman soldiers, and staged a surprise attack. Not expecting trouble from a handful of slaves, the Romans had not fortified their camp or posted adequate sentries.[citation needed] As a result, most of the Roman soldiers were still sleeping and killed in this attack, including Claudius Glaber.[citation needed] After this success many runaway slaves joined Spartacus until the group grew into an army of allegedly 140,000 escaped slaves. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Crixus (d. ... Castus can refer to: Lucius Artorius Castus, Roman general Castus and Emilius, Roman martyrs and saints Vitex agnus-castus Category: ... Oenomaus, a gladiator from Gaul,[1] escaped from the gladiatorial school of Lentulus Batiatus in Capua. ... In the Roman naming convention used in ancient Rome, male names typically contain three proper nouns which are classified as praenomen (or given name), nomen gentile (or Gens name) and cognomen. ... In the Roman naming convention used in ancient Rome, male names typically contain three proper nouns which are classified as praenomen (or given name), nomen gentile (or Gens name) and cognomen. ...


Military success continues

The Fall of Spartacus.
The Fall of Spartacus.

Spartacus is credited as an excellent military tactician and his experience as a former auxiliary soldier made him a formidable enemy, but his men were mostly former slave labourers who lacked military training. They hid out on Mount Vesuvius which at that time was dormant and heavily wooded, and this fortunately enabled them to train properly for the fight with the Romans. Image File history File links Spartacus_II.JPG The fall of Spartacus (http://www. ... Image File history File links Spartacus_II.JPG The fall of Spartacus (http://www. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ...


Due to the short amount of time expected before battle, Spartacus delegated training to the Gladiators who trained small groups, and these then trained other small groups and so on leading to the development of a fully-trained army in a matter of weeks.[citation needed] By spring they marched north towards Gaul. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


The Senate, alarmed, sent two consuls, Gellius Publicola and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus, each with a legion, against the rebels. Crixus wanted to stay in Italy and plunder but Spartacus wanted to continue North[citation needed] and so, along with around 30,000 Gaul and Germanic[citation needed] supporters, Crixus left Spartacus and was later defeated by Publicola. Crixus was killed in battle. Spartacus first defeated Lentulus, and then Publicola. At Picenum in central Italy, Spartacus defeated the consular armies, then pushed north. At Mutina (now Modena) they defeated yet another legion under Gaius Cassius Longinus, the Governor of Cisalpine Gaul ("Gaul this side of the Alps"). By now, Spartacus' many followers included women, children, and elderly men who tagged along. Lucius Gellius Publicola was one of two Consuls of the Roman Republic in 72 BCE along with Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus. ... Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus was one of two Consuls of the Roman Republic in 72 BCE along with Lucius Gellius Publicola. ... Crixus (d. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ...


Choice to remain in Italy

Apparently, Spartacus had intended to march his army out of Italy and into Gaul (now Belgium, Switzerland and France) or maybe even to Hispania to join the rebellion of Quintus Sertorius.[citation needed] There are theories that some of the non-fighting followers (some 10,000 or so) did, in fact, cross the Alps and return to their homelands.[citation needed] Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Alp redirects here. ...


The rest marched back south, and defeated two more legions under Marcus Licinius Crassus, who at that time was the wealthiest man in Rome. At the end of 72 BC, Spartacus was encamped in Rhegium (Reggio Calabria), near the Strait of Messina. Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73 BC - 72 BC - 71 BC 70 BC 69... Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in Calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy, dating back to the 8th century BC (see history below). ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina with names. ...



Spartacus' deal with Cilician pirates to get them to Sicily fell through. In the beginning of 71 BC, eight legions of Crassus isolated Spartacus's army in Calabria. With the assassination of Quintus Sertorius, the Roman Senate also recalled[citation needed] Pompey from Hispania; and Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus from Macedonia. In ancient geography, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) formed a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC - 71 BC - 70 BC 69 BC 68... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the Iberian Peninsula, and to two of the three provinces they created there: Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis (the third being Lusitania). ... Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus (c. ...


