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Encyclopedia > Spanish in the United States
Spanish in the United States
Idioma español en Estados Unidos 
Pronunciation: /espa'ɲol/, /kaste'ʎano/ or /kaste'ʝano/
Spoken in: — 
Region:
Total speakers: First languagea: 322<[1][2]- c. 400 million[3][4][5]
Totala: 400–500 million[6][7][8]
aAll numbers are approximate. 
Ranking: 2-4 (native)[9][10][11][12]
Total: 3
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Gallo-Iberian
     Ibero-Romance
      West Iberian
       Spanish
        Spanish in the United States 
Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: us-es
ISO 639-2: us-spa
ISO 639-3: us-spa 
Spanish language spread in the United States.
Part of a series of articles on
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Spanish is the second most-common language in the United States after English. There are more Spanish speakers in the U.S. than there are speakers of French, Hawaiian, and the Native American languages combined. Per the 2000 United States Census, most frequently, Spanish is spoken at home by about 28.1 million people aged 5 or older.[13] The U.S. is home to more than 40 million Hispanics, making it the world's fifth-largest Spanish-speaking community after Mexico, Colombia, Spain, and Argentina.[14][15] Roughly half of all U.S. Spanish speakers also speak English "very well", based on the self-assessment Census question respondents.[13] This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... The formation of Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process: A common Latin/Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. ... West Iberian language is the subcategory of Romance languages, including Spanish and Portugese. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Spanish alphabet traditionally consists of the following 29 letters: A, B, C, Ch, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ll, M, N, Ñ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z This includes the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet plus the letter... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Spanish_USC2000_PHS.svg‎ [edit] Summary The language spread of Spanish in the United States according to U. S. Census 2000 and other resources interpreted by research of U. S. ENGLISH Foundation, percentage of home speakers. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ... Argentine Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the southeast South American nation of Argentina. ... // Bolivia, the only landlocked country in the Western Hemisphere, is home to almost eight million people. ... Chilean Americans are a group of 68,849 people who emigrated from Chile and their descendants. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ... A Dominican American or Dominican-York [2] is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from the Dominican Republic to the United States. ... An Ecuadorian American is someone who is of Ecuadorian descent or was born in Ecuador and achieved American citizenship. ... A Guatemalan American is an American of Guatemalan decent. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Nicaraguan American (Spanish: Nicaragüense Americano) are Americans of Nicaraguan ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to the United States. ... A Peruvian American is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from Peru that arrived in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Puerto Rican. ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Salvadoran Americans are residents of the United States of Salvadoran descent. ... ... Venezuelan Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the South American nation of Venezuela. ... The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. ... Latinos and Hispanics are predominantly Christian in the United States. ... Lukumí or Regla de Ocha, most widely known as Santeria, is a set of related religious systems that fuse Catholic beliefs with traditional Yorùbá beliefs. ... Latino Jews are Latinos whose religion is Judaism. ... Latino Muslims are Latinos whose religion is Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chicano Movement, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that searched for social liberation and power for Mexican Americans. ... There are three main components to AHA’s programming and services: Advocacy: Latino arts and culture is an essential and vibrant part of the nation’s identity. ... // About the CHC The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC) is comprised of 21 Members of Congress of Hispanic descent. ... LULAC is an organization which strives for rights for Hispanic Americans. ... The National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO) is an umbrella council for 23 Latino Greek Letter Organizations established in 1998. ... The SHPE Logo The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) was founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1974 by a group of engineers employed by the city of Los Angeles. ... “NCLR” redirects here. ... National Association of Latino Elected Officials aka NALEO External links http://www. ... This article is about the term used in science fiction, anime, and manga. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... Latino/a Studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Hispanic ancestory in America. ... Latin music has long influenced American popular music, jazz, rhythm and blues, and even country music. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... For the James L. Brooks motion picture, see Spanglish (film). ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... The following is a partial list of United States cities, towns, and census-designated places in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is Hispanic or Latino, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... . ... Famous Hispanic Americans // Silvana Arias, actress Adrian Bellani, actor Jessica Alba, actress Nadine Velazquez, actress Desi Arnaz, actor Alexis Bledel, actress Benjamin Bratt, actor Julissa Bermudez, actress and VJ Lynda Carter, actress Ricardo Chavira, actor from Desperate Housewives Sammy Davis, Jr. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from HawaiÊ»i, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ...

