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Encyclopedia > Spanish literature
Literature of Spain
• Medieval literature
• Renaissance
Miguel de Cervantes
• Baroque
• Enlightenment
Romanticism
Realism
• Modernism
Generation of the 98
• Novecentism
Generation of the 27
• Literature subsequent to the Civil War

The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. For Spanish American literature specifically, see Latin American literature. Here, in this article we use the notion of Spanish literature as the literature of Spain. It includes Spanish poetry, prose and novels. The Spanish Renaissance literature is the literature written in Spain during the Renaissance. ... Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (IPA: in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. ... The Spanish Baroque literature is the literature written in Spain during the Baroque. ... The Spanish Enlightenment literature is the literature of Spain written during the Age of Enlightenment. ... Romanticism is a revolutionary movement affecting all aspects in life, which in the arts breaks from the traditions of Neoclassicism, favouring ideas of fantasy, imagination and the spirits irrational power. ... Spanish Realist literature is the literature written in Spain during the second half of the 19th century, following the Realist movement which prevailed in Europe. ... Spanish Modernist literature is the literature of Spain written during the Modernism (beginning of the 20th century) as the arts evolved and opposed the previous Realism. ... // Background The Generation of 98 (also called Generation of 1898 or, in Spanish, Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898). ... The Generation of 27 (Spanish Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as magical realism. ... Spanish poetry is the poetic tradition of Spain. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday [[speech. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ...


Spanish literature is the name given to the literary works written in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish authors world-wide. Due to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and it is very diverse. Some major movements can be identified within it.

Contents

Early Spanish Literature and the Middle Ages

The Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta
The Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A page from the original codex, starting from line 1922 El Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. ... A cantar de gesta is the Spanish version of the Old French chanson de geste. ...

Jarchas

It was believed that Spanish literature began with the anonymous epic poem, the Poema del Cid, written around 1140AD. However, in 1948, Hebrew scholar Samuel M. Stern published 24 jarchas, "short lyric poems written in very archaic Spanish," which he had found in a synagogue in Cairo. Stern and Spanish scholar Emilio García Gómez later found more jarchas, and since 1948 their sum total is over fifty. The jarcha is usually the lament of a lower-class woman for her absent sweetheart. It is the final three- or four-lined stanza of the muwashshah, a form of verse used by Arabic and Hebrew poets from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. The jarcha is written in Mozarabic, the dialect of the Christians who lived in Moslem Spain and by bilingual Arabs. Because the Arabic and Hebrew characters lacked certain vowel signs, scholars have trouble in transliterating the jarchas. The lack of knowledge of the Mozarabic language also hinders interpretations. A kharja (spanish jarcha) is a special piece of a popular song which was appended to Arabic and Hebrew poems (muwashakhas) in Medieval Spain. ... A page from the original codex, starting from line 1922 El Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Emilio García Gómez (1905 – 31 May 1995) was a Spanish Arabist, literary historian and critic, whose talent as a poet enriched his many translations from Arabic. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... Muwashshah is an Arab poetic form and an eastern secular musical genre which uses muwashshah texts for lyrics. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ...


Poema del Cid

The Poem del Cid was written about a real man--his battles, conquests, and daily life. The poet, name unknown, wrote the epic in about 1140 and Cid supposedly died forty years before in 1099. This epic represents realism, because nothing was exaggerated and the details are very real, even the geography correctly portrays the areas in which Cid traveled and lived. Unlike other European epics, the poem is not idealized and there is no presence of supernatural beings. It has assonance instead of rhyme and its lines vary in length, the most common length being fourteen syllables. This type of verse is known as mester de juglaria (verse form of the minstrels). The epic is divided into three parts, also known as cantos. A page from the original codex, starting from line 1922 El Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into iambic heptameter. ...

  • Part I is about Ruy Diaz de Vivar, who is called Cid (meaning my Lord) by the Moors. His current task is to collect the tributes from the Moorish territory owed to his king, Alfonso VI of Leon. Cid's enemy accuses him of taking some of these tributes and the king exiles him from Leon and Castilla. Before he leaves, he places his wife, Doña Jimena, and his two daughters, Doña Elvira and Doña Sol, in the Monastery of Cardeña. The canto then accounts of raids in the Moorish territory in which Cid and his men get rich off of the spoils.
  • Part II begins with Cid's capture of the city of Valencia. He brings his family to live with him. It is discovered that the Infantes (princes) de Carrión, the nephews to the king, are the enemies who caused Cid's exile. They plot to marry his daughters to take some of his wealth. The king acts on behalf of his nephews and pardons Cid and allows the marriages. Cid suspects that something bad will happen from the marriages.
  • Part III shows that the Infantes are cowards in battles with the Moors. They are made fun of and decided to get revenge by attacking their wives. They set out for Carrión with their wives and an escort, Felix Muñoz, the cousin of the daughters. Once on the journey, they send the escort ahead of them, steal their wives' great dowries (including two beautiful swords) and beat them and leave them for dead. Muñoz suspects trouble and returns to his cousins and takes them to receive help. Cid seeks to right the wrongs done to his daughters and a trial is held. A duel is held between some of Cid's men and the Infantes in which the Infantes loose. In the middle of the trial, a message was sent from the kings of Navarra and Aragon, proposing to marry their sons to Cid's daughters. These marriages take place after the defeat of the Infantes.

