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Encyclopedia > Spanish and Portuguese Jews
Painting of the Amsterdam Esnoga — considered the mother synagogue by the Portuguese and Spanish Jews — by Emanuel de Witte (ab. 1680).

Spanish and Portuguese Jews are a distinctive sub-group of Sephardim who have their main ethnic origins within the crypto-Jewish communities of the Iberian peninsula and who shaped communities mainly in Western Europe and the Americas from the late 16th century on. These communities must be clearly distinguished from: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1445, 230 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spanish and Portuguese Jews ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x1445, 230 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spanish and Portuguese Jews ... Niteowlneils 10:02, 10 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Interior of a Church, by Emmanuel de Witte c. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Crypto-Judaism is secret practicing of Judaism while publicly pretending to be of another faith. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

  • the descendants of Jews expelled from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497, who settled in Morocco and the countries of the Ottoman Empire, and
  • the present day Jewish communities of Portugal and Spain, which were founded with the assistance of the "Spanish and Portuguese" communities outside the peninsula, but also include other ethnic groups.

Spanish and Portuguese Jews have a distinctive ritual based on that of pre-expulsion Spain, but influenced by the Spanish-Moroccan rite on the one side and the Italian rite on the other. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Terminology

As well as "Spanish and Portuguese Jews", one sometimes comes across designations such as Portuguese Jews, Jews of the Portuguese nation, Spanish Jews (mainly in Italy) and Western Sephardim.


The use of the terms Portuguese Jews and Jews of the Portuguese nation in some areas (mainly in the Netherlands and Hamburg/Scandinavia) seems to have arisen primarily as a way for the Spanish and Portuguese Jews to distance themselves from Spain in the times of political tension and war between Spain and the Netherlands in the 17th century. Similar considerations may have played a rôle in the case of Bayonne and Bordeaux given their proximity to the Spanish border. Another reason for this coinage may have been that a relatively high proportion of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews had Portugal as their immediate point of departure from the Iberian peninsula, as the decree forbidding Judaism in Portugal took place some years later than the expulsion from Spain. It could be argued that, while all Sephardim had a link with Spain, the distinguishing feature of the group in question was the added link with Portugal: thus "Portuguese" and "Spanish and Portuguese" could be used interchangeably. Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Italy, the term Spanish Jews (Ebrei Spagnoli) is frequently used, but includes the descendants of Jews expelled from the kingdom of Naples as well as Spanish and Portuguese Jews proper (i.e. conversos and their descendants). In Venice, Spanish and Portuguese Jews were often described as Ponentine (western), to distinguish them from Levantine (eastern) Sephardim. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


The term Western Sephardim is frequently used in modern research literature, but may be problematic in that it can be found to refer to either Portuguese and Spanish Jews or Moroccan Jews or, in some cases, both of these. This term is also occasionally used to separate European Sephardim (which includes the Balkan Sephardim (also known as Ottoman Sephardim, Eastern Sephardim, and the Judaeo-Spanish) of the former Ottoman empire) from Mizrahi Jews. Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...


The scholar Joseph Dan distinguishes "medieval Sephardim" (Spanish exiles in the Ottoman Empire) from "Renaissance Sephardim" (Spanish and Portuguese communities), referring to the respective times of their formative contacts with Spanish language and culture.


History and geography

Important communities

Western Europe

Mediterranean Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... Carpentras is a city and commune in the département of Vaucluse in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur région of France. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... A synagogue (from Greek synagoge place of assembly literally meeting, assembly,) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Altona may refer to various places: Altona, Victoria, a seaside suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Altona, Illinois, a village located in Knox County, Illinois Altona, Indiana, a town located in DeKalb County, Indiana Altona, Hamburg, the westmost district in the city of Hamburg, Germany Altona, Manitoba, a town located in... Flag of Glückstadt Map of the River Elbe, showing Glückstadt Glückstadt, a town of Germany in Schleswig-Holstein, on the right bank of the Elbe river, at the confluence of the small river Rhin, and 28 miles NW of Altona, on the railway from Itzehoe to Elmshorn. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Bevis Marks is a street in the City of London in Aldgate Ward. ... Maida Vale is a road in north-west London, and a district surrounding it. ... Wembley, until 1965 a borough in its own right, forms the northern part of the London Borough of Brent. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other uses, see Salford (disambiguation). ... Withington is an area of Manchester, England about 4 miles south of the city centre, intersected by the busy thoroughfare of Wilmslow Road. ... West Didsbury is a suburb in Greater Manchester in north-west England. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Grande Porto  - District or A.R. Porto Mayor Rui Rio  - Party PSD Area 41. ... Image:Ponta delgada noite. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Centro  - Subregion Cova da Beira  - District or A.R. Castelo Branco Mayor Amândio Melo  - Party PS Area 118. ... The Belmonte Jews are a community that survived in secrecy for hundreds of years by maintaining a tradition of intermarriage and by hiding all the external signs of their faith. ...