Contents

History

Spanish has been spoken in North America since the 16th century. Ponce de León is the first Spaniard known to have visited the what is the contemporary U.S., in 1513. In 1565, the Spaniards founded St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest, continuously occupied European settlement in the modern U.S. territory. Juan Ponce de León (c. ... Nickname: Location in St. ...


Historically, the Spanish-speaking population increased because of territorial annexation consequent to wars and land purchases, while modern factors continue increasing the size of this population. Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ...


Louisiana Purchase

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Spanish rule encompassed most of the contemporary U.S. territory, including the French colony of Louisiana that briefly was under Spanish control from 1763 to 1800, and then part of the U.S. since 1803. When Louisiana was sold to the United States, its Spanish and French inhabitants became U.S. citizens, while retaining their native Spanish and French tongues. This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ...


Annexation of Texas and the Mexican-American War

From 1821, Texas was part of the Republic of Mexico until the Anglo settlers' revolution of 1836. Per the 1850 U.S. census, fewer than 16,000 Texans were of Mexican descent, and nearly all were Spanish-speaking people who were outnumbered (six-to-one) by English-speaking Anglo settlers.[citation needed] Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ...


Mexico lost almost half of its northern territory to the U.S. in the Mexican-American War (1846–1848): parts of contemporary Texas, and Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming, California, Nevada, and Utah. Although the lost territory was sparsely populated, the thousands of Spanish-speaking Mexicans resultantly became U.S. citizens (Americans).[citation needed] The war-ending Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) does not explicitly address to language rights. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ...


Spanish-American War

In 1898, consequent to the Spanish-American War, the U.S. conquered Cuba and Puerto Rico as American territories. In 1902, Cuba became independent from the U.S. while Puerto Rico remained, and remains, a U.S. territory. Spanish is Puerto Rico's first language and its citizens hold statutory U.S. citizenship. Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Citizen redirects here. ...


Modern migration

The influx of many Spanish-speaking immigrants to the U.S. has increased the number of Spanish-speakers in the country, resultantly they are majorities and large minorities in many political districts, especially in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, the U.S. states bordering Mexico. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Immigration to the United States of Spanish-speaking Cubans began because of Cuba's political instability upon achieving independence. The deposition of Fulgencio Batista's dictatorship and the ascension of Fidel Castro's communist government in 1959 increased Cuban immigration to the U.S., hence there are some one million Cubans in the United States, most settled in southern and central Florida, while other Cuban Americans live in the Northeastern U.S.; most are fluent in Spanish. General Fulgencio Batista (pronounced or ) y Zaldívar (January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was a Cuban military officer and politician. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ...


Many Puerto Ricans have migrated to New York City, New York, increasing its Spanish-speaking population. Millions of Puerto Rican Americans living in the U.S. mainland are fluent in Spanish. In Hawaii, where Puerto Rican farm laborers and Mexican ranchers have settled since the late 1800s, 7.0 per cent of the islands' people are either Hispanic or Hispanophone or both.[citation needed] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... Language(s) English and Spanish Religion(s) Roman Catholic, Christianity, Protestantism,Santeria,Judaism,Islam Related ethnic groups Other Spanish people, African people, Amerindians, Mulattos, Zambos, and Mestizos National Puerto Rican Parade in New York City, 2005 (photo by Angelo Falcón) A Puerto Rican American (Spanish: Puerto Ricans in the... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Official status

State Spanish-speaking population Percentage of state population
New Mexico 823,352 43.27%
California 12,442,626 34.72%
Texas 7,781,211 34.63%
Arizona 1,608,698 28.03%
Nevada 531,929 22.80%
Colorado 878,803 19.10%
Florida 3,304,832 19.01%
Georgia
Ohio
Michigan
Minnesota
Oklahoma
Hawaii
New York 3,076,697 15.96%
New Jersey 1,294,422 14.90%
Illinois 1,774,551 13.94%
Indiana
Tennessee
Connecticut 371,818 10.63%
Utah 253,073 10.45%
Rhode Island 111,823 10.35%
Oregon 343,278 9.56%
Idaho 123,900 8.88%
District of Columbia 47,258 8.53%
Washington 526,667 8.48%
Kansas 220,288 8.06%
North Carolina
Arkansas
Louisiana
Pennsylvania
Massachusetts