Mester de Juglaría

Medieval Spanish poets recognized this form as one written by the minstrels (juglares) and composed of varying line length and use of assonance instead of rhyme. These poems were sung to uneducated audiences, nobles and peasants alike. Mester de juglaría (Ministry of jongleury) is a Castilian-language literature genre from XII and XIII century, transmited orally by juglares who made their living by telling and singing these stories in public places and palaces together with performing short theatral scenes, acrobacy or otherwise diverting the public. ...


Mester de Clerecía

This Castilian narrative poetry became popular in the thirteenth century. It is the verse form of the learned poets, usually clerics (hence the name 'clerecía'). These poets carefully counted the number of syllables in each line and strived to achieve perfect lines. The line form is the Alexandrine line (14 syllables) with consonantal rhyme in stanzas of four lines each. This form is also known as the cuaderna vía or the fourfold way, and was borrowed from France and was popular until the late fourteenth century. Popular themes of these poets were: Christian legends, lives of saints, and tales from classical antiquity. The poems were cited to villagers in public plazas. Two traits separate this form from the mester de juglaría: didacticism and erudition. Castilian priest and poet Gonzalo de Berceo was one of the greatest followers of the mester de clerecía. All of his works were religious and two of the most well-known are Milagros de Nuestra Señora (about the miracles worked by the Virgin Mary) and Vida de Santa Oria. Fourteenth century poet Juan Ruíz, also known as the Arcipreste de Hita, used the cuadernia vía in parts of his famous work Libro de buen amor. He introduced sixteen syllable lines. Mester de Clerecía (Ministry of Clergy) is a Castilian literature genre that can be understood as an opposition and surpassing of Mester de Juglaría. ... Gonzalo de Berceo was born in the end of the 12th century in the Riojan village of Berceo, close to the major Benedictine monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. ... Juan Ruiz (ca. ...


Spanish Prose

Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century when King Alfonso X el Sabio of Castilla gave support and recognition to the writing form. He, with the help of his groups of intellectuals, directed the composition of many prose works including Las siete partidas, the first modern book of laws of the land written in the people's language. Another work was La primera crónica general which accounted for the history of Spain from the creation until the end of Alfonso's father's reign, San Fernando. It is the first national history ever written. For his direction of these works and many others he directed, Alfonso X is called the father of Spanish prose. His nephew, Don Juan Manuel is famous for his prose work El Conde Lucanor which is a frame story or short stories within an overall story. In this work, the Conde Lucanor seeks advice from his wise counselor, Patronio, who gives the advice through the telling of stories. Juan Manuel also wrote lesser-known works such as El libro de los estados on the social classes and El libro del caballero y escudero on philosophical discussions. Toward the end of the Middle Ages, writer Fernando del Pulgar (1436-1490?) created a new type of prose named the verbal portrait. This form is demonstrated by Pulgar's work Claros varones de Castilla in which he represents the detailed lives of twenty-four distinguished contemporaries. He explores their moral and psychological natures as well as physical traits. Pulgar was the official historian of the monarchs Fernando and Isabel, the famous Catholic Monarchs of Spain. This position gave him close encounters with the characters in this book, making the work realistic and detailed. Alfonso X and his court. ... Don Juan Manuel, Infante of Castile (May 5? 1282–1349), son of the infante Don Manuel and Beatrix of Savoy, and grandson of St. ... Don Juan Manuels Libro de los ejemplos del conde Lucanor y de Patronio, known commonly as El Conde Lucanor or Libro de los ejemplos (original Old Castilian: Libro de los enxiemplos del Conde Lucanor et de Patronio), one of the earliest works of prose in Castilian Spanish. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ...