Spartacus managed to break through Crassus's lines and escape towards Brundisium (now Brindisi), but Pompey's forces intercepted them in Lucania, and the slaves were routed in a subsequent battle at the river Silarus, where Spartacus is believed to have fallen. According to Plutarch, "Finally, after his companions had taken to flight, he (Spartacus) stood alone, surrounded by a multitude of foes, and was still defending himself when he was cut down".[11] According to Appian, "Spartacus was wounded in the thigh with a spear and sank upon his knee, holding his shield in front of him and contending in this way against his assailants until he and the great mass of those with him were surrounded and slain"; also that "The body of Spartacus was not found".[12] Brundisium (Gr. ... For the mountain in Canada named after Lucania, see Mount Lucania. ... The Sele is a river in southwestern Italy. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Appian (c. ...


After the battle, legionaries found and rescued 3,000 unharmed Roman prisoners in their camp. 6,600 of Spartacus's followers were crucified along the via Appia (or the Appian Way) from Brundisium to Rome. Crassus never gave orders for the bodies to be taken down, thus travelers were forced to see the bodies for years, perhaps decades, after the final battle. For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... Remains of the Appian Way in Rome, Italy The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) is a famous road built by the Romans. ... The path of the Via Appia and of the Via Appia Traiana. ... Brundisium (Gr. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...



Around 5,000 slaves, however, escaped the capture. They fled north and were later destroyed by Pompey, who was coming back from Roman Iberia. This enabled him also to claim credit for ending this war. Pompey was greeted as a hero in Rome while Crassus received little credit or celebration. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


Modern depictions of Spartacus

Politics

François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture, also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (c. ... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... A revolutionary is somebody who wants a revolution, and seeks to promote, encourage, or lead the creation of one. ... For other uses, see Spartacist League (disambiguation). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Lynch (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, el Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, political figure, author, military theorist, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ...

Artistic

Film

  • Most famously, Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of Howard Fast's novel, as Spartacus, in 1960. The catchphrase "I'm Spartacus!" from this film has been referenced in a number of other films, television programs, and commercials.
  • Just before the members of The Wonders are about to play the biggest show of their careers during one of the final scenes of Tom Hanks' 1996 film That Thing You Do! the band's lead guitarist Lenny Haise asks, "Skitch, how did we get here?" Drummer Guy Patterson replies, "I led you here, sir, for I am Spartacus."
  • In 2004, Fast's novel was adapted as Spartacus, a made-for-TV movie or miniseries by the USA Network, with Goran Višnjić in the main role.

Kubrick redirects here. ... Howard Melvin Fast (11 November 1914, New York City - 12 March 2003, Old Greenwich, Connecticut) was a Jewish American novelist and television writer, who wrote also under the pen names E. V. Cunningham and Walter Ericson. ... Spartacus is a 1951 historical novel about the slave Spartacus written by Howard Fast that inspired the film by Stanley Kubrick. ... Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... Thomas Jeffrey Tom Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is a two-time Academy Award-, two-time Emmy-, four-time Golden Globe- and Screen Actors Guild Award-winning American film actor, director, voice-over artist, writer and film producer. ... For the song featured in this film, see That Thing You Do (song). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spartacus is a 2004 television adaptation of the Howard Fast novel, made by USA Network Pictures and distributed by USA Cable Entertainment LLC and Universal Home Entertainment. ... USA Network is a popular American cable television network with about 89 million household subscribers as of 2005. ... Goran Višnjić (pronounced // (VISH-nyich); born September 9, 1972) is a Croatian actor who has appeared in American films and television productions. ...