Although the United States currently has no official language, English is the de facto national language. Most state and federal government agencies use Spanish. Many states, such as California, require bilingual legislated notices and official documents, in Spanish and English, and other commonly used languages. In the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Spanish is the official and most commonly used language. Throughout the history of the Southwest U.S., the controversial issues of language as part of cultural rights and bilingual state government representation has caused socio-cultural friction between non-Hispanic Anglophones and Hispanic citizens. Currently, Spanish is the most widely-taught second language in the U.S. [16] The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ...


California

California's first constitution recognized Spanish language rights: All laws, decrees, regulations, and provisions emanating from any of the three supreme powers of this State, which from their nature require publication, shall be published in English and Spanish. By 1870, English-speaking Americans were a majority in California; in 1879, the state promulgated a new constitution under which all official proceedings were to be conducted exclusively in English, a clause that remained in effect until 1966. In 1986, California voters added a new constitutional clause, by referendum, stating that English is the official language of the State of California, however, Spanish remains widely spoken throughout the state, and many government forms, documents, and services are bilingual, in English and Spanish. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Arizona

In Arizona, English is the official state language.


New Mexico

New Mexico is commonly thought to have Spanish as an official language alongside English, because of its wide usage and legal promotion of Spanish in the state, however the state has no official language. New Mexico's laws are promulgated bilingually, in Spanish and English, although English is the state government's working language. Spanish has been spoken in the New Mexico-Colorado border and the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border since the 16th century. Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ...


Texas

In Texas, English is conventionally used in government; the state has no official language. The continual influx of Spanish-speaking immigrants increased the import of Spanish in Texas. Even in the twenty-first century, Texas's southernmost counties, in the Rio Grande Valley are mostly Hispanic, hence, Spanish is the common language of the region's multi-generational Mexican Americans, yet, they are more English-proficient than their southern counterparts. The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of Texas. ...


Puerto Rico

The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico recognizes Spanish and English as official languages; Spanish is the dominant first language.


Spanish place names

Main article: List of U.S. place names of Spanish origin

Learning trends in the U.S

Spanish is the most widely-taught non-English language in U.S. secondary schools and of higher education ([1]), thus establishing its importance to non-Hispanic Americans. Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


More than 1.4 million university students were enrolled in language courses in autumn of 2002 and Spanish is the most widely-taught language in American colleges and universities with 53 per cent of the total number of people enrolled, followed by French (14.4%), German (7.1%) Italian (4.5%), American Sign Language (4.3%), Japanese (3.7%), and Chinese (2.4%) although the totals remain relatively small in relation to the total U.S population. [2] [3] Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[4] primarily in Italy. ... It has been suggested that ASL Grammar be merged into this article or section. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


Common words derived from Spanish

See also List of English words of Spanish origin This is a list of English language words whose origin can be traced to the Spanish language as Spanish loan words. Many of them are identical in other Romance languages (mainly Portuguese), but their ultimate origin is from Spanish. ...

  • Corral
  • Desperado
  • Lariat
  • Lasso
  • Potato
  • Ranch
  • Siesta
  • Tornado
  • Chocolate
  • Buckaroo

Variation

The influence of English on American Spanish is very important. In many Latino youth subcultures, it is fashionable to variously mix Spanish and English, thereby producing Spanglish. Spanglish is the name for the admixture of English words and phrases to Spanish for effective communication. For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... For the James L. Brooks motion picture, see Spanglish (film). ...


The new generation of American Hispanics want to preserve knowing and using Spanish as equal to learning and using English. The small Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española (North American Academy of the Spanish Language) tracks the developments of American Spanish (U.S. Spanish) and the influence of English upon it.