  • Former Ottoman Empire
    • Jerusalem: Congregation Sha’arei Ratzon - Spanish and Portuguese congregation located in the Istanbuli Synagogue in Jerusalem's Old City [2] and following the London minhag
    • Tunisia: there was a community of Livornese Jews who called themselves "L'grana" and kept themselves separate from the native Tunisian Jews
similarly in other countries such as Syria "Francos" (Italian Sephardim) held their own services (often in private houses rather than synagogues)

Americas Livorno, sometimes in English Leghorn, (population 170,000) is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Antique steel engraving of the Instanbuli Synagogue, c. ...

Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Interior of the former Spanish and Portuguese synagogue on Stanley Street in Montreal. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Shearith Israel was founded in 1654 and was the first Jewish congregation to be established in [North America]. The building it is in now was consecrated in 1897, and is the fifth synagogue building which the congregation has built in its history. ... Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... Exterior of the Touro Synagogue The Touro Synagogue is a synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island that is the oldest Jewish synagogue still in use in North America and the only surviving synagogue in the U.S. dating to the colonial era. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Kahal Kadosh Mikveh Israel is a synagogue located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and was founded in 1740. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Touro Synagogue is the name of a Reform synagogue in New Orleans, Louisiana, named after Judah Touro, Isaac de Touros son. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... The Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue (‎) is one of the oldest synagogues in the Americas. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Colonial style houses, Waterkant, Paramaribo. ... Jodensavanne was an attempt to establish a autonomous jewish territory in Suriname. ... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km²  (84. ...

Language

Characteristic language traits of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews are the use of both Spanish and Portuguese languages — and often a mixture of the two — in parts of the synagogue service. Otherwise, the use of Spanish and Portuguese quickly diminished amongst the Spanish and Portuguese Jews after the 1600s, and from the mid 1800s on, Spanish and Portuguese were in practice replaced with local languages in everyday use. Local languages used by Spanish and Portuguese Jews include Dutch (in the Netherlands and Belgium); Low German in the Hamburg/Altona area; and English in Great Britain, Ireland, USA and Jamaica. Portuguese (  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Altona may refer to various places: Altona, Victoria, a seaside suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Altona, Illinois, a village located in Knox County, Illinois Altona, Indiana, a town located in DeKalb County, Indiana Altona, Hamburg, the westmost district in the city of Hamburg, Germany Altona, Manitoba, a town located in...


Portuguese

Because of the relative high proportion of immigrants through Portugal, the majority of Spanish and Portuguese Jews of the 16th and 17th centuries spoke Portuguese as their first language. Portuguese was primarily used for everyday communication in the first few generations, and was the usual language for official documents such as synagogue by-laws; for this reason, synagogue officers still often have Portuguese titles such as Parnas dos Cautivos and Thesoureiro do Heshaim. As a basic academic language, Portuguese was used for such works as the halakhic manual Thesouro dos Dinim by Menasseh Ben Israel. Portuguese is also used — some times purely, other times in a mixture with Spanish and Hebrew — in connection with announcements of mitsvót in the esnoga, in connection with the Mi shebberakh prayer, etc. The Judeo-Portuguese dialect was preserved in some documents, but it is not used in everyday speech. It has had some influence on the Judeo-Italian dialect of Livorno, known as Bagitto. Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Menasseh Ben Israel (1604-1657), Jewish rabbi, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam in 1626. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Judeo-Portuguese is the extinct Jewish language of the Jews of Portugal. ... Italkian is a modern English name for Judeo-Italian linguistic varieties, in use mainly between the 10th and the 19th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy. ... Livorno (archaic English: ) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ...


