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Encyclopedia > Spanish language
Spanish, Castilian
Español, Castellano 
Pronunciation: /espaˈɲol/, /kasteˈʎano/ or /kasteˈʝano/
Spoken in: Spanish speaking countries:
Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Spain, Uruguay, Venezuela, and a significant numbers of the populations of Andorra, Belize, Gibraltar, and the United States.
Total speakers: First languagea: 322[1]– c. 400 million[2][3][4]
Totala: 400–500 million[5][6][7]
aAll numbers are approximate. 
Ranking: 2 (native speakers)[8][9][10][11]
3 (total speakers)
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Gallo-Iberian
     Ibero-Romance
      West Iberian
       Spanish, Castilian 
Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant
Official status
Official language in: 21 countries
Regulated by: Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (Real Academia Española and 21 other national Spanish language academies)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: es
ISO 639-2: spa
ISO 639-3: spa

Spanish (español ) or Castilian (castellano) is an Indo-European, Romance language that originated in northern Spain, and gradually spread in the Kingdom of Castile and evolved into the principal language of government and trade. It was taken to Africa, the Americas, and Asia Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. Look up español in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ... West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Spanish alphabet traditionally consists of the following 29 letters: A, B, C, Ch, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ll, M, N, Ñ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z This includes the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet plus the letter... The following is a list of the 20 countries where Spanish or Castillian is an official language: List of countries where English is an official language List of countries where French is an official language Categories: | ... The Association of Spanish Language Academies (Spanish: ) was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish speaking world. ... The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Español. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... Flag A map of the Spanish East Indies Capital Manila (Cebu until 1595, Bacolor 1762-1763, Iloilo 1898) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Colony Monarch  - 1565-1598 Philip II  - 1896-1898 Alfonso XIII Governor-General  - 1565-1572 Miguel López de Legazpi  - 1898 Diego de los R... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...


Today, between 322 and 400 million people speak Spanish as a native language,[12][6] making it the world's second most-spoken language by native speakers (after Mandarin Chinese).[13][14] Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ...

Contents

Hispanosphere

See also: Spanish Empire
Hispanic World
     Spanish identified as the sole Official language     Spanish identified as a Co-Official language
The Countries of the Hispanic-influenced World

It is estimated that the combined total of native and non-native Spanish speakers is approximately 500 million, likely making it the third most spoken language by total number of speakers (after English and Chinese).[12][6]
Today, Spanish is an official language of Spain, most Latin American countries, and Equatorial Guinea; 21 nations speak it as their primary language. Spanish also is one of six official languages of the United Nations. Mexico has the world's largest Spanish-speaking population, and Spanish is the second most-widely spoken language in the United States [15] and the most popular studied foreign language in U.S. schools and universities.[16][17] Global internet usage statistics for 2007 show Spanish as the third most commonly used language on the internet, after English and Chinese. [18] An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,427 × 628 pixels, file size: 29 KB, MIME type: image/png) Western Sahara and New Mexico removed, as they dont have Spanish as official language. ...  Countries where Spanish has official status. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... UN redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Internet usage in percent CIA figures for world internet use c. ...


Naming and origin

Spaniards tend to call this language español (Spanish) when contrasting it with languages of other states, such as French and English, but call it castellano (Castilian), that is, the language of the Castile region, when contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician (gallego; native name: galego), Basque (euskara) and Catalan (catalán; native name: català) (known as Valencian in the Valencian Community). This reasoning also holds true for the language's preferred name in some Hispanic American countries. In this manner, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State, as opposed to las demás lenguas españolas (lit. the other Spanish languages). Article III reads as follows: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Languages of Spain are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Spain. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Map of countries that make up Hispanic America Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica) is strictly and traditionally the region comprising the American countries inhabited by Spanish-speaking populations. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...

El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. (…) Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas…

Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. (…) The other Spanish languages shall also be official in their respective Autonomous Communities…

The name castellano is, however, widely used for the language as a whole in Latin America. Some Spanish speakers consider castellano a generic term with no political or ideological links, much as "Spanish" is in English. Often Latin Americans use it to differentiate their own variety of Spanish as opposed to the variety of Spanish spoken in Spain, or variety of Spanish which is considered as standard in the region.[citation needed]


Classification and related languages

Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages: Asturian (asturianu), Galician (galego), Ladino (dzhudezmo/spanyol/kasteyano), and Portuguese (português). Catalan, an East Iberian language which exhibits many Gallo-Romance traits, is more similar to the neighbouring Occitan language (occitan) than to Spanish, or indeed than Spanish and Portuguese are to each other. West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ...


Spanish and Portuguese share similar grammars and vocabulary as well as a common history of Arabic influence while a great part of the peninsula was under Islamic rule (both languages expanded over Islamic territories). Their lexical similarity has been estimated as 89%.[8] See Differences between Spanish and Portuguese for further information. Arabic has had a great influence on other languages, especially in vocabulary. ... Territory under Muslim control in the Iberian Peninsula in 790, 900, 1100 and 1300 AD // Conquest (710–756) 710 - The Berber General Tariq ibn Ziyad takes Tangier. ... Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı Ä°mparatorluÄŸu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Ladino

Further information: Ladino language

Ladino, which is essentially medieval Spanish and closer to modern Spanish than any other language, is spoken by many descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century. Ladino speakers are currently almost exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece or the Balkans: current speakers mostly live in Israel and Turkey, with a few pockets in Latin America. It lacks the Native American vocabulary which was influential during the Spanish colonial period, and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Spanish. It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not found in standard Castilian, including vocabulary from Hebrew, some French, Greek and Turkish, and other languages spoken where the Sephardim settled. Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Amerindian languages are the native languages of the Americas. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


Ladino is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly olim (immigrants to Israel) who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardi communities, especially in music. In the case of the Latin American communities, the danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian.


A related dialect is Haketia, the Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco. This too tended to assimilate with modern Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Vocabulary comparison

Spanish and Italian share a very similar phonological system. At present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at 82%.[8] As a result, Spanish and Italian are mutually intelligible to various degrees. The lexical similarity with Portuguese is greater, 89%, but the vagaries of Portuguese pronunciation make it less easily understood by Hispanophones than Italian. Mutual intelligibility between Spanish and French or Romanian is even lower (lexical similarity being respectively 75% and 71%[8]): comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who have not studied the language is as low as an estimated 45% - the same as of English. The common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than oral communication would. In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar. ... In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ...