Literature

  • Howard Fast wrote the historical novel Spartacus.
  • Arthur Koestler wrote a novel about Spartacus called The Gladiators.
  • There is a novel Spartacus by the Scottish writer Lewis Grassic Gibbon.
  • Spartacus is a prominent character in the novel Fortune's Favorites by Colleen McCullough. McCullough subscribes to the theory that Spartacus was a renegade Roman soldier, but sticks to the historical account that his body was never found.
  • The Italian writer Rafaello Giovagnoli wrote his historical novel, Spartacus, in 1874. His novel has been subsequently translated and published in many European countries.
  • There is also a novel The students of Spartacus (Uczniowie Spartakusa) by the Polish writer Halina Rudnicka.
  • The Reverend Elijah Kellogg's Spartacus to the Gladiators at Capua has been used effectively by schoolboys to practise their oratory skills for ages.
  • Spartacus also appears in Conn Iggulden's Emperor Series in the book The Death of Kings.
  • Spartacus and His Glorious Gladiators, by Toby Brown, is part of the Dead Famous (series) of children's history books
  • In the Bolo novel Bolo Rising by William H. Keith, the character HCT "Hector" is based on Spartacus.

Howard Melvin Fast (11 November 1914, New York City - 12 March 2003, Old Greenwich, Connecticut) was a Jewish American novelist and television writer, who wrote also under the pen names E. V. Cunningham and Walter Ericson. ... Spartacus is a 1951 historical novel about the slave Spartacus written by Howard Fast that inspired the film by Stanley Kubrick. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... The Gladiators is the name of Arthur Koestlers novel about the Spartacus revolt in the Roman Empire. ... Spartacus (published 1933) is a historical novel by the Scottish writer Lewis Grassic Gibbon, first published under his real name of James Leslie Mitchell. ... This article is about the country. ... Lewis Grassic Gibbon (13 February 1901 – 7 February 1935), born James Leslie Mitchell, was a Scottish writer. ... Masters of Rome is a series of historical fiction novels by author Colleen McCullough (b. ... Colleen McCullough (born 1 June 1937) is an internationally acclaimed Australian author. ... Conn Iggulden is a British author, who mainly writes historical fiction. ... The Death of Kings is a novel by British author Conn Iggulden, and is the second book in the Emperor series, which follows the life of Julius Caesar. ... Dead Famous is the title of a series of books following the lives of famous people who are now dead - Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton are examples. ... William H. Keith, Jr. ...

Music

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Aram Ilich Khachaturian (Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան, Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян, Aram Ilič Hačaturjan) (June 6, 1903 – May 1, 1978) was a composer of classical music. ... Triumvirat was a German progressive rock trio that formed in 1969 in Cologne, Germany. ... Spartacus is an album by the German group Triumvirat. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeffrey Jeff Wayne is a musician mostly known for his musical version of H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds. ... Jeff Waynes Musical Version of Spartacus was a 1992 concept album by Jeff Wayne and others, telling the story of Roman gladiator, Spartacus. ...

Videogames

  • In the popular real-time strategy game Rome: Total War, Spartacus can be unlocked and fought against. If a player builds a colosseum or arena in a conquered city, then lets the city revolt, Spartacus will be the general of the revolted city. The rebel army led by Spartacus is extremely difficult and the player will have to use superior tactics to defeat it and reclaim the city. Others contradict this by saying that those with superior troop types such as archers, elephants, or ballistae make the fight against Spartacus rather easy.

A real-time strategy (RTS) video game is a strategic game that is distinctly not turn-based. ... Rome: Total War is a grand strategy computer game where players fight historical and fictious battles during the era of the Roman Republic, from 270 BCE to 14 CE. The game was developed by Creative Assembly and released on September 22, 2004. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... For other uses, see Arena (disambiguation). ... This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ...

Sport

This article is about the football club. ... Spartak (Russian: ; English:Spartacus) was the first and the largest All-Union Voluntary Sports Society of workers of state trade, producers cooperation, light industry, civil aviation, education, culture, health service etc. ... Spartakiad initially was the name of an international sports event that the Soviet Union attempted to oppose the Olympics. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... Fabian Cancellara (born March 18, 1981) is a Swiss professional road bicycle racer. ...