Castilian (Spanish)

Castilian (Spanish) was used as the everyday language by those who came directly from Spain in the first few generations. Those who came from Portugal regarded it as their literary language, as did the Portuguese themselves at that time. Relatively soon, the Castilian Ladino took on a semi-sacred status, and works of theology as well as reza books (siddurim) were often written in Castilian rather than in Portuguese. ("Ladino", in this context, simply means literal translation from Hebrew: it should not be confused with the Judaeo-Spanish vernacular of Balkan, Greek and Turkish Sephardim.) Members of the Amsterdam community continued to use Spanish as a literary language, and established clubs and libraries for the study of modern Spanish literature, such as the Academia de los Sitibundos (founded 1676) and the Academia de los Floridos (1685). Today there is no tradition of using Spanish, except for the hymn Bendigamos, the translation of the Biblical passages in the prayer-book for Tishngáh be-Ab and in certain traditional greetings. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... Tisha BAv (Hebrew: תשעה באב or ט׳ באב), or the Ninth of Av, is an annual fast day in Judaism. ...


Hebrew

The Hebrew of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews as we know it from the 1800s and 1900s is characterised primarily by the pronunciation of בֿ (Beth Rafé) as a hard b (e.g., Abrahám, Tebáh, Habdaláh) and the pronunciation of ע (‘Ayin) as a voiced velar nasal (Shemang, Ngalénu). The hard pronunciation of Beth Rafé differs from the v pronunciation of Moroccan Jews and the Judaeo-Spanish Jews of the Balkans, but is shared by Algerian Jews and Syrian Jews. The nasal pronunciation of ‘Ayin is shared with traditional Italki pronunciation, but not with any other Sephardi groups. Both these features are declining, under the influence of hazzanim from other communities and of Israeli Hebrew. The Sephardi Hebrew language is an offshoot of Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... Jews and Judaism have a rather long history in Algeria. ... Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups: those who inhabited the region of todays Syria from the ancient times and those Sephardim who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492 AD). ... Categories: Italy-related stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Jewish Italian history | Italian culture | Jews ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


The sibilants ס, שׂ, שׁ and צ are all transcribed as s in earlier sources. This, along with the traditional spellings Sabá (Shabbat), Menasseh (Menashe), Ros(as)anáh (Rosh Hashana), Sedacáh (tzedaka), massoth (matzot), is evidence of a traditional pronunciation which did not distinguish between the various sibilants — a trait which is shared with some coastal dialects of Moroccan Hebrew. Since the 1800s, the pronunciations [ʃ] (for שׁ and [ts] for צ have become common — probably by influence from Oriental Sephardic immigrants, from Ashkenazi Hebrew and, in our times, Israeli Hebrew. Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


The תֿ (Tav rafé) is pronounced like t in all traditions of Spanish and Portuguese Jews today, although the consistent transliteration as th in 17th century sources may suggest an earlier differentiation of תֿ and תּ. (Final תֿ is occasionally heard as d.) Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ...


The accentuation of Hebrew adheres strictly to the rules of Biblical Hebrew, including the secondary stress on syllables with a long vowel before a Shevá. Also, the shevá na‘ in the beginning of a word is normally pronounced as a short eh (Shemang, berít, berakháh). Shevá na‘ is also normally pronounced after a long vowel with secondary stress (ngomedím, barekhú). Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...


Vocal shevá, segol (short e) and tsere (long e) are all pronounced like the 'e' in "bed": there is no distinction except in length. (In some other Sephardi dialects segol is open /ɛ/, while tsere is closed /e/, like French é. In both Ashkenazi and modern Hebrew, vocal shevá is the indistinct vowel in French "le" and English "the" and sometimes disappears altogether.) In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ...


The differentiation between kamatz gadol and kamatz katan is made according to purely phonetic rules without regard to etymology, which occasionally leads to spelling pronunciations at variance with the rules laid down in the grammar books. For example, כָל (all), when unhyphenated, is pronounced "kal" rather than "kol" (in "kal ngatsmotai" and "Kal Nidre"), and צָהֳרַיִם (noon) is pronounced "tsahorayim" rather than "tsohorayim". This feature is shared by other Sephardic groups, but is not found in Israeli Hebrew. It is also found in the transliteration of proper names in the Authorised Version, such as "Naomi", "Aholah" and "Aholibah". In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִיקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... A spelling pronunciation is a pronunciation that, instead of reflecting the way the word was pronounced by previous generations of speakers, is a rendering in sound of the words spelling. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ...