Latin Spanish Galician Portuguese Catalan Italian French Romanian English
nos nosotros nós/nosoutros nós¹ nosaltres noi² nous³ noi we
fratrem germānum (acc.) (lit. "true brother", i.e. not a cousin) hermano irmán irmão germà fratello frère frate brother
dies Martis
(Classical)

tertia feria
(Ecclesiastical) For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ...

martes martes terça-feira dimarts martedì mardi marți Tuesday
cantiō (nem, acc.), canticum canción canción canção cançó canzone chanson cântec song
magis or plus más
(archaically also plus)
máis mais
(archaically also chus)
més
(archaically also pus)
più plus mai more
manum sinistram (acc.) mano izquierda

also (mano siniestra)

man esquerda mão esquerda
(archaically also sẽestra)
mà esquerra mano sinistra main gauche mâna stângă left hand
nihil or nullam rem natam (acc.)
(lit. "no thing born")
nada nada/ren nada
(archaically also rem)
res niente/nulla rien/nul nimic nothing

1. also nós outros in early modern Portuguese (e.g. The Lusiads)
2. noi altri in Southern Italian dialects and languages
3. Alternatively nous autres
Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) is considered one of the finest and most important works in Portuguese literature. ... Map of languages and dialects of Italy Italy currently has one national language: Standard Italian. ...


History

Main article: History of the Spanish language
A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, in medieval Castilian.
A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, in medieval Castilian.

Spanish evolved from Vulgar Latin, with minor influences from Arabic during the Andalusian period and from Basque and Celtiberian, and some Germanic languages via the Visigoths. Spanish developed along the remote cross road strips among the Alava, Cantabria, Burgos, Soria and La Rioja provinces of Northern Spain, as a strongly innovative and differing variant from its nearest cousin, Leonese speech, with a higher degree of Basque influence in these regions (see Iberian Romance languages). Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita, Spanish vida), palatalization (Latin annum, Spanish año, and Latin anellum, Spanish anillo) and diphthongation (stem-changing) of short e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin terra, Spanish tierra; Latin novus, Spanish nuevo). Similar phenomena can be found in other Romance languages as well. The Spanish language developed from vulgar Latin, with loan-words from Basque in the north and Arabic in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula (see Iberian Romance languages). ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A page from the original codex, starting from line 1922 El Cantar del Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The Arabic influence on the Spanish language has been significant, due to the Islamic presence in the Iberian peninsula between AD 711 and AD 1492. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... lava (Basque Araba, Spanish lava) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... Soria is a city in north-central Spain, the capital of the province of Soria in the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. ... Capital Logroño Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 16th  5 045 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 17th   301 084  0,7%  59,68/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  riojano/a Statute of Autonomy June 9, 1982 Parliament  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate seats  4  1 President Pedro Sanz... Asturian, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias and León in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as Mirandese). ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


During the Reconquista, this northern dialect from Cantabria was carried south, and remains a minority language in the northern coastal Morocco. For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ...


The first Latin-to-Spanish grammar (Gramática de la Lengua Castellana) was written in Salamanca, Spain, in 1492, by Elio Antonio de Nebrija. When it was presented to Isabel de Castilla, she asked, "What do I want a work like this for, if I already know the language?", to which he replied, "Your highness, the language is the instrument of the Empire."[citation needed] Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... Statue of Antonio de Nebrija, outside of the Biblioteca Nacional de España, in Madrid. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ...


From the 16th century onwards, the language was taken to the Americas and the Spanish East Indies via Spanish colonization, and in that epoch, Spanish became the principal language of politics and Art in most of Europe[citation needed]; French replaced it in the 18th century. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Flag A map of the Spanish East Indies Capital Manila (Cebu until 1595, Bacolor 1762-1763, Iloilo 1898) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Colony Monarch  - 1565-1598 Philip II  - 1896-1898 Alfonso XIII Governor-General  - 1565-1572 Miguel López de Legazpi  - 1898 Diego de los R... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ...


In the 20th century, Spanish was introduced to Equatorial Guinea and the Western Sahara, the United States, such as in Spanish Harlem, in New York City, that had not been part of the Spanish Empire. For details on borrowed words and other external influences upon Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language. 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Spanish Harlem, also known as El Barrio, is a neighborhood in the East Harlem area of New York City, in the north-eastern part of the borough of Manhattan. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... It has been suggested that History_of_the_Spanish_language#Influences be merged into this article or section. ...


Characterization

A defining characteristic of Spanish was the diphthongization of the Latin short vowels e and o into ie and ue, respectively, when they were stressed. Similar sound changes are found in other Romance languages, but in Spanish they were significant. Some examples: In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ...

  • Lat. petra > Sp. piedra, It. pietra, Fr. pierre, Port./Gal. pedra "stone".
  • Lat. moritur > Sp. muere, It. muore, Fr. meurt / muert, Rom. moare, Port./Gal. morre "die".

Peculiar to early Spanish (as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, and possibly due to a Basque substratum) was the mutation of Latin initial f- into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongate. Compare for instance: The Gascon language is an Occitan dialect mostly spoken in Gascony (in the French départements of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, a part of Lot-et-Garonne, a part of Haute-Garonne, and a part of Ariège), and in the small Spanish... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Lat. filium > It. figlio, Port. filho, Gal. fillo, Fr. fils, Occitan filh (but Gascon hilh) Sp. hijo (but Ladino fijo);
  • late Lat. *fabulare > Lad. favlar, Port./Gal. falar, Sp. hablar;
  • but Lat. focum > It. fuoco, Port./Gal. fogo, Sp./Lad. fuego.

Some consonant clusters of Latin also produced characteristically different results in these languages, for example: In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ...

  • Lat. clamare, acc. flammam, plenum > Lad. lyamar, flama, pleno; Sp. llamar, llama, lleno. However, in Spanish there are also the forms clamar, flama, pleno; Port. chamar, chama, cheio; Gal. chamar, chama, cheo.
  • Lat. acc. octo, noctem, multum > Lad. ocho, noche, muncho; Sp. ocho, noche, mucho; Port. oito, noite, muito; Gal. oito, noite, moito.

Geographic distribution

Main article: Hispanophone
Spanish language
Don Quixote
Names for the language
History
Pronunciation
Dialects
Orthography
Grammar:
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The Hispanophone world; the dark blue indicates where it is the official language, and the light blue indicates where it is used as a second language.
The Hispanophone world; the dark blue indicates where it is the official language, and the light blue indicates where it is used as a second language.