Lyric Poetry of the Middle Ages

Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages can be divided into three groups: the jarchas, the popular poems originating from folk-songs sung by commoners, and the courtly poetry of the nobles. Alfonso X el Sabio fits into the third group with his series of three hundred poems, written in Galician: Las cantigas de Santa María. Another poet, Juan Ruíz, or the Arcipreste de Hita is an outstanding lyricist of the fourteenth century. His only work, Libro de buen amor is a framework tale in which he includes translations from Ovid, satires, little poems called serranillas, twenty-nine fables, a sermon on Christian armor, and many lyric poems that praise the Virgin Mary. Poet Íñigo López de Mendoza, the Marqués de Santillana (1398-1458) begins to show the movement away from the traditions of the Middle Ages. He shows a knowledge of Latin authors and familiarity with the works of Dante and Petrarch. Mendoza was also the first to introduce the sonnet into Spanish literature. The last great poet of the Middle Ages is Jorge Manrique. He is famous for his work which laments the death of his father, Coplas que hizo por la muerte de su padre. In this piece, Manrique shows classical feelings by expressing himself in a universal manner (all things come to an end). He is still considered a poet of the Middle Ages in that he finds peace and finality in religion. Alfonso X and his court. ... Juan Ruiz (ca. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... From the c. ... Jorge Manrique Jorge Manrique (ca1440 – 1479) is a major Spanish poet, whose main work, the Coplas a la muerte de su padre (Stanzas about the Death of his Father), is still read today. ... Jorge Manrique (1440 – 1479) was a Spanish poet who actively participated in the coflicts of the era of Juan II. He fought on the side of Isabella of Castile, but during the defense of his right to become the king he died in a battle. ...


The Renaissance

Main article: Spanish Renaissance literature

During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance occurs. The literary production increased exponentially. Some outstanding poets of this century are Juan de Mena and Íñigo López de Mendoza (Marquess of Santillana). The Spanish literature of the Middle Ages concludes with the work La Celestina by Fernando de Rojas. The Spanish Renaissance literature is the literature written in Spain during the Renaissance. ... Juan de Mena (1411-1456) was a Spanish poet from Cordova. ... Íñigo López de Mendoza, marqués de Santillana (August 19, 1398 - March 25, 1458), Castilian poet, was born at Carrión de los Condes in Old Castile. ... The Celestina (used as title, synecdoche, one of the characters of the book actually called Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea or Libro de Calisto y Melibea y de la puta vieja Celestina) is a novel published anonymously by Fernando de Rojas (about whom we know little) in 1499. ... Fernando de Rojas (c. ...


In the Renaissance important topics are: the Renaissance poetry, with Garcilaso de la Vega and Juan Boscán; the religious literature, with Fray Luis de León, San Juan de la Cruz, and Santa Teresa de Jesús; and the Renaissance prosa, with the anonymous El Lazarillo de Tormes. The principal features of the Renaissance were the revival of learning based on classical sources, the rise of courtly patronage, the development of perspective in painting, and the advancements of science. For the Peruvian writer, Garcilaso de la Vega, see Inca Garcilaso de la Vega Garcilaso de la Vega (ca. ... Juan Boscán Almogáver (1490?–September 21, 1542), Spanish poet, was born about the close of the 15th century. ... Fray Luis de León (Cuenca, La Mancha Spain 1527 – 1591) was a scholar and poet of the Spanish Golden Age. ... Saint John of the Cross (Juan de la Cruz) was a Spanish Carmelite friar, born on June 24, 1542 at Fontiveros, a small village near Avila. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... Title page of the 1554 edition The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes and of His Fortunes and Adversities is a Spanish novel, published anonymously, 1554, in Alcalá de Henares in Spain, and, in 1557, in Antwerp, Flanders, then under Spanish rule. ...


The most important characteristics of the Renaissance are:

  • The language in this epoch is dominated by the naturality and simplicity, which avoids the affectation, the amaneramiento and the over-searched phrase. Thus the vocabulary and the syntax will be simple.
  • The preferred themes are, fundamentally, the love, conceived from the platonic point of view; the nature, as somewhat idyllic (bucolic); the pagan mythology, from which the histories of gods and the female beauty are reflected, following always the same classical ideal. In relation to these themes mentioned, various Renaissance points exist, some of them taken from the classical world:
    • The Carpe Diem, whose translation would be "catch the day" or "take advantage of the moment". It advises the enjoyment of the life before the arrival of the old age.
    • The female beauty, described always following the same plan: blond youth, of serene, clear eyes, of white skin, red lips, rosy cheeks, etc.
    • The Beatus Ille or praise of the life in the field, apart from the material things, as opposed to the life in the city, with its dangers and intrigues.
    • The Locus Emoenus or description of a perfect and idyllic nature.

The Baroque

Main article: Spanish Baroque literature
See also: Spanish Golden Age#Literature
Cervantes's Don Quixote is considered the most emblematic work in the canon of Spanish literature and a founding classic of Western literature