Ritual

Main article: Sephardic Judaism

Although all Sephardic liturgies are similar, each group has its own distinct liturgy. Many of these differences are a product of the syncretization of the Spanish liturgy and the liturgies of the local communities where Spanish exiles settled. Other differences are the result of earlier regional variations in liturgy from pre-expulsion Spain. Moses Gaster (died 1939, Hakham of the S&P Jews of Great Britain) has shown that the order of prayers used by Spanish and Portuguese Jews has its origin in the Castilian liturgy of Pre-Expulsion Spain. Sephardic Judaism is used in this article to describe the religious practices of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as these are peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim. ... Moses Gaster (born September 16, Bucharest, 1856 - 1939) was the Romanian Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation, London, and linguist, Hebrew linguist. ...


As compared with other Sephardic groups, the minhag of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews is characterised by a relatively low number of cabbalistic additions. The Friday night service thus traditionally starts with Psalm 29, “Mizmor leDavid: Habu LaA.”. In the printed siddurim of the mid-17th century, “Lekha Dodi” and the Mishnaic passage Bammeh madlikin are also not yet included, but these are included in all newer siddurim of the tradition except for the early West London and Mickve Israel (Savannah) Reform prayerbooks, both of which have Spanish and Portuguese roots. Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Lekhah Dodi (sometimes transliterated Lecha Dodi, Lchah Dodi, Lekah Dodi or Lechah Dodi) is a Hebrew liturgical song recited during Jewish Sabbath services on Friday evening, after sundown. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The West London Synagogue of British Jews was established on the 15 April 1840, and is the oldest reform synagogue in Great Britain. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ...


Of other, less conspicuous, elements, a number of archaic forms can be mentioned — including some similarities with the Italian Jewish and Western Ashkenazi traditions. Such elements include the shorter form of the Birchat hammazon which can be found in the older Amsterdam and Hamburg/Scandinavian traditions. The Livorno (Leghorn) tradition, however, includes many of the cabbalistic additions found in most other Sephardi traditions. The current London minhag is generally close to the Amsterdam minhag, but follows the Livorno tradition in some details — most notably in the Birchat hammazon. Italkim (Hebrew for Italians; pl. ... Birkat Hamazon (ברכת המזון), known in English as the Grace After Meals (lit. ... Languages Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Birkat Hamazon (ברכת המזון), known in English as the Grace After Meals (lit. ...

Ashkibenu (Hashkiveinu) and Yigdal from the Spanish and Portuguese Jews’ Congregation in London, harmonised by Emanuel Aguilar.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (852x1258, 72 KB) Skildring Ashkibenu (Hashkibénu, Hashkiveinu) and Yigdal for festivals from צללי זמרה - Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spanish and Portuguese Jews ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (852x1258, 72 KB) Skildring Ashkibenu (Hashkibénu, Hashkiveinu) and Yigdal for festivals from צללי זמרה - Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spanish and Portuguese Jews ...

Music

History

The ritual music of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews differs from other Sephardi music in that it is influenced by Western European Baroque and Classical music to a relatively high degree. Already in 1603, the sources tell us that harpsichords were used in the Spanish and Portuguese synagogues in Hamburg. Particularly in the Amsterdam community, but to some degree also in Hamburg and elsewhere, there was a flourishing of classical music in the synagogues in the 1700s. Important composers of the time include Abraham de Casseres, Christoph Giuseppe Lidarti and others. There was formerly a custom in Amsterdam, inspired by a hint in the Zohar, of holding an instrumental concert on Friday afternoon prior to the coming in of the Sabbath, as a means of getting the congregants in the right mood for the Friday night service. Sephardic music is the unique music of the Sephardic Jews who are one of the three main ethnicities among Diaspora Jews, the others being the Ashkenazi and Mizrahi. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ...


Choirs

Already in the 17th century, choirs were used in the service on holidays in the Amsterdam community. This custom was introduced in London in the early 1800s. In most cases, the choirs have consisted only of men and boys, but in Curaçao, the policy was changed to allow women in the choir (in a separate section) in 1863. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Pipe organs

As a general rule, Spanish and Portuguese communities do not use pipe organs during services. There are, however, early precedents for the use of instrumental music originating in 17th century Italy as well as the Spanish and Portuguese communities of Hamburg and Amsterdam and in the Ashkenazic community of Prague. As in most other communities (until the rise of the Reform movement in the 19th century) the use of instrumental music was not permitted on Shabbat or festivals. This article or section should be merged with Organ (music) The Casavant pipe organ at Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, Montreal. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ...