Spanish is one of the official languages of the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the United Nations, and the Union of South American Nations.  Countries where Spanish has official status. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Spanish language developed from vulgar Latin, with loan-words from Basque in the north and Arabic in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula (see Iberian Romance languages). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Spanish (Español) is a language originating in North-Central Spain which is spoken throughout Spain, most countries in the Americas, the Philippines and Equatorial Guinea. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Spanish language has nouns that express concrete objects, groups and classes of objects, qualities, feelings and other abstractions. ... The Spanish language has a range of pronouns that in some ways work quite differently from English ones. ... The Spanish language uses adjectives in a similar way to English and most other Indo-European languages. ... The Spanish language has a relatively large number of prepositions. ... Spanish verbs are one of the most complex areas of Spanish grammar. ... Main article: Spanish verbs This is a paradigm of Spanish verbs, that is, a set of conjugation tables, for the model regular verbs and for some of the most common irregular verbs (see the article on Spanish irregular verbs for common patterns of irregularity that may help understanding this paradigm). ... Spanish verbs are a complex area of Spanish grammar, with many combinations of tenses, aspects and moods (up to fifty conjugated forms per verb). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 24 KB) Summary Map of Hispanophone world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 24 KB) Summary Map of Hispanophone world. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The Organization of Ibero-American States is an international organisation, comprising Latin America, Spain and Portugal. ... UN redirects here. ...  Full member states  Observer States Political centres Brasília[1] Quito Cochabamba Bogota , Largest city São Paulo Official languages 4 Dutch English Portuguese Spanish Ethnic groups (2007) 7 White (46%) Mulatto (21%) Mestizo (21%) Amerindian (6%) Black (4%) Mixed (<1%) Other (2%) Demonym South American Member states 12 Argentina...


Europe

Spanish is an official language of Spain, the country for which it is named and from which it originated. It is also spoken in Gibraltar, though English is the official language.[19] Likewise, it is spoken in Andorra though Catalan is the official language.[20][21] It is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany.[22] Spanish is an official language of the European Union. In Switzerland, Spanish is the mother tongue of 1.7% of the population, representing the first minority after the 4 official languages of the country.[23] Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


The Americas

Latin America

Most Spanish speakers are in Latin America; of most countries with the most Spanish speakers, only Spain is outside of the Americas. Mexico has most of the world's native speakers. Nationally, Spanish is the official language of Argentina, Bolivia (co-official Quechua and Aymara), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico , Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay (co-official Guaraní[24]), Peru (co-official Quechua and, in some regions, Aymara), Uruguay, and Venezuela. Spanish is also the official language (co-official with English) in the U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico.[25] Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Guaraní (gwah-rah-nee) [gwarani] (local name: avañeẽ) is a language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Spanish has no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize; however, per the 2000 census, it is spoken by 43% of the population. [26][27] Mainly, it is spoken by Hispanic descendants who remained in the region since the 17th century; however, English is the official language.[28] Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ...


Spain colonized Trinidad and Tobago first in 1498, leaving the Carib people the Spanish language. Also the Cocoa Panyols, laborers from Venezuela, took their culture and language with them; they are accredited with the music of "Parang" ("Parranda") on the island. Because of Trinidad's location on the South American coast, the country is much influenced by its Spanish-speaking neighbors. A recent census shows that more than 1,500 inhabitants speak Spanish.[citation needed] In 2004, the government launched the Spanish as a First Foreign Language (SAFFL) initiative in March 2005.[29] Government regulations require Spanish to be taught, beginning in primary school, while thirty percent of public employees are to be linguistically competent within five years.[citation needed] The government also announced that Spanish will be the country's second official language by 2020, beside English.[citation needed] 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman) Drawing of a Carib woman Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, live in the Lesser Antilles islands. ... The Cocoa Panyols (or Cocoa Payols) are a ethnic group in Trinidad & Tobago. ... Parang is a musical style which fuses together Venezuelan and Calypso influences to create up beat tempos with a Spanish style and is popular in Trinidad & Tobago and various areas of Venezuela. ... The Parranda Parranda La Flor de San Joaquín It is distinguished as parranda or aguinaldo of parranda a musical form pertaining to the coast zone of the states Aragua and Carabobo, in Venezuela, where the tambora (drum) becomes present as accompanying instrument and melody shows an important afrovenezuelan influence. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Spanish is important in Brazil because of its proximity to and increased trade with its Spanish-speaking neighbors; for example, as a member of the Mercosur trading bloc.[30] In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President, making Spanish available as a foreign language in secondary schools.[31] In many border towns and villages (especially on the Uruguayan-Brazilian border), a mixed language known as Portuñol is spoken.[32] Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay , Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ... The Riverense Portuñol or Riverense Portunhol, also known as Fronterizo or Fronteiriço is a mixed language (linguasphere language code 51-AAA-am [1]) formed from Portuguese and Spanish. ...


United States

In the 2006 census, 44.3 million people of the U.S. population were Hispanic or Latino by origin;[33] 34 million people, 12.2 percent, of the population older than 5 years speak Spanish at home.[34]Spanish has a long history in the United States (many south-western states were part of Mexico and Spain), and it recently has been revitalized by much immigration from Latin America. Spanish is the most widely taught foreign language in the country. [35] Although the United States has no formally designated "official languages," Spanish is formally recognized at the state level beside English; in the U.S. state of New Mexico, 30 per cent of the population speak it. It also has strong influence in metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles, Miami and New York City. Spanish is the dominant spoken language in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory. In total, the U.S. has the world's fifth-largest Spanish-speaking population.[36] Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Spanish is the second most-common language in the United States after English. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ...


Philippines

Spanish was an official language of the Philippines but was never spoken by a majority of the population. Movements for most of the masses to learn the language were started but were stopped by the friars. Its importance fell in the first half of the 20th century following the U.S. occupation and administration of the islands. The introduction of the English language in the Philippine government system put an end to the use of Spanish as the official language. The language lost its official status in 1973 during the Ferdinand Marcos administration.[37] Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ...