In the Baroque of the 17th century important topics are: the prose of Francisco de Quevedo and Baltasar Gracián; also the theater is remarkable (Lope de Vega, Pedro Calderon de la Barca, and Tirso de Molina), as well as the poetry with Luis de Góngora (who is a Culteranist) and Francisco de Quevedo (who is a Conceptist). In the works of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra remarkable novels are: La Galatea, and Don Quixote de la Mancha. The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music. The Spanish Baroque literature is the literature written in Spain during the Baroque. ... The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... Image File history File links Cervantes, Don Quixote (1605) - title page of the first edition. ... Image File history File links Cervantes, Don Quixote (1605) - title page of the first edition. ... Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (IPA: in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. ... (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas (September 17, 1580 – September 8, 1645) was a Spanish writer during the . ... Baltasar Gracián y Morales (January 8, 1601 - December 6, 1658), Spanish prose writer, was born at Calatayud (Aragon). ... Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ... Pedro Calderón de la Barca (January 17, 1600 - May 25, 1681), Spanish dramatist and poet, was born at Madrid. ... Tirso de Molina (October, 1571 - March 12, 1648) was a Spanish dramatist and poet. ... Luis de Góngora, in a portrait by Diego Velázquez. ... Culteranismo is a stylistic movement of the Baroque period of Spanish history that is also commonly referred to as Gongorismo (after Luis de Góngora). ... Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas (September 17, 1580 – September 8, 1645) was a Spanish writer during the . ... Conceptismo is a stylistic movement of the Baroque period of Spanish history. ... Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 - April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... La Galatea was Cervantes first full-length puplication, published in 1585, soon after his return from Algiers in the custody of Barbary pirates. ... Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right) Don Quixote de la Mancha (IPA: ) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...


The Baroque is characterized by the following points:

  • Pessimism: The Renaissance did not obtain its purpose of imposing the harmony and the perfection in the world, just as the humanists intended, neither had done the man happier; the wars and the social inequalities continued to be present; the pain and the calamities were common in the whole Europe. An intellectual pessimism got installed, which accentuated as time passed; this shows united to the unangry character that the comedies of that epoch give testimony and the rascality in which the picaresque novels are based.
  • Disillusion: As the Renaissance ideals failed and in the case of Spain, the political power was being dispelled, the disillusion continues and arises in the literature, that in many cases recalls that of two centuries before, with the Dance of the Death or the Manrique's Couplets to the death of its father. Quevedo says that life is formed by "successions of deceased" : in them get converted the born, since the diapers to the mortise with the weak bodies are covered. In conclusion, nothing has importance, only one must obtain the eternal salvation.
  • Worry about the passing of time.
  • Loss of confidence in the Renaissance ideals.

The Enlightenment

Main article: Spanish Enlightenment literature

In the Enlightenment of the 18th century, with the arrival of "the lights" to Spain, important topics are: the prose of Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, and José Cadalso; the lyric of the Salmantine school (with Juan Meléndez Valdés), the lyric of the Madrilenian group (with the story-tellers Tomás de Iriarte and Félix María Samaniego), and the lyric of the Sevillian school; and also the theater, with Leandro Fernández de Moratín and Ramón de la Cruz. Enlightenment thinkers sought to apply systematic thinking to all forms of human activity, carrying it into to the ethical and governmental spheres in exploration of the individual, society and the state. The Spanish Enlightenment literature is the literature of Spain written during the Age of Enlightenment. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijoo e Montenegro Benito Jerónimo Feijoo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Galician (Spain) neoclassical monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Galicia and Spain. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... José de Cadalso y Vázquez (1741-1782), Spanish author, was born at Cádiz on the 8th of October 1741. ... Juan Meléndez Valdés (11 March 1754 - 24 May 1817) was a Spanish poet. ... Tomás de Iriarte (or Yriarte) y Oropesa (Puerto de la Cruz, La Orotava, island of Tenerife, September 18, 1750 Madrid, September 17, 1791), Spanish poet . ... Félix María de Samaniego (October 12, 1745—August 1801; born and died in Laguardia, Álava) was a Spanish fabulist, educated at Valladolid. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Ramón de la Cruz (March 28, 1731 - March 5, 1794), Spanish dramatist, was born at Madrid. ...


Three phases in the Spanish literature of the 18th century are distinguished:

  • Anti-Baroquism (approximately until 1750): It fights against the style of the last Baroque, which is considered excessively rhetorical and twisted. The recreational literature is not cultivated, but they are more interested in the essay and the satire, utilizing the language with simplicity and purity.
  • Neoclassicism (until the end of the 18th century): It is strongly influenced by the French and Italian classicism. The writers also imitate the old classics (Greek and Roman); its boom extended since the reign of Fernando VI until the end of the century.
  • Pre-Romanticism (final of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century): The influence of the English philosopher John Locke, together to that of the French Étienne Bonnot of Condillac, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Denis Diderot, will cause a new feeling, dissatisfied with the tyranny of the reason, that emphasizes the right of the individuals to express their personal emotions (repressed then by the neoclassicals), among which them figures fundamentally the love. This current announces the decadence of the Neoclassicism and opens the doors to the Romanticism.