In some Spanish and Portuguese communities, notably in France (Bordeaux, Bayonne), USA (Savannah, Charleston, Richmond) and the Caribbean (Curaçao), pipe organs came into use during the course of the 19th century, in parallel with developments in Reform Judaism. In Curaçao, where the traditional congregation had an organ set up in the late 1800s, the use of the organ on Shabbat was eventually also accepted, as long as the organ player was not Jewish. In the more traditional congregations, such as London and New York, a free-standing organ or electric piano is used at weddings or benot mitzvah (although never on Shabbat or Yom Tob), in the same way as in some English Ashkenazi synagogues. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... Celebration of Bar Mitzvah at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...


Current practice

The cantorial style of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews adheres to the general Sephardi principle that every word is sung out loud and that most of the ritual is performed communally rather than solistically. The ִhazzán’s rôle is typically one of guiding the congregation rather than being a soloist. Thus, there is traditionally a much stronger emphasis on correct diction and knowledge of the musical minhág than on the solistic voice quality. In the parts of the service where the ִhazzán would traditionally have a more solistic rôle, the basic melodies are embellished according to the general principles of Baroque performance practice. Two- and three-part harmony is relatively common, and Edwin Seroussi has shown that the harmonies are a reflection of more complex, four-part harmonies in written sources from the 18th century. A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Nusach (Hebrew: נוסח, nûssāḥ) is a concept in Judaism that has 2 distinct meanings. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Edwin Seroussi is a leading contemporary musicologist. ...


The recitative style of the central parts of the service, such as the Amidah, the Psalms and the cantillation of the Torah is related to that of other Sephardi and Mizraִhi communities. The closest resemblance is to the ritual of Gibraltar and Northern Morocco, as Spanish and Portuguese communities traditionally recruited their ִhazzanim from these countries. There is a remoter affinity with the Babylonian and North African traditions: these are more conservative than the Syrian and Judaeo-Spanish traditions, which have been more heavily influenced by popular Mediterranean and Arabic music. The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esrei (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Gen. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ...


In other parts of the service, and in particular on special occasions such as the festivals, Shabbat Bereshit and the anniversary of the founding of the synagogue, the traditional tunes are often replaced by metrical and harmonized compositions in the Western European style. This is not the case on Rosh Hashanah and Kippúr (Yom Kippur), when the whole service has a far more archaic character. It has been suggested that Erev Rosh Hashanah be merged into this article or section. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Synagogues

Interior of the Amsterdam Esnoga: We see the tebáh (reader’s platform) in the foreground, and the Hekhál (Ark) in the background.
Interior of the Amsterdam Esnoga: We see the tebáh (reader’s platform) in the foreground, and the Hekhál (Ark) in the background.

Most Spanish and Portuguese synagogues are, like those of the Italkim and the Romaniotes, characterised by a bipolar layout, with the tebáh (bimah) near the opposite wall of the Hekhál (Ark). The Hekhál has its parokhet (curtain) inside its doors, rather than outside. The sefarim (Torah scrolls) are usually wrapped in a very wide mantle, quite different from the cylindrical mantles used by most Ashkenazi Jews. Tikim — wooden or metal cylinders around the sefarim — are usually not used, though it is reported that these were in use in the Portuguese Jewish community in Hamburg. Image File history File links Interior of the Esnoga (Spanish and Portuguese synagogue) in Amsterdam, from tebáh (bima) towards hekhál (ark). ... Image File history File links Interior of the Esnoga (Spanish and Portuguese synagogue) in Amsterdam, from tebáh (bima) towards hekhál (ark). ... Niteowlneils 10:02, 10 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Italkim (Hebrew for Italians; pl. ... The Romaniotes are a Jewish population who have lived in the territory of todays Greece for more than 2000 years. ... A bimah (among Ashkenazim) or tebah (among Sephardim) is the elevated area or platform in a Jewish synagogue which is intended to serve as the place on which the person reading aloud from the Torah stands during a service. ... The Hekhal, also known as the Sanctuary or Holy, was the part of Tabernacle and Temple in Jerusalem between the outer alter, where most sacrifices were performed, and the Holy of Holies originally containing the Ark of the Covenant. ... Parochet (also paroches, parokhet) is the curtain on the front of the Aron Kodesh in a synagogue that cover the Sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls). ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Languages Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ...