Spanish is spoken mainly by small communities of Filipino-born Spaniards, Latin Americans, and Filipino mestizos (mixed race), descendants of the early colonial Spanish settlers. Throughout the 20th century, the Spanish language has declined in importance compared to English and Tagalog. According to the 1990 Philippine census, there were 2,658 native speakers of Spanish.[38] No figures were provided during the 1995 and 2000 censuses; however, figures for 2000 did specify there were over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano, a Spanish based creole language spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga. Some other sources put the number of Spanish speakers in the Philippines around two to three million; however, these sources are disputed. In Tagalog, there are 4,000 Spanish words and around 6,000 Spanish words in Visayan and other Philippine languages as well. [39] Today Spanish is offered as a foreign language in Philippines schools and universities. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire and continues to be used today in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Chavacano (as a proper noun, as a derivative of the Spanish adjective chabacano, and as it is generally accepted in literature, the broadcast media, and Zamboangueños) or Chabacano (as the Spanish adjective) is the common name for the several varieties of the Philippine Creole Spanish spoken in the Philippines. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ... This article is about the province of Cavite. ... Zamboanga refers to a place in western Mindanao in the Philippines. ...


Africa

In Africa, Spanish is official in the UN-recognised but Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara[citation needed] (co-official Arabic) and Equatorial Guinea (co-official French and Portuguese). Today, nearly 200,000 refugee Sahrawis are able to read and write in Spanish,[40] and several thousands have received university education in foreign countries as part of aid packages (mainly Cuba and Spain). In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the predominant language when counting native and non-native speakers (around 500,000 people), while Fang is the most spoken language by a number of native speakers.[41][42] It is also spoken in the Spanish cities in continental North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla) and in the autonomous community of Canary Islands (143,000 and 1,995,833 people, respectively). Within Northern Morocco, a former Franco-Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to Spain, approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish.[43] It is spoken by some communities of Angola, because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War, and in Nigeria by the descendants of Afro-Cuban ex-slaves. In Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal, Spanish can be learned as a second foreign language in the public education system.[44] In 2008, Cervantes Institutes centers will be opened in Lagos and Johannesburg, the first one in the Sub-Saharan Africa[45] Arabic redirects here. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... ... The Plazas de Soberanía. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC, at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Cuban boys playing in Trinidad, Cuba The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans of African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community. ... Logo of the Instituto Cervantes The Instituto Cervantes is a worldwide non-profit organisation created by the Spanish government in 1991 and dedicated to the teaching of Spanish as a second language, as well as the promotion of Spanish and Hispanic American culture throughout non-Spanish-speaking countries. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ...


Oceania

Among the countries and territories in Oceania, Spanish is also spoken in Easter Island, a territorial possession of Chile. According to the 2001 census, there are approximately 95,000 speakers of Spanish in Australia, 44,000 of which live in Greater Sydney[citation needed], where the older Mexican, Colombian, and Spanish populations and newer Argentine, El Salvadorian and Uruguyan communities live.[citation needed] For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


The island nations of Guam, Palau, Northern Marianas, Marshall Islands and Federated States of Micronesia all once had Spanish speakers, since Marianas and Caroline Islands were Spanish colonial possessions until late 19th century (see Spanish-American War), but Spanish has since been forgotten. It now only exists as an influence on the local native languages and also spoken by Hispanic American resident populations. The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is a commonwealth in political union with the United States of America at a strategic location in the West Pacific Ocean. ... Mariana Islands (sometimes called The Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called the Ladrone Islands) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the Pacific Ocean. ... Sunset at Colonia on Yap The Caroline Islands form a large archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. ... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000... Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ...


Dialectal variation

There are important variations among the regions of Spain and throughout Spanish-speaking America. In countries in Hispanophone America, it is preferable to use the word castellano to distinguish their version of the language from that of Spain, thus asserting their autonomy and national identity. In Spain the Castilian dialect's pronunciation is commonly regarded as the national standard, although a use of slightly different pronouns called laísmo of this dialect is deprecated. More accurately, for nearly everyone in Spain, "standard Spanish" means "pronouncing everything exactly as it is written,"[citation needed] an ideal which does not correspond to any real dialect, though the northern dialects are the closest to it. In practice, the standard way of speaking Spanish in the media is "written Spanish" for formal speech, "Madrid dialect" (one of the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian) for informal speech.[citation needed] Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article should be translated from material at es:Loísmo. ...


Voseo

Main article: Voseo

Spanish has three second-person singular pronouns: , usted, and in some parts of Latin America, vos (the use of this pronoun and/or its verb forms is called voseo). In those regions where it is used, generally speaking, and vos are informal and used with friends; in other countries, vos is considered an archaic form. Usted is universally regarded as the formal address (derived from vuestra merced, "your grace"), and is used as a mark of respect, as when addressing one's elders or strangers. Countries that feature voseo. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... For other uses of number, see number (disambiguation). ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ...

Countries that feature voseo, in blue. The deeper the blue is, the more predominant voseo is. Countries where voseo is a regionalism are in green; countries without voseo are in red.
Countries that feature voseo, in blue. The deeper the blue is, the more predominant voseo is. Countries where voseo is a regionalism are in green; countries without voseo are in red.

Vos is used extensively as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular pronoun, although with wide differences in social consideration, in many countries of Latin America, including Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, the central mountain region of Ecuador[citation needed], the State of Chiapas in Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, the Paisa region of Colombia and the State of Zulia in Venezuela. There are some differences in the verbal endings for vos in each country. In Argentina, Uruguay, and increasingly in Paraguay and some Central American countries, it is also the standard form used in the media, but the media in other countries with voseo generally continue to use usted or except in advertisements, for instance. Vos may also be used regionally in other countries. Depending on country or region, usage may be considered standard or (by better educated speakers) to be unrefined. Interpersonal situations in which the use of vos is acceptable may also differ considerably between regions. Image File history File links Mapa_-_Paises_voseantes. ... Image File history File links Mapa_-_Paises_voseantes. ... Countries that feature voseo. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Chiapas Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - Total 74,211 km² (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... Paisa (pl. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Estado Zulia is one of the 23 states (estados) into which Venezuela is divided. ...


Ustedes

Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns. The Spanish dialects of Latin America have only one form of the second-person plural for daily use, ustedes (formal or familiar, as the case may be, though vosotros non-formal usage can sometimes appear in poetry and rhetorical or literary style). In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and vosotros (familiar). The pronoun vosotros is the plural form of in most of Spain, but in the Americas (and certain southern Spanish cities such as Cádiz or Seville, and in the Canary Islands) it is replaced with ustedes. It is notable that the use of ustedes for the informal plural "you" in southern Spain does not follow the usual rule for pronoun-verb agreement; e.g., while the formal form for "you go", ustedes van, uses the third-person plural form of the verb, in Cádiz or Seville the informal form is constructed as ustedes vais, using the second-person plural of the verb. In the Canary Islands, though, the usual pronoun-verb agreement is preserved in most cases. Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ...