The Romanticism

In the Romanticism (principle of the 19th century) important topics are: the poetry of José de Espronceda and other poets; the prose, that can have several forms (the historical novel, the scientific prose, the description of regional customs, the journalism —where Mariano José de Larra can be mentioned—); the theater, with Ángel de Saavedra (Duke of Rivas), José Zorrilla, and other authors. In the latter romanticism (post-romanticism) some appear:Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer and Rosalía de Castro. Some anti-romantic poets are Ramón de Campoamor and Gaspar Núñez de Arce. In part a revolt against aristocratic, social, and political norms of the Enlightenment period and a reaction against the rationalization of nature, in art and literature Romanticism stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror, and the awe experienced in confronting the sublimity of nature. It elevated folk art, nature and custom. Romanticism is a revolutionary movement affecting all aspects in life, which in the arts breaks from the traditions of Neoclassicism, favouring ideas of fantasy, imagination and the spirits irrational power. ... José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnacion de Espronceda y Delgado (March 25, 1808-May 23, 1842) was among the most important Spanish poets of the 19th century. ... Mariano José de Larra (24 March 1809 - 13 February 1837) was a Spanish writer noted for satire and perhaps the best prose writer of 19th-century Spain. ... Ángel de Saavedra y Remírez de Baquedano, Duke of Rivas (March 19, 1791 - June 22, 1865), was a Spanish poet, dramatist and politician born in Córdoba. ... José Zorrilla y Moral (February 21, 1817 - January 23, 1893), was a Spanish poet and dramatist. ... Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer Gustavo Adolfo Domínguez Bastida, better known as Bécquer, (Seville February 17, 1836 – Madrid December 22, 1870) was a Spanish post-romanticist writer of poetry and short stories, now considered one of the most important figures in Spanish literature. ... Rosalía de Castro Rosalía Castro de Murguía better known as Rosalía de Castro (24 February 1837 – 15 July 1885) was a Galician writer and poet. ... Ramón María de las Mercedes de Campoamor y Campoosorio (September 24, 1817 -February 11, 1901), known as Ramón de Campoamor, Spanish realist poet and philosopher, was born at Navia (Asturias) on the 24th of September 1817. ... Gaspar Núñez de Arce (1834 - 12 February 1903) was a Spanish poet, dramatist and statesman. ...


The characteristics of the works of the Romanticism are:

  • Refusal of Neoclassicism. Contrary to the scrupulous severity and order with which the rules were observed in the 18th century, the romanticist writers combine the genres and verses of different measures, at times mixing the verse and the prose; in theater, the rule of the three units (place, space and time) is despised and they alternate the comedy with the drama.
  • Subjetivism. No matter which be the kind of the work, the exalted soul of the author pours in it all their feelings of dissatisfaction against a world that limits and brakes the flight of his desire about the love, the society, the patriotism, etc. They do so that the nature fuses with their state of spirit and it shows melancholic, tetric, mysterious, dark... as opposed to the neoclassicals, that barely showed interest about the landscape. The longings for passionate love, desire of happiness, and possession of the infinite, cause a discomfort in the romanticist, an immense deception that from time to time carries them to the suicide, as is the case of Mariano José of Larra.
  • Attraction by the nocturnal and mysterious. The romantics situate their aching and defrauded feelings in mysterious or melancholic places, like ruins, forests, cemeteries... In the same way that feel attraction toward the supernatural, that which escapes from any logic, like the miracles, apparitions, visions of ultratumba, the diabolic and the witch-like...
  • Escape from the world that surrounds them. The refusal of the burgeois society in which they are forced to live, makes the romanticist be evaded from their circumstances, imagining passed epochs in which their ideals prevailed over the others, or being inspired in the exotic. Against the neoclassicals, who admired the Greco-Latin antiquity, the romanticists prefer the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. As more frequent kinds of works, they cultivate the novel, the legend and the historic drama.

Various are the themes of the romanticist works:

  • The oneself, the own intimacy. It was Espronceda, leaving in its Song to Teresa a heartwrenching confession of love and disillusion, who has managed to poeticize his feelings with most success.
  • The passionate love, with sudden, total deliveries, and quick abandonments. The exaltation and the distaste.
  • They are inspired in legendary and historic themes.
  • The religion, although it is often through the defiance with the consequent compassion and even exaltation of the devil.
  • The social demands (revaluation of the marginal types, like the beggar).
  • The nature, that is shown in all its modalities and variations. They usually set their compositions in mysterious places, like cemeteries, storms, the brave sea, etc.
  • The satire, often connected with political or literary events.