Language experts distinguish these varieties of American Spanish in the United States:[citation needed]

Analogously, many Spanish words now are standard American English. For a detailed list of borrowed words, see American English. This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Providence may mean: Divine Providence Providence College in Rhode Island, USA Providence, television series Providence, a 1977 film Providence, a 1991 film starring Keanu Reeves Providence, 1970s-era Providence may also refer to: Providence, Rhode Island (in Providence County) Providence, Alabama Providence, Kentucky Providence, New York It is also the... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Isleños (from the Spanish, meaning islanders) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi Valley of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Chicano (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... New Mexican Spanish is a variant or dialect of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Orlando redirects here. ... Tampas skyline For alternate meanings, see Tampa (disambiguation) Tampa is a city located in Hillsborough County on the west coast of Florida. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ...


Future of Spanish in the United States

Many factors indicate that Spanish in the U.S. is healthy. Living an exclusively Hispanophone life is viable in some areas because of continual immigration and prevalent Spanish-language mass media, such as Univisión, Telemundo, and Azteca América. Because Hispanic immigration remains the greatest source of immigrants, and because of it closeness to Spanish-speaking areas, it is possible that the language in the Southern U.S., i.e. California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Florida, will continue using Spanish in quotidian life. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... This redirect page is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Telemundo is an American television network based in Hialeah, Florida. ... Azteca América is an American Spanish language broadcasting network which is jointly-owned by the Mexican television network TV Azteca and Pappas Telecasting. ...


Moreover, because of the North American Free Trade Agreement, it is common for many American manufacturers to use trilingual product labeling using English, French, and Spanish. Besides the businesses that always have catered to Hispanophone immigrants, a small, but increasing, number of mainstream American retailers now advertise bilingually in Spanish-speaking areas and offer bilingual, English-Spanish customer services. NAFTA redirects here. ...


The State of the Union Addresses and other presidential speeches are translated to Spanish, following the precedent set by the Bill Clinton administration. Official Spanish translations are available at Whitehouse.gov. Moreover, non-Hispanic politicians fluent in Spanish speak in Spanish to Hispanic majority constituencies. There are 500 Spanish newspapers, 152 magazines, and 205 publishers in the U.S.; magazine and local television advertising expenditures for the Hispanic market have increased much from 1999 to 2003, with growth of 58 per cent and 43 per cent, respectively. State of the Union redirects here. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ...

Federal agencies such as the United States Postal Service post Spanish language signs where their customers speak Spanish.
Federal agencies such as the United States Postal Service post Spanish language signs where their customers speak Spanish.

This guarantees Spanish's survival in the U.S., yet, it is necessary to remember that, historically, the immigrant's original languages tend to disappear or become reduced through generational assimilation. Spanish disappeared in several countries and U.S. territories during the twentieth century, notably in the Pacific Island countries of Guam, Micronesia, Palau, the Northern Marianas islands, and the Marshall Islands. In the Philippines, it is virtually extinct; 2,658 speakers, per the 1990 Census, although Spanish loan words persist. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x722, 121 KB) Summary A poster at the United States Postal Service post office in Mountain View, California which indicates prices in the Spanish language. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x722, 121 KB) Summary A poster at the United States Postal Service post office in Mountain View, California which indicates prices in the Spanish language. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ... The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number is unknown. ... The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is a commonwealth in political union with the United States of America at a strategic location in the West Pacific Ocean. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


The English-only movement seeks to establish English as the sole official language of the U.S. Generally, they exert political public pressure upon Hispanophone immigrants to learn English and speak it publicly; as universities, business, and the professions use English, there is much social pressure to learn English for upward socio-economic mobility. English-only movement, called also Official English movement by its supporters, refers to a political movement for the use only of English language in public occasions through the establishing of English as the explicitly only official language in the United States. ...


Generally, U.S. Hispanics (13.4% of the 2002 population) are bilingual to a degree. A Simmons Market Research survey recorded that 19 per cent of the U.S.'s Hispanic population speak only Spanish, 9.0 per cent speak only English, 55 per cent have limited English proficiency, and 17 per cent are fully English-Spanish bilingual.


Intergenerational transmission of Spanish is a more accurate indicator of Spanish's future in the U.S. than raw statistical numbers of Hispanophone immigrants. Although Latin American immigrants hold varying English proficiency levels, almost all second-generation Hispanic Americans speak English, yet about 50 per cent speak Spanish at home. Two-thirds of third-generation Mexican Americans speak only English at home. The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ...