The most important synagogues, or esnogas, as they are usually called amongst Spanish and Portuguese Jews, are the Amsterdam Esnoga and those in London and New York. Amsterdam is now usually considered the “mother synagogue” for the entire Spanish and Portuguese community, though in early days the leading role belonged to the Scuola Spagnola in Venice. It is also the historical centre of the Amsterdam minhag, as used in the Netherlands and former Dutch possessions such as Surinam. Also important is the Bevis Marks Synagogue in London, the historical centre of the London minhag. The Snoa (1732) of the Mikvé Israel-Emanuel congregation in Curaçao is considered one of the most important synagogues in the Jewish history of the Americas. Communities in the United States, such as New York, have been influenced by both the Amsterdam and the London traditions: in the nineteenth century Philadelphia maintained particularly close relations with Bevis Marks and the two communities published identical prayer books. A synagogue (from Greek synagoge place of assembly literally meeting, assembly,) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... Niteowlneils 10:02, 10 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Bevis Marks Synagogue is the oldest Jewish house of worship in London; established by the Sephardic Jews in 1698, when Rabbi David Nieto took spiritual charge of the congregation. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... The Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue (‎) is one of the oldest synagogues in the Americas. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... Shearith Israel was founded in 1654 and was the first Jewish congregation to be established in [North America]. The building it is in now was consecrated in 1897, and is the fifth synagogue building which the congregation has built in its history. ...


Prominent rabbis

Menasseh Ben Israel (1604-1657), Jewish rabbi, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam in 1626. ... Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas was a Rabbi, cabalist, and anti-Shabbethaian; born at Oran 1610; died at Amsterdam April 15, 1698; father of Isaac b. ... David Nieto was the Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in London; born at Venice 1654; died in London Jan. ... Raphael Meldola, English Rabbi. ... Portrait of David Aaron de Sola, from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. ... Isaac Leeser was an American rabbi , author, translator, editor, and publisher; pioneer of the Jewish pulpit in the United States, and founder of the Jewish press of America; born at Neuenkirchen, in the province of Westphalia, Prussia, Dec. ... Portrait of Sabato Morais, from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. ... Moses Gaster (born September 16, Bucharest, 1856 - 1939) was the Romanian Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation, London, and linguist, Hebrew linguist. ... David de Sola Pool Title page of Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682–1831 (1952), by David De Sola Pool. ... Shem Tob Gaguine was a British Sephardic Rabbi. ... Marc D.Angel is Rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel, the historic Spanish and Portuguese synagogue in New York City. ...

Other prominent personalities

Rabbi Isaac Abrabanel (1437–1508) Isaac ben Judah or Yitzchak ben Yehuda Abravanel (1437 - 1508) (Hebrew: יצחק בן יהודה אברבנאל) was a Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier. ... Abraham Zacuto (אברהם זכות) (portuguese: Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto) was a Spanish astronomer, mathematician and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th Century to King John II of Portugal. ... Abraham Cohen de Herrera also known as Alonso Nunez de Herrera or Abaham Irira (ca. ... Doña Gracia Mendes Nasi (Gracia is Spanish for the Hebrew Hannah; also known as Beatrice de Luna Miques, her Christianized name; 1510–1569) was one of the wealthiest Jewish women of Renaissance Europe. ... Joseph Nasi (also known as João Miquez) was influential in the Ottoman court of both Sultan Suleiman I and his son Selim II. He was appointed the Lord of Tiberias, with the expressed aim of resettling Jews and encouraging industry there. ... Isaac de Pinto (1717 - August 14, 1787 in the Hague) was a dutch jew of Portuguese origin. ... Gershom Mendes Seixas (1745-1816) was the minister of Congregation Shearith Israel, the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of New York from 1768 to 1776 and again from 1784 to 1816. ... Moshe Montefiori and his wind mill. ... Grace Aguilar (1816 - 1847), a novelist and writer on Jewish history and religion, was born at Hackney of Jewish parents of Spanish descent. ... Isaac DIsraeli in a portrait from 1797. ... Moses Angel (29 April 1819 - 1898 London) was headmaster at the Jews Free School (JFS) in Bell Lane, Spitalfields from 1842 onwards. ... Philip Guedalla (March 12, 1889 – December 16, 1944) was a British barrister, and a popular historical and travel writer and biographer. ... Ophir Pines-Paz (Hebrew: , born 11 July 1961) is an Israeli politician and former Interior Minister. ... Benjamin Nathan Cardozo (May 24, 1870–July 9, 1938) is considered one of the greatest American jurists, and is remembered not only for his landmark decisions on negligence but also his modesty, philosophy and writing style, which is considered remarkable for its prose and vividness. ...