Realism

In Realism (final of the 19th century), which is mixed with Naturalism, important topics are: the novel, with Juan Valera, José María de Pereda, Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Luis Coloma, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Armando Palacio Valdés, and Vicente Blasco Ibáñez; the poetry, with Ramón de Campoamor, Gaspar Núñez de Arce, and other poets; the theater, with José Echegaray, Manuel Tamayo y Baus, and other dramatists; and the literary critics, emphasizing Menéndez Pelayo. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism," Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. Spanish Realist literature is the literature written in Spain during the second half of the 19th century, following the Realist movement which prevailed in Europe. ... Juan Valera y Alcala Galiano (1824 - 1905) was a Spanish author, writer and political figure. ... José María de Pereda (February 6, 1833, Polanco—March 1, 1906, Polanco) was one of the most distinguished of modern Spanish novelists. ... Republican homage, bust by Erminio Blotta, at Independencia Park, Rosario, Argentina Benito Pérez Galdós (May 10, 1843 – January 4, 1920) was a Spanish novelist. ... Emilia Pardo Bazán (16 September 1851 – 12 May 1921) (also known as Emilia, countess de Pardo Bazán) was a Spanish author and scholar. ... Clarín Leopoldo Alas y Ureña (1851-1901), also known as Clarín was a Spanish realist novelist born in Zamora. ... Armando Palacio Valdés Armando Palacio Valdés (1853-1938), Spanish novelist and critic, was born at Entralgo in the province of Asturias on the 4th of October 1853. ... Vicente Blasco Ibáñez Woman Triumphant, a translation of La maja desnuda by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez into English Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (January 29, 1867 - January 28, 1928) was a Spanish realist novelist writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director. ... Ramón María de las Mercedes de Campoamor y Campoosorio (September 24, 1817 -February 11, 1901), known as Ramón de Campoamor, Spanish realist poet and philosopher, was born at Navia (Asturias) on the 24th of September 1817. ... Gaspar Núñez de Arce (1834 - 12 February 1903) was a Spanish poet, dramatist and statesman. ... José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (April 19, 1832 – September 4, 1916). ... Manuel Tamayo y Baus (15 September 1829 - 20 June 1898) was a Spanish dramatist. ... Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (November 3, 1856 – May 2, 1912) was a Spanish scholar, historian and literary critic. ...


The realistic works of this period are characterized by:

  • Objective vision of the reality through the direct observation of customs or psychological characters. They eliminate any subjective aspect, fantastic events, and every feeling that moves away of the reality: "The novel is the image of the life" (Galdós), "an artistic copy of the reality" (Clarín).
  • Defense of a thesis: the narrators write their works focusing the reality from their moral conception. They are the so-called omniscient narrators. The defense of a thesis usually compromises the objectivity of the novel.
  • Themes that are familiar to the reader: marital conflicts, infidelity, defense of the ideals, etc.
  • The popular and colloquial language acquires great importance since it situates the characters in their real environment.

Modernist literature

Main article: Spanish Modernist literature

In the Modernism several currents appear: Parnasianism, Symbolism, Futurism, and Creationism; the literary Modernism in Spain was influenced by the "disaster of the 98", the Regeneracionism, and the Free Institution of Education (founded by Giner de los Ríos). Modernism is rooted in the idea that the "traditional" forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life had become outdated; therefore it was essential to sweep them aside. Spanish Modernist literature is the literature of Spain written during the Modernism (beginning of the 20th century) as the arts evolved and opposed the previous Realism. ... The Parnassians were a group of 19th-century French poets, so called from their journal, the Parnasse contemporain, itself named after Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses in Greek mythology. ... Francisco Giner de los Ríos (born October 10, 1839 in Ronda, Spain; died February 17, 1915 in Madrid) was a philosopher, educator and one of the most influential Spanish intellectuals at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20ieth century. ...


Some important authors of the Modernism are Miguel de Unamuno and Rubén Darío. Miguel de Unamuno Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (September 29, 1864–December 31, 1936) was an essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher from Spain. ... A framed picture of Rubén Darío hanging in the National Theater. ...


20th century literature

In the 20th century several literary movements appear: Generation of the 98; Novecentism; Generation of the 27; and Literature subsequent to the Civil War (1936-1939), that can be during the pro-Franco dictatorship (1939-1975) or subsequent to it. The authors in liric, novel, and theater abound. Postmodernity refers to a movement of ideas contrary to those of modernism.