Some words can be different, even embarrassingly so, in different Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms, even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognise specifically American usages. For example, Spanish mantequilla, aguacate and albaricoque (respectively, "butter", "avocado", "apricot") correspond to manteca, palta, and damasco, respectively, in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. The everyday Spanish words coger (to catch, get, or pick up), pisar (to step on) and concha (seashell) are considered extremely rude in parts of Latin America, where the meaning of coger and pisar is also "to have sex" and concha means "vulva". The Puerto Rican word for "bobby pin" (pinche) is an obscenity in Mexico, and in Nicaragua simply means "stingy". Other examples include taco, which means "swearword" in Spain but is known to the rest of the world as a Mexican dish. Pija in many countries of Latin America is an obscene slang word for "penis", while in Spain the word also signifies "posh girl" or "snobby". Coche, which means "car" in Spain, for the vast majority of Spanish-speakers actually means "baby-stroller", in Guatemala is means "pig",[citation needed] while carro means "car" in some Latin American countries and "cart" in others, as well as in Spain. For other uses, see Taco (disambiguation). ...


The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy), together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of Spanish Language Academies), exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides. Due to this influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language (Standard Spanish) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media. The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... The Association of Spanish Language Academies (Spanish: ) was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish speaking world. ... Standard Spanish or Neutral Spanish is a linguistic variety or lect that is considered a correct educated standard for the Spanish language. ...


Writing system

Main article: Spanish orthography

Spanish is written using the Latin alphabet, with the addition of the character ñ (eñe, representing the phoneme /ɲ/, a letter distinct from n, although typographically composed of an n with a tilde) and the digraphs ch (che, representing the phoneme /tʃ/) and ll (elle, representing the phoneme /ʎ/). However, the digraph rr (erre fuerte, "strong r", erre doble, "double r", or simply erre), which also represents a distinct phoneme /r/, is not similarly regarded as a single letter. Since 1994, the digraphs ch and ll are to be treated as letter pairs for collation purposes, though they remain a part of the alphabet. Words with ch are now alphabetically sorted between those with ce and ci, instead of following cz as they used to, and similarly for ll.[46][47] Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ...


Thus, the Spanish alphabet has the following 28 letters (or 29 if one counts w, used only in foreign names and loanwords):[48]

a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.

With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as México (see Toponymy of Mexico), pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling. A typical Spanish word is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including y) or with a vowel followed by n or s; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel. Image of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Mendoza codex The toponymy of Mexico entails the origin, history, and use of the name Mexico, which dates back to 14th century Mesoamerica. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... This article is about word stress in some languages, sometimes called accent. For accent meaning the pronunciation of a particular group of people, see Accent (linguistics). ...


The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones, especially when one of them is a stressed word and the other one is a clitic: compare el ("the", masculine singular definite article) with él ("he" or "it"), or te ("you", object pronoun), de (preposition "of" or "from"), and se (reflexive pronoun) with ("tea"), ("give") and ("I know", or imperative "be"). This article is about the term in linguistics. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ...


The interrogative pronouns (qué, cuál, dónde, quién, etc.) also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives (ése, éste, aquél, etc.) can be accented when used as pronouns. The conjunction o ("or") is written with an accent between numerals so as not to be confused with a zero: e.g., 10 ó 20 should be read as diez o veinte rather than diez mil veinte ("10,020"). Accent marks are frequently omitted in capital letters (a widespread practice in the early days of computers where only lowercase vowels were available with accents), although the RAE advises against this. The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ...


When u is written between g and a front vowel (e or i), if it should be pronounced, it is written with a diaeresis (ü) to indicate that it is not silent as it normally would be (e.g., cigüeña, "stork", is pronounced /θiˈɣweɲa/; if it were written cigueña, it would be pronounced /θiˈɣeɲa/. Ä ä Ö ö Ãœ ü The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ...


Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question ( ¿ ) and exclamation marks ( ¡ ).


Sounds

Main article: Spanish phonology

The phonemic inventory listed in the following table includes phonemes that are preserved only in some dialects, other dialects having merged them (such as yeísmo); these are marked with an asterisk (*). Sounds in parentheses are allophones. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Yeísmo is a distinctive feature of many dialects of the Spanish language, which consists of the merger of the palatal lateral approximant phoneme (written ll) with another phoneme, usually realized as a palatal fricative or affricate. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ...

Table of Spanish consonants[49]
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p   b t   d tʃ   (ɟʝ) k   g
Fricative f   (v) *θ   (ð) s   (z) ʝ    x
Approximant (β̞ (ð̞ (ɣ˕
Trill r
Tap ɾ
Lateral l

By the 16th century, the consonant system of Spanish underwent the following important changes that differentiated it from neighboring Romance languages such as Portuguese and Catalan: In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ...

  • Initial /f/, when it had evolved into a vacillating /h/, was lost in most words (although this etymological h- is preserved in spelling and in some Andalusian dialects is still aspirated).
  • The bilabial approximant /β̞/ (which was written u or v) merged with the bilabial oclusive /b/ (written b). There is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic b and v in contemporary Spanish, excepting emphatic pronunciations that cannot be considered standard or natural.
  • The voiced alveolar fricative /z/ which existed as a separate phoneme in medieval Spanish merged with its voiceless counterpart /s/. The phoneme which resulted from this merger is currently spelled s.
  • The voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ʃ/, which evolved into the modern velar sound /x/ by the 17th century, now written with j, or g before e, i. Nevertheless, in most parts of Argentina and in Uruguay, y and ll have both evolved to /ʒ/ or /ʃ/.
  • The voiced alveolar affricate /dz/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ts/, which then developed into the interdental /θ/, now written z, or c before e, i. But in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Americas this sound merged with /s/ as well. See Ceceo, for further information.

The consonant system of Medieval Spanish has been better preserved in Ladino and in Portuguese, neither of which underwent these shifts. The voiced bilabial approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Ceceo is a phenomenon in the Spanish language whereby the voiceless interdental fricative (International Phonetic Alphabet , the th in think) is used in place of the voiceless dental fricative . ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ...


Lexical stress

Spanish is a syllable-timed language, so each syllable has the same duration regardless of stress.[50][51] Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth last. The tendencies of stress assignment are as follows:[52] In every language, speech emission is based on a sequence of elementary sound units; some of them play a specific part: through their isochronic recurrence, they produce the rhythm of the sentences. ...