See also

In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Jews in Portugal is directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities who have originated in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, but also Morocco). ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... As a result of the Inquisition, many Sephardim (so-called Spanish and Portuguese Jews) left the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15th century and throughout the 16th century, in search for religious freedom. ... History of Marranos in England: (This page is part of the History of the Jews in England) // Arrival of Maranos Toward the middle of the seventeenth century a considerable number of Marrano merchants settled in London and formed there a secret congregation, at the head of which was Antonio Fernandez... Sephardic Judaism is used in this article to describe the religious practices of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as these are peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim. ... Anusim (Hebrew, forced ones) is a term describing unwilling converts from Judaism to another religion. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt...

Bibliography

General

  • Angel, Marc D.: Remnant Of Israel: A Portrait Of America's First Jewish Congregation: ISBN 1-878351-62-1
  • Birmingham, S., The Grandees: America's Sephardic Elite: Syracuse 1971 repr. 1997 ISBN 0-8156-0459-9
  • de Sola Pool, David and Tamar, An Old Faith in the New World: New York, Columbia University Press, 1955. ISBN 0-231-02007-4
  • Dobrinsky, Herbert C.: A treasury of Sephardic laws and customs : the ritual practices of Syrian, Moroccan, Judeo-Spanish and Spanish and Portuguese Jews of North America. Revised ed. Hoboken, N.J.: KTAV; New York, N.Y. : Yeshiva Univ. Press, 1988. ISBN 0-88125-031-7
  • Gubbay, Lucien and Levy, Abraham, The Sephardim: Their Glorious Tradition from the Babylonian Exile to the Present Day: paperback ISBN 1-85779-036-7; hardback ISBN 0-8276-0433-5 (a more general work but with notable information on the present day London S&P community)
  • Hyamson, M., The Sephardim of England: A History of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish Community 1492-1951: London 1951
  • Laski, Neville, The Laws and Charities of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Congregation of London
  • Meijer, Jaap (ed.), Encyclopaedia Sefardica Neerlandica: Uitgave van de Portugees-Israëlietische Gemeente: Amsterdam, 1949-1950 (2 vol., in Dutch)
  • Studemund-Halévy, Michael & Koj, P. (publ.), Sefarden in Hamburg: zur Geschichte einer Minderheit: Hamburg 1993–1997 (2 vol.)

Marc D.Angel is Rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel, the historic Spanish and Portuguese synagogue in New York City. ... David de Sola Pool Title page of Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682–1831 (1952), by David De Sola Pool. ... Rabbi Dr. Moses Hyamson (September 3, 1862 – June 9, 1949) was an Orthodox Jewish rabbi, former head Dayan of the London Beth Din and between 1911 and 1913, acting Chief Rabbi of the British Empire. ...

Caribbean

  • Ezratty, Harry A.500 Years in the Jewish Caribbean: The Spanish & Portuguese Jews in the West Indies, Omni Arts Publishers (November 2002); hardback ISBN 0-942929-18-7, paperback ISBN 0-942929-07-1
  • Spanish and Portuguese Jews in the Caribbean and the Guianas: A Bibliography (Hardcover) John Carter Brown Library (June 1999) ISBN 0-916617-52-1
  • Arbell, Mordechai. The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean: The Spanish-Portuguese Jewish Settlements in the Caribbean and the Guianas ISBN 965-229-279-6
  • Arbell, Mordechai. The Portuguese Jews of Jamaica ISBN 976-8125-69-1

Synagogue Architecture

  • Kadish, Sharman; Bowman, Barbara; and Kendall, Derek, Bevis Marks Synagogue 1701-2001: A Short History of the Building and an Appreciation of Its Architecture (Survey of the Jewish Built Heritage in the United Kingdom & Ireland): ISBN 1-873592-65-5
  • Treasures of a London temple: A descriptive catalogue of the ritual plate, mantles and furniture of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Synagogue in Bevis Marks: London 1951 ASIN B0000CI83D

Ritual

  • Rodrigues Pereira, Martinus M.: חָכְמַת שְׁלֹמֹה (‘Hochmat Shelomoh) : Wisdom of Solomon. Tara Publications, 1994
  • Whitehill, G. H., The Mitsvot of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Congregation, London (Sha'ar Hashamayim): A guide for Parnasim: London 1969
  • Gaguine, Shem Tob, Keter Shem Tob, 7 vols (in Hebrew)

Shem Tob Gaguine was a British Sephardic Rabbi. ...