Some important authors in the Generation of '98 are Miguel de Unamuno, Antonio Machado, Ramón del Valle-Inclán, Azorín, Pío Baroja, Ramón Pérez de Ayala; and some in the Generation of '27 are Rafael Alberti, Vicente Aleixandre, Dámaso Alonso, Manuel Altolaguirre, Luis Cernuda, Gerardo Diego, Federico García Lorca, Jorge Guillén, Emilio Prados, Pedro Salinas, Agustín Díaz Pacheco. // Background The Generation of 98 (also called Generation of 1898 or, in Spanish, Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898). ... Miguel de Unamuno Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (September 29, 1864–December 31, 1936) was an essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher from Spain. ... // Antonio Machado y Ruiz (July 26, 1875 – February 22, 1939) was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of 98. ... Ramón María del Valle-Inclán. ... Azorín is a pseudonym of Jose Martin Ruiz, a member of the Spanish Generation of 98. ... Pío Baroja y Nessi (December 28, 1872, San Sebastián–October 30, 1956, Madrid) was a Spanish writer, one of the key novelists of the Generation of 98. ... Ramón Pérez de Ayala (1880? - 1962) was a Spanish writer. ... The Generation of 27 (Spanish Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. ... Rafael Alberti Rafael Alberti (El Puerto de Santa María,16 December 1902 - El Puerto de Santa María,28 October 1999) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of 27. ... Vicente Aleixandre Vicente Pío Marcelino Cirilo Aleixandre y Merlo (April 26, 1898 – December 14, 1984) Spanish poet, born in Sevilla. ... Dámaso Alonso Dámaso Alonso (October 22, 1898 - January 25, 1990) was a Spanish poet, philologist and literary critic. ... Manuel Altolaguirre (29 June 1905, Málaga – 26 July 1959, Burgos) was a Spanish poet, an editor, publisher, and printer of poetry, and a member of the Generation of 27. ... Luis Cernuda (1902 - 1963), is widely recognized as one of the great Spanish poets of the 20th century. ... Statue of Gerardo Diego in Santander Gerardo Diego (3 October 1896 – 8 July 1987) was a Spanish poet and member of the Generation of 27. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Jorge Guillén Jorge Guillén y Álvarez (January 18, 1893 - February 6, 1984) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of 27. ... Emilio Prados (March 4, 1899 - April 24, 1962) was a Spanish poet and editor, a member of the Generation of 27. ... Pedro Salinas (1891-1951) was a romantic poet from Spain. ... Agustín Díaz Pacheco. ...


Sketch

The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... Title page of the 1554 edition The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes and of His Fortunes and Adversities is a Spanish novel, published anonymously, 1554, in Alcalá de Henares in Spain, and, in 1557, in Antwerp, Flanders, then under Spanish rule. ... Alonso de Ercilla (1533 - 1594) was a Basque nobleman from Spain, and author of epic poem La Araucana. ... La Araucana is an epic poem in Spanish about the Spanish conquest of Chile, by Alonso de Ercilla; it is also known in English as The Araucaniad. ... Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (IPA: in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. ... (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Gil Vicente (c. ... Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ... Pedro Calderón de la Barca (January 17, 1600 - May 25, 1681), Spanish dramatist and poet, was born at Madrid. ... Tirso de Molina (October, 1571 - March 12, 1648) was a Spanish dramatist and poet. ... Luis de Góngora, in a portrait by Diego Velázquez. ... Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas (September 17, 1580 – September 8, 1645) was a Spanish writer during the . ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Spain. ... José de Cadalso y Vázquez (1741-1782), Spanish neoclassical author, was born at Cádiz on the 8th of October 1741. ... Juan Meléndez Valdés (11 March 1754 - 24 May 1817) was a Spanish poet. ... Félix María de Samaniego (October 12, 1745—August 1801; born and died in Laguardia, Álava) was a Spanish neoclassical fabulist, educated at Valladolid. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Romanticism is a revolutionary movement affecting all aspects in life, which in the arts breaks from the traditions of Neoclassicism, favouring ideas of fantasy, imagination and the spirits irrational power. ... Ángel de Saavedra, Duke of Rivas Don Ángel de Saavedra y Ramírez de Baquedano, Duke of Rivas (Spanish: Ángel de Saavedra y Ramírez de Baquedano, Duque de Rivas) (March 19, 1791 - June 22, 1865), was a Spanish poet, dramatist and politician born in Córdoba. ... Mariano José de Larra (24 March 1809 - 13 February 1837) was a Spanish writer noted for satire and perhaps the best prose writer of 19th-century Spain. ... Ramón de Mesonero Romanos (July 19, 1803 - April 30, 1882), Spanish prose-writer, was born at Madrid. ... Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer Gustavo Adolfo Domínguez Bastida, better known as Bécquer, (Seville February 17, 1836 – Madrid December 22, 1870) was a Spanish post-romanticist writer of poetry and short stories, now considered one of the most important figures in Spanish literature. ... José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnacion de Espronceda y Delgado (March 25, 1808-May 23, 1842) was among the most important Spanish poets of the 19th century. ... The Student of Salamanca (El estudiante de Salamanca) is a work by Spanish Romantic poet José de Espronceda. ... José Zorrilla y Moral (February 21, 1817 - January 23, 1893), was a Spanish poet and dramatist. ... Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantastic Drama in Two Parts), is a play published in 1844 by José Zorrilla. ... Spanish Realist literature is the literature written in Spain during the second half of the 19th century, following the Realist movement which prevailed in Europe. ... Republican homage, bust by Erminio Blotta, at Independencia Park, Rosario, Argentina Benito Pérez Galdós (May 10, 1843 – January 4, 1920) was a Spanish novelist. ... Clarín Leopoldo Alas y Ureña (1851-1901), also known as Clarín was a Spanish novelist born in Zamora. ... La Regenta is a realist novel by Spanish author Leopoldo Alas y Ureña, also known as Clarín. ... Juan Valera y Alcala Galiano (1824 - 1905) was a Spanish author, writer and political figure. ... Emilia Pardo Bazán (16 September 1851 – 12 May 1921) (also known as Emilia, countess de Pardo Bazán) was a Spanish author and scholar. ... José María de Pereda (February 6, 1833, Polanco—March 1, 1906, Polanco) was one of the most distinguished of modern Spanish novelists. ... Fernán Caballero (24 December 1796 - 7 April 1877) was the pseudonym adopted from the name of a village in the province of Ciudad Real by the Spanish novelist Cecilia Francisca Josefa Böhl de Faber. ... // Background The Generation of 98 (also called Generation of 1898 or, in Spanish, Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898). ... Miguel de Unamuno Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (September 29, 1864–December 31, 1936) was an essayist, novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher from Spain. ... // Antonio Machado y Ruiz (July 26, 1875 – February 22, 1939) was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of 98. ... Ramón María del Valle-Inclán. ... Azorín is a pseudonym of Jose Martin Ruiz, a member of the Spanish Generation of 98. ... Pío Baroja y Nessi (December 28, 1872, San Sebastián–October 30, 1956, Madrid) was a Spanish writer, one of the key novelists of the Generation of 98. ... Ramón Pérez de Ayala (1880? - 1962) was a Spanish writer. ... The Generation of 27 (Spanish Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. ... Rafael Alberti Rafael Alberti (El Puerto de Santa María,16 December 1902 - El Puerto de Santa María,28 October 1999) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of 27. ... Vicente Aleixandre Vicente Pío Marcelino Cirilo Aleixandre y Merlo (April 26, 1898 – December 14, 1984) Spanish poet, born in Sevilla. ... Dámaso Alonso Dámaso Alonso (October 22, 1898 - January 25, 1990) was a Spanish poet, philologist and literary critic. ... Manuel Altolaguirre (29 June 1905, Málaga – 26 July 1959, Burgos) was a Spanish poet, an editor, publisher, and printer of poetry, and a member of the Generation of 27. ... Luis Cernuda (1902 - 1963), is widely recognized as one of the great Spanish poets of the 20th century. ... Statue of Gerardo Diego in Santander Gerardo Diego (3 October 1896 – 8 July 1987) was a Spanish poet and member of the Generation of 27. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Mariana Pineda is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca based on the life of Mariana de Pineda. ... Bodas de Sangre (Blood Wedding) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... La casa de Bernarda Alba (The House of Bernarda Alba) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... Jorge Guillén Jorge Guillén y Álvarez (January 18, 1893 - February 6, 1984) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of 27. ... Emilio Prados (March 4, 1899 - April 24, 1962) was a Spanish poet and editor, a member of the Generation of 27. ... Pedro Salinas (1891-1951) was a romantic poet from Spain. ... Agustín Díaz Pacheco. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Literature of Spain
  • Bleznick, Donald W. and Walter T. Pattison (1971). Representative Spanish Authors, vol I, 3, Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-501326-3. 
  • Bleznick, Donald W. and Walter T. Pattison (1971). Representative Spanish Authors, vol II, 3, Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-501433-2. 