  • In words ending in vowels and /s/, stress most often falls on the penultimate syllable.
  • In words ending in all other consonants, the stress more often falls on the ultimate syllable.
  • Preantepenultimate stress occurs rarely and only in words like guardándoselos ('saving them for him/her') where a clitic follows certain verbal forms.

In addition to the many exceptions to these tendencies, there are numerous minimal pairs which contrast solely on stress. For example, sabana, with penultimate stress, means 'savannah' while sábana, with antepenultimate stress, means 'sheet'; límite ('boundary'), limite ('[that] he/she limits') and limité ('I limited') also contrast solely on stress. In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ...


Phonological stress may be marked orthographically with an acute accent (ácido, distinción, etc). This is done according to the mandatory stress rules of Spanish orthography which are similar to the tendencies above (differing with words like distinción) and are defined so as to unequivocally indicate where the stress lies in a given written word. An acute accent may also be used to differentiate homophones (such as for 'tea' and te The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


An amusing example of the significance of intonation in Spanish is the phrase ¿Cómo "cómo como"? ¡Como como como! ("What do you mean / 'how / do I eat'? / I eat / the way / I eat!").


Grammar

Main article: Spanish grammar

Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two-gender system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb, but limited inflection of nouns, adjectives, and determiners. (For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and Spanish irregular verbs.) Spanish (Español) is a language originating in North-Central Spain which is spoken throughout Spain, most countries in the Americas, the Philippines and Equatorial Guinea. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Determiners are words which quantify or identify nouns. ... Spanish verbs are one of the most complex areas of Spanish grammar. ... Spanish verbs are a complex area of Spanish grammar, with many combinations of tenses, aspects and moods (up to fifty conjugated forms per verb). ...


It is right-branching, uses prepositions, and usually, though not always, places adjectives after nouns. Its syntax is generally Subject Verb Object, though variations are common. It is a pro-drop language (allows the deletion of pronouns when pragmatically unnecessary) and verb-framed. In linguistics, branching is the general tendency towards a given order of words within sentences and smaller grammatical units within sentences (such as subordinate propositions, prepositional phrases, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... A pro-drop language (from pronoun-dropping) is a language where pronouns can be deleted when they are in some sense pragmatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate). ... In linguistics, verb framing is a term used to describe how verb phrases in different languages vary regarding whether the main verb tends to encode the manner of motion or the direction of motion. ...


Samples

English Spanish IPA phonemic transcription
(abstract phonemes) 1
IPA phonetic transcription
(actual sounds) 2
Spanish
 
español
 
/es.paˈɲol/
 
[e̞s̺.päˈɲo̞l]
[e̞s̻.päˈɲo̞l]
(Castilian) Spanish
 
 
 
 
castellano
 
 
 
 
/kas.teˈʎa.no/
 
/kas.teˈʝa.no/
[käs̪.t̪e̞ˈʎä.no̞]
[käs̪.t̪e̞ˈʝ̞ä.no̞]
[käh.t̪e̞ˈʒä.no̞]
English
 
inglés
 
/iNˈgles/ 3
 
[iŋˈgle̞s̺]
[iŋˈgle̞s̻]
Yes
 

 
/ˈsi/
 
[ˈs̺i]
[ˈs̻i]
No No /ˈno/ [ˈno̞]
Hello Hola /ˈo.la/ [ˈo̞.lä]
How are you? ¿Cómo estás (tú)? (informal)
¿Cómo está (usted)? (formal)
 
/ˈko.mo esˈtas/
 
 
[ˈko̞.mo̞ e̞s̪ˈt̪äs̺]
[ˈko̞.mo̞ e̞s̪ˈt̪äs̻]
[ˈko̞.mo̞ ɛhˈt̪æ̞h]
Good morning!
 
 
Buenos días
 
 
/ˈbue.nos ˈdi.as/
 
 
[ˈbwe̞.no̞z̪ ˈð̞i.äs̺]
[ˈbwe̞.no̞z̪ ˈð̞i.äs̻]
[ˈbwɛ.nɔh ˈð̞i.æ̞h]
Good afternoon/evening!
 
 
Buenas tardes
 
 
/ˈbue.nas ˈtaR.des/ 3
 
 
[ˈbwe̞.näs̪ ˈt̪äɾ.ð̞e̞s̺]
[ˈbwe̞.näs̪ ˈt̪äɾ.ð̞e̞s̻]
[ˈbwɛ.næ̞h ˈt̪æ̞ɾ.ð̞ɛh]
Good night!
 
 
Buenas noches
 
 
/ˈbue.nas ˈno.tʃes/
 
 
[ˈbwe̞.näs̺ ˈno̞.tʃe̞s̺]
[ˈbwe̞.näs̻ ˈno̞.tʃe̞s̻]
[ˈbwɛ.næ̞h ˈnɔ.tʃɛh]
Goodbye
 
 
Adiós
 
 
/aˈdios/
 
 
[äˈð̞jo̞s̺]
[äˈð̞jo̞s̻]
[æ̞ˈð̞jɔh]
Please Por favor /poR faˈboR/ 3 [po̞r fäˈβ̞o̞r]
Thank you
 
 
Gracias
 
 
/ˈgRa.θias/ 3
/ˈgRa.sias/ 3
 
[ˈgɾä.θjäs̺]
[ˈgɾä.s̻jäs̻]
[ˈgɾ æ̞.s̻jæ̞h]
Excuse me
 
Perdón
 
/peRˈdoN/ 3
 
[pe̞ɾˈð̞o̞ŋ]
[pe̞ɾˈð̞o̞n]
I'm sorry
 
Lo siento
 
/lo ˈsieN.to/ 3
 
[lo̞ ˈs̺je̞n̪.t̪o̞]
[lo̞ ˈs̻je̞n̪.t̪o̞]
Hurry! (informal)
 
¡Date prisa!
¡Apúrate! 
/ˈda.te ˈpRi.sa/ 3
 
[ˈd̪ä.t̪e̞ ˈpɾi.s̺ä]
[ˈd̪ä.t̪e̞ ˈpɾi.s̻ä]
Because Porque /ˈpoR.ke/ 3 [ˈpo̞r.ke̞]
Why? ¿Por qué? /poR ˈke/ 3 [po̞r ˈke̞]
Who?
 
¿Quién?
 