Other

References

  1. ^ (Russian) Валентин Лесков. Спартак. М.: Молодая гвардия, 1987
  2. ^ Plutarch, Crassus 8
  3. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 1.116
  4. ^ Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.8
  5. ^ William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities: "Gladiatores"
  6. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library Book 12
  7. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library Book 16
  8. ^ Theucidides, History of the Peloponnesian War 2.101
  9. ^ Tribes, Dynasts and Kingdoms of Northern Greece: History and Numismatics
  10. ^ Plutarch, Crassus, 8:1–2; Appian, Civil Wars, 1:116; Livy, Periochae, 95:2; Florus, Epitome of Roman History, 2.8; Plutarch claims 78 escaped, Livy claims 74, Appian "about seventy", and Florus says "thirty or rather more men".
  11. ^ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Crassus*.html
  12. ^ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Civil_Wars/1*.html
  13. ^ History of Spartak, fcspartak.ru (Russian)
  14. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, volume 24 (part 1), p. 286, Moscow, Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya publisher, 1976

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Appian (c. ... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Title page of the 3rd ed. ...

Bibliography

Classical authors

  • Appian. Civil Wars. Translated by J. Carter. (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1996)
  • Florus. Epitome of Roman History. (London: W. Heinemann, 1947)
  • Orosius. The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans. Translated by Roy J. Deferrari. (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1964).
  • Plutarch. Fall of the Roman Republic. Translated by R. Warner. (London: Penguin Books, 1972), with special emphasis placed on "The Life of Crassus" and "The Life of Pompey".
  • Sallust. Conspiracy of Catiline and the War of Jugurtha. (London: Constable, 1924)

Appian (c. ... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ...

Modern historiography

  • Bradley, Keith R. Slavery and Rebellion in the Roman World, 140 B.C.–70 B.C. Bloomington; Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989 (hardcover, ISBN 0-253-31259-0); 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-253-21169-7). [Chapter V] The Slave War of Spartacus, pp. 83–101.
  • Rubinsohn, Wolfgang Zeev. Spartacus' Uprising and Soviet Historical Writing. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1987 (paperback, ISBN 0-9511243-1-5).
  • Spartacus: Film and History, edited by Martin M. Winkler. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 1405131802; paperback, ISBN 1405131810).
  • Trow, M.J. Spartacus: The Myth and the Man. Stroud, United Kingdom: Sutton Publishing, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7509-3907-9).
  • Genner, Michael. "Spartakus. Eine Gegengeschichte des Altertums nach den Legenden der Zigeuner". Two volumes. Paperback. Trikont Verlag, Munchen 1979/1980. Vol 1 ISBN 3-88167-053-X Vol 2 ISBN 3-88167-060-2

Honours

Spartacus Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Spartacus. Spartacus Peak (Vrah Spartak vr&h spar-tak) is a 650m peak in Delchev Ridge, Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island, Antarctica. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... Location of the South Shetlands The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 kilometres north of the Antarctic Peninsula. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Spartacus
  • Spartacus Article and full text of the Roman and Greek sources.
  • "Spartacus"—Movie starring Kirk Douglas and Sir Peter Ustinov
  • "Spartacus"—TV-Mini-series starring Goran Višnjić and Alan Bates l

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spartacus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1859 words)
Spartacus, who was believed to be a Thracian (born in what is now Sandanski in present-day Bulgaria), was enslaved by the Romans and led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy during the period 73 BC to 71 BC.
Spartacus took his ideas from Blossius of Cumae, which can be summarized as: "the last will be the first [and vice versa]." (This is also a frequent Biblical quote of Jesus Christ, made early in the next century after Spartacus.).
Spartacus has been compared by many to American Civil War abolitionist John Brown, citing both their "extreme" views of slavery (respective of their time periods),and willingness to follow their own path, regardless of the consequences; in both cases they are killed due to their beliefs.
Spartacus (film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3072 words)
Spartacus was the biggest project of Kubrick's career at that point with a budget of twelve million dollars and a cast total of 10,500 actors, which was very impressive for such a young director, although his contract did not give him complete control over the filming.
Spartacus is chosen, and is defeated, but his vanquisher (Woody Strode) refuses to kill him, instead throwing his trident into the elevated spectators' box and trying to reach them.
Spartacus was actually one of numerous rebel slaves, and not the sole leader of the Roman slave revolt, as portrayed in the film.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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