Calvin Veltman undertook, for the National Center for Education Statistics and for the Hispanic Policy Development Project, the most complete study of English language adoption by Hispanophone immigrants. Mr Veltman's language shift studies document high bilingualism rates and subsequent adoption of English as the preferred language of Hispanics, particularly by the young and the native-born. The complete set of these studies' demographic projections postulates the near-complete assimilation of a given Hispanophone immigrant cohort within two generations. Although his study based itself upon a large 1976 sample from the Bureau of the Census (which has not been repeated), data from the 1990 Census tend to confirm the great Anglicization of the U.S. Hispanic population. Calvin Veltman is an American sociologist, demographer and sociolinguist at the Université du Québec à Montréal. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ...


American literature in Spanish

Southwest Colonial literature


In 1610, Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá published his Historia de Nuevo México (History of New Mexico). Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (1555-1620) was a captain in Juan de Oñate’s expedition that first colonized New Mexico in 1598. ...


Nineteenth Century


In 1880, José Martí moved to New York City. For other persons named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Eusebio Chacón published El hijo de la tempestad in 1892.


Twentieth century


Federico García Lorca wrote in America his collection of poems, Poeta en Nueva York, and the two plays Así que pasen cinco años and El público. José Vasconcelos and Juan Ramón Jiménez were exiled to the U.S.A. Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... José Vasconcelos (Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 1882 – Mexico City, 1959) was a Mexican writer, thinker and politician. ... Juan Ramón Jiménez (Moguer, Spain, 24 December 1881 – Santurce, Puerto Rico, 29 May 1958) was a Spanish poet. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ...


Chicano period


See also

// Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States, instruction occurs in English and a minority language, such as Spanish or Chinese, with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. ... English-only movement, called also Official English movement by its supporters, refers to a political movement for the use only of English language in public occasions through the establishing of English as the explicitly only official language in the United States. ... The following is a partial list of United States cities and towns in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is Hispanic or Latino, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ... This is a list of U.S. city or municipality names with diacritics. ... Bilingual (English/French) stop sign on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ...

References

  1. ^ Ethlogue-Spanish-language]
  2. ^ Encarta-Most Spoken languages
  3. ^ Ciberamerica-Castellano
  4. ^ El Nuevo Diario
  5. ^ Terra Noticias
  6. ^ Universidad de México
  7. ^ Instituto Cervantes ("El Mundo" news)
  8. ^ Yahoo Press Room
  9. ^ Languages of the world by Ethnologue
  10. ^ Most widely spoken languages by Nations Online
  11. ^ Most spoken languages by Ask Men
  12. ^ Encarta Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People
  13. ^ a b 2000 Census, Language in the US. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  14. ^ US, 5th largest Spanish speaking community. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  15. ^ Puerto Rico Herald, Spanish speaking community in the US. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  16. ^ Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Learning, MLA Fall 2002.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Resources

External links

  • Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española (in Spanish)
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Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was also known as the New Negro Movement, named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is a controversial issue in the United States and, indeed, in most of the world, with many prominent organizations and individuals participating in the debate. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The Statue of Liberty. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay...

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Spanish language: Information from Answers.com (5961 words)
Spanish is by far the largest non-English language spoken in the United States; indeed, with perhaps 30 million Spanish speakers, the United States counts as one of the largest Spanish-speaking countries after Mexico and Spain.
Spanish is one of the official languages of the Organization of American States, the United Nations and the European Union.
Spanish ceased to be an official language of the Philippines in 1987, and it is now spoken by less than 0.01% of the population, or 2,658 people (1990 Census), though recently there seems to have been a resurgence in interest in the language among the educated youth.
American Spanish: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1846 words)
United States is home to more than 40 million Hispanics; the fifth largest Spanish-speaking community in the world, after Mexico, Colombia, Spain and Argentina([2], [3]).
New Mexico is commonly thought to have Spanish as an official language alongside English, due to the widespread usage of Spanish in the state.
Spanish is the most widely taught non-English language in U.S. secondary schools and institutions of higher education ([4]), indicating its importance among non-Hispanic Americans.
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