/ˈkieN/ 3
 
[ˈkje̞ŋ]
[ˈkje̞n]
What? ¿Qué? /ˈke/ [ˈke̞]
When? ¿Cuándo? /ˈkuaN.do/ 3 [ˈkwän̪.d̪o̞]
Where? ¿Dónde? /ˈdoN.de/ 3 [ˈdo̞n̪.d̪e̞]
How? ¿Cómo? /ˈko.mo/ [ˈko̞.mo̞]
How much? ¿Cuánto? /ˈkuaN.to/ 3 [ˈkwän̪.t̪o̞]
I do not understand No entiendo /no eNˈtieN.do/ 3 [nŏ̞ e̞n̪ˈt̪je̞n̪.d̪o̞]
Help me (please) (formal)
 
Help me! (informal)
 
Ayúdeme
 
¡Ayúdame!
 
/aˈʝu.de.me//aˈʝu.da.me/ [äˈʝ̞u.ð̞e̞.me̞]
[äˈʒu.ð̞e̞.me̞]
[äˈʝ̞u.ð̞ä.me̞]
[äˈʒu.ð̞ä.me̞]
Where's the bathroom?
 
 
¿Dónde está el baño?
 
 
/ˈdoN.de esˈta el ˈba.ɲo] 3
 
 
[ˈdo̞n̪.d̪e̞ e̞s̪ˈt̪ä ĕ̞l ˈbä.ɲo̞]
[ˈdo̞n̪ d̪ɛhˈt̪ä ĕ̞l ˈβ̞ä.ɲo̞]
Do you speak English? (informal)
 
 
¿Hablas inglés?
 
 
/ˈa.blas iNˈgles/ 3
 
 
[ˈä.β̞läs̺ iŋˈgle̞s̺]
[ˈä.β̞läs̻ iŋˈgle̞s̻]
[ˈæ̞.β̞læ̞h iŋˈglɛh]
Cheers! (toast)
 
¡Salud!
 
/saˈlud/
 
[s̺aˈluð̞]
[s̻aˈluð̞]
1 Phonemic representation of the abstract phonological entities (phonemes), 2 phonetic representation of the actual sounds pronounced (phones). In both cases, when several representations are given, the first one corresponds to the dialect in the recording (Castilian with yeísmo) and the rest to several other dialects not in the recording.
3 Capital /N/ and /R/ (non-standard IPA) are used here to represent the nasal and rhotic archiphonemes that neutralize the phonemic oppositions [m]-[n]-[ɲ] and [r]-[ɾ], respectively, in syllabe coda and intra-cluster positions.

See also

Chavacano (as a proper noun, as a derivative of the Spanish adjective chabacano, and as it is generally accepted in literature, the broadcast media, and Zamboangueños) or Chabacano (as the Spanish adjective) is the common name for the several varieties of the Philippine Creole Spanish spoken in the Philippines. ... The following is a list of the 20 countries where Spanish or Castillian is an official language: List of countries where English is an official language List of countries where French is an official language Categories: | ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Frespañol, is a portmanteau of the words Français and Español, which mean French and Spanish. ... The Hispanic world The term Hispanic culture pertains to cultures found in Spain and to the cultures of any country that was colonized by the early Spanish conquistadors. ...  Countries where Spanish has official status. ... Instituto Cervantes enblem Created by the Spanish government in 1991 the Instituto Cervantes is a worldwide non-profit organisation dedicated to the teaching of Spanish as a second language, as well as the promotion of Spanish and Hispanic American culture throughout non-Spanish-speaking countries. ... Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... Headquarters Paris, France , Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... This is a list of English language words whose origin can be traced to the Spanish language as Spanish loan words. Many of them are identical in other Romance languages (mainly Portuguese), but their ultimate origin is from Spanish. ... This is an initial list of many Spanish words that come from Germanic languages. ... Llanito (IPA: ) or Yanito is an Andalusian Spanish based vernacular spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Palenquero (also Palenque) is a Spanish-based Creole spoken in Colombia. ... Papiamento or Papiamentu is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao (the so-called ABC islands). ... Portuñol (also Portunhol), a portmanteau of the words Português (Portuguese) and Español (Spanish), is a mixed language based on Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For the James L. Brooks motion picture, see Spanglish (film). ... A number of Creole languages are based on the Spanish language. ... This is a list of famous or notable poets who wrote through the medium of the Spanish language. ... This article is a summary of Spanish profanity, referred to in the Spanish language as lenguaje soez (low language), maldiciones (curse words), malas palabras (bad words), insultos (insults), vulgaridades (vulgarities), juramentos (oaths - swearing), palabrotas (lit. ... In Spanish language, the native, popular proverbs receive the name of refranes or dichos. ...

Local varieties

Peninsular Spanish

Latin American Spanish
The Andalusian dialect (also called andaluz) of European Spanish is spoken in Andalusia (including Gibraltar). ... State flag of the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands, Spain. ... Spanish () or Castilian () is an Iberian Romance language. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Other Variants
There are a series of significant differences in the way the Spanish language is spoken in the 20 or so countries and territories where it is an official language. ... Bolivian Spanish is spoken by 3,483,700 Bolivians. ... Caliche or Salvadoreño is a collection of slang words unique to Salvadoran Spanish. ... This FSLN logo is an example of the voseo form used in Nicaraguan media. ... The Caro y Cuervo Institute in Bogotá promotes the good use of spanish in Colombia The Colombian spanish language is the variation of Spanish language spoken in Colombia, which have some distinctive features in comparison to the Spanish spoken in Spain and in other countries of Latin America. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In Cuba, the Spanish language has some different features than in other dialects. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... New Mexican Spanish is a variant or dialect of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Peruvian Coast Spanish is the form of the Spanish language spoken in the coastal region of Peru. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Main urban centers of Rioplatense Spanish. ... Spanish is the second most-common language in the United States after English. ... Venezuelan Spanish is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken in Venezuela. ...

Spanish is a language of historical and cultural significance in the Philippines. ...