Reza books (siddurim)

  • Venice edition, 1524: reproduced in photostat in Remer, Siddur and Sefer Tefillat ִHayim, Jerusalem 2003
  • Libro de Oraciones, Ferrara 1552 (Spanish only)
  • Menasseh ben Israel, Orden de Ros Asanah y Kipúr: Amsterdam 1630 (Spanish only)
  • Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews’ Congregation, London (5 vols.): Oxford (Oxford Univ. Press, Vivian Ridler), 5725 - 1965
  • Book of Prayer: According to the Custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews David de Sola Pool, New York: Union of Sephardic Congregations, 1979
  • Gaon, Solomon, Minhath Shelomo: a commentary on the Book of prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews: New York 1990.

Menasseh Ben Israel (1604-1657), Jewish rabbi, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam in 1626. ... Vivian Ridler Vivian Ridler was Printer to the University at Oxford University Press from 1958 to 1978. ... David de Sola Pool Title page of Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682–1831 (1952), by David De Sola Pool. ...

Music

  • Adler, Israel: Musical life and traditions of the Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam in the XVIIIth century. (Yuval Monograph Series; v. 1.) Jerusalem : Magnes, 1974.
  • Aguilar, Emanuel & De Sola, David A.: טללי זמרה. Sephardi melodies, being the traditional liturgical chants of the Spanish & Portuguese Jews’ Congregation London. Publ. by the Society of Heshaim with the sanction of the Board of Elders of the Congregation. Oxford Univ. Press, 5691 - 1931.
  • Kanter, Maxine Ribstein: “High Holy Day hymn melodies in the Spanish and Portuguese synagogues of London,” in Journal of Synagogue Music X (1980), No. 2, pp. 12–44
  • Kramer, Leon & Guttmann, Oskar: Kol Shearit Yisrael: Synagogue Melodies Transcontinental Music Corporation, New York, 1942.
  • Lopes Cardozo, Abraham: Sephardic songs of praise according to the Spanish-Portuguese tradition as sung in the synagogue and home. New York, 1987.
  • Seroussi, Edwin: Spanish-Portuguese synagogue music in nineteenth-century Reform sources from Hamburg : ancient tradition in the dawn of modernity. (Yuval Monograph Series; XI) Jerusalem : Magnes, 1996. ISSN 0334-3758
  • Swerling, Norman P.: Romemu-Exalt : the music of the Sephardic Jews of Curaçao. Tara Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-933676-79-4

External links

Synagogues

Congregations

  • BEIT ISRAEL - Jewish Masorti Congregation - Lisbon, Portugal
  • Congregation Mickve Israel, Savannah, GA, USA
  • Congregation Mikvé Israel–Emanuel in Willemstad, Curaçao

Educational Institutions

  • Naima Jewish Preparatory School (London)
  • Ets Haim Library (Amsterdam)

Music

  • Spanish and Portuguese Jewish Liturgical Music
  • Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue Choir, London
  • Daniel Halfon, Hazan of Spanish and Portuguese Liturgical Music
  • Amsterdam Portuguese Chazzanut: Spanish and Portuguese Chazzanut & Minhagim (Customs) in the Esnoga

Other

  • Sephardic Jews in Jamaica
  • Site of Hakham Yaaqob haLevi de Oliveira s"t, Israel

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sephardi Jews - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4896 words)
However, the spread of Jews into Europe is most commonly associated with the Diaspora which ensued from the Roman conquest of Judea, emigration from the land of Israel, into the greater Roman Mediterranean area antedated the destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of the Romans under Titus.
Their Spanish or Portuguese was a lingua franca that enabled Sephardim from different countries to engage in commerce and diplomacy.
Assis, Yom Tov, The Jews of Spain: From Settlement to Expulsion, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1988)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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