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

See also

NB the Premio Cervantes is awarded to honour the career of a writer in the Spanish language, regardless of nationality. Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as magical realism. ... This is a list of Spanish language authors, organised by country. ... This is a list of famous or notable poets who have written in the Spanish language. ... Catalan-language writers Gabriel Alomar Vicent Andrés Estellés Pere Calders Salvador Espriu i Castelló Joan Fuster Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina J.V. Foix Maria de la Pau Janer Joan Maragall i Gorina Miquel Martí i Pol Jesús Moncada Jesús Montcada i Estruga Quim Monzó Teresa... It is suposed that oral literature (and even written literature) in Asturian language is older, but the first writer known is Antón de Marirreguera in XVII century. ... Premio Miguel de Cervantes (the Miguel de Cervantes Prize) is awarded annually to honor the whole career of an outstanding writer in Spanish language. ...




  Results from FactBites:
 
MSN Encarta - Spanish Literature (1231 words)
Spanish Literature, literature of Spain from about ad 1000 until the present, written in the Spanish language.
Spanish literature does include a number of works written by Spanish citizens living outside of Spain during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) or during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco from 1939 through 1975.
Spanish is considered a Romance language, as are French, Italian, and other languages that developed from the Latin language spoken in the Roman Empire.
Spanish literature. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1579 words)
The famous early classic of Spanish literature, the sober and unornamented epic poem Cantar de Mío Cid (12th cent.), deals with the life and deeds of the national hero, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, called the Cid Campeador.
The first known novel of chivalry, Amadis of Gaul, was printed in Zaragoza in 1508 and served as a model for the novels of chivalry that became (16th cent.) the most popular genre in Spain, together with the anonymous ballads (romances) that were sung and recited everywhere.
Also part of the Golden Age were the great Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Ávila, author of an inspired spiritual autobiography, and her disciple St. John of the Cross, one of Spain’s finest lyric poets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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