References

  1. ^ Encarta-Most Spoken languages
  2. ^ Ciberamerica-Castellano
  3. ^ El Nuevo Diario
  4. ^ Terra Noticias
  5. ^ Universidad de México[unreliable source?]{{subst:Sup|(cached URL)}}
  6. ^ a b c Instituto Cervantes ("El Mundo" news)
  7. ^ Yahoo Press Room
  8. ^ a b c d Spanish. ethnologue.
  9. ^ Most widely spoken languages by Nations Online
  10. ^ Most spoken languages by Ask Men
  11. ^ Encarta Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People
  12. ^ a b Universidad de México[unreliable source?]{{subst:Sup|(cached URL)}}<
  13. ^ Ethnologue, 1999
  14. ^ CIA World Factbook, Field Listing - Languages (World).
  15. ^ CIA The World Factbook United States
  16. ^ United States Census BureauPDF (1.86 MiB), Statistical Abstract of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003
  17. ^ Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher LearningPDF (129 KiB), MLA Fall 2002.
  18. ^ Internet World Users by Language. Miniwatts Marketing Group (2008).
  19. ^ CIA World Factbook — Gibraltar
  20. ^ Andorra — People. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  21. ^ Background Note: Andorra. U.S. Department of State: Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  22. ^ BBC Education — Languages, Languages Across Europe — Spanish.
  23. ^ Switzerland's Four National Languages. all-about-switzerland.info. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  24. ^ Ethnologue - Paraguay(2000). Guaraní is also the most-spoken language in Paraguay by its native speakers.
  25. ^ "Puerto Rico Elevates English", the New York Times, January 29, 1993. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. 
  26. ^ Population Census 2000, Major Findings. Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Budget Management, Belize (2000). Archived from the original on 2007-06-21. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  27. ^ Belize Population and Housing Census 2000
  28. ^ CIA World Factbook — Belize
  29. ^ The Secretariat for The Implementation of Spanish, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  30. ^ MERCOSUL, Portal Oficial (Portuguese)
  31. ^ BrazilMag.com, August 08, 2005.
  32. ^ Lipski, John M. (2006). "Too close for comfort? the genesis of “portuñol/portunhol”". Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. ed. Timothy L. Face and Carol A. Klee, 1–22. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
  33. ^ U.S. Census Bureau Hispanic or Latino by specific origin.
  34. ^ U.S. Census Bureau 1. Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2006, U.S. Census Bureau 2. 34,044,945 People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2006
  35. ^ Foreign language class enrollments in U.S. schools of higher learningPDF (129 KiB), MLA Fall 2002.
  36. ^ Facts, Figures, and Statistics About Spanish, American Demographics, 1998.
  37. ^ 1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, thecorpusjuris.com, <http://www.thecorpusjuris.com/laws/constitutions/8-philippineconstitutions/68-1973-constitution.html>. Retrieved on 6 April 2008  (See Article XV, Section 3(3)
  38. ^ Ethnologue. Ethnologue Report for the Philippines.
  39. ^ 1,816,389 Spanish-speakers — “Cuadro 3. Número de hispanohablantes en países y territorios donde el español no es lengua oficial”, Demografía de la lengua española, cvc.cervantes.es, citing Calendario Atlante de Agostini 1997, 1998, <http://cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/anuario_98/moreno/cuadro03.htm>. Retrieved on 6 April 2008 . The Cervantes Institute source is not a primary or even a secondary source, as it just quotes an Italian almanac (Calendario Atlante de Agostini 1997, Novara, Instituto Geográfico de Agostino, 1996, p. 315, that gives, without sources, 3% of the population speaking Spanish). To this the Cervantes Institute adds 689.000 speakers of Chavacano (not Spanish proper, but a Spanish creole, spoken mostly in Zamboanga City and in the provinces of Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte, and Basilan. It is also spoken in some areas of Cavite, Davao, and Cotabato), according to data from A. Quilis (La lengua española en cuatro mundos, Madrid, Mapfre, 1992, p. 82), without specifying if in the first estimate these Chavacano speakers were already counted or not (thus raising the total figure to 2.450.000). The Cervantes site does state that these estimate contradict the Census. One should also notice that English is an official language in the Philippines, unlike Spanish (see The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines).
  40. ^ El refuerzo del español llega a los saharauis con una escuela en los campos de Tinduf
  41. ^ Ethnologue -Equatorial Guinea ((2000)
  42. ^ CIA World Factbook - Equatorial Guinea (Last updated 20 September, 2007)
  43. ^ Morocco.com, The Languages of Morocco.
  44. ^ El idioma español en África subsahariana
  45. ^ El Cervantes espera duplicar las matrículas para el 2012 dentro de la 'gran operación de comunicación' del español
  46. ^ Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, 1st ed.: "[...] en el X Congreso de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, celebrado en 1994, se acordó adoptar el orden alfabético latino universal, en el que la ch y la ll no se consideran letras independientes. En consecuencia, las palabras que comienzan por estas dos letras, o que las contienen, pasan a alfabetizarse en los lugares que les corresponden dentro de la c y de la l, respectivamente. Esta reforma afecta únicamente al proceso de ordenación alfabética de las palabras, no a la composición del abecedario, del que los dígrafos ch y ll siguen formando parte."
  47. ^ "No obstante, en el X Congreso de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, celebrado en 1994, se acordó adoptar para los diccionarios académicos, a petición de varios organismos internacionales, el orden alfabético latino universal, en el que la ch y la ll no se consideran letras independientes. En consecuencia, estas dos letras pasan a alfabetizarse en los lugares que les corresponden dentro de la C (entre -cg- y -ci-) y dentro de la L (entre -lk- y -lm-), respectivamente." Real Academia Española, Explanation at http://www.spanishpronto.com/ (in Spanish and English)
  48. ^ Abecedario (Spanish). Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española (2005). Retrieved on 2008-06-23.
  49. ^ Martínez-Celdrán et al (2003:255)
  50. ^ Cressey (1978:152)
  51. ^ Abercrombie (1967:98)
  52. ^ Eddington (2000:96)

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External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Spanish
Wikipedia
Spanish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
Spanish
Wiktionary
Spanish language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
  • (Spanish) Dictionary of the RAE Real Academia Española's official Spanish language dictionary
  • Spanish evolution from Latin
  • Spanish phrasebook on WikiTravel
  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of A First Spanish Reader by Erwin W. Roessler and Alfred Remy.
  • Spanish - BBC Languages


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Spanish Language Translations: Translate into Spanish Language. (971 words)
The Spanish language is the most widely spoken of the Romance languages, both in terms of number of speakers and the number of countries in which it is the dominant language.
The history of the Spanish language in Spain and the origin of the dialects of Spain begin with the linguistic evolution of Vulgar Latin.
Spanish language uses 3 letters in translation to the English alphabet: 'n' and the letter combinations 'ch' and 'll', which are treated as single translation letters.
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