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Encyclopedia > Spanish Inquisition
The seal of the Spanish Inquisition depicts the cross, the branch and the sword.

The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1481 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. It was not definitively abolished until 1834, during the reign of Isabel II. Inquisition can refer to: Inquisition, the name given to a number of historical movements in the Roman Catholic Church Protestant Inquisition, the persecution of alleged heretics by Protestants in the years immediately following the Reformation. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand is a Germanic given name composed of the words for prepared and journey. ... A number of famous people in history were named Isabella: Queen Isabella of Angouleme (1187-1246), wife of John of England Queen Isabella of Castile (1451-1504), Queen regnant of Castile Queen Isabella of France (1292-1358), wife of Edward II of England Queen Isabella of Jerusalem (1170-1205), Queen... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was queen of Spain. ...


The Inquisition, as an ecclesiastical tribunal, had jurisdiction only over baptized Christians. However, since Jews (in 1492) and Muslim Moors (in 1502) had been banished from Spain, jurisdiction of the Inquisition during a large part of its history extended in practice to all royal subjects. The Inquisition worked in large part to ensure the orthodoxy of recent converts known as conversos, or marranos. This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ...

Contents

Summary

The Spanish Inquisition was an institution that had precedents in other Inquisitions. In the 15th century, as the kingdoms of Castille and Aragon united under the Catholic monarchs and concluded the Reconquista with the conquest of Granada, anxiety about the cultural unity of the country grew. Suspicions were especially raised against Jews who had recently converted to Christianity, called conversos or derogatively marranos, as many doubted the sincerity of these conversions. Indeed, many Jews had been baptized to escape violent anti-Jewish outbursts around 1400. In 1492, the Alhambra Decree ordered all remaining Jews to leave the kingdoms, causing more Jews to convert to Christianity rather than leave Spain. This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Various motives have been proposed for the monarchs to start the Inquisition, such as increased political authority, weakening opposition, doing away with conversos and sheer profit.


Ferdinand II of Aragon pressured pope Sixtus IV to agree to let him set up an Inquisition controlled by the monarchy by threatening to withdraw military support at a time when the Turks were a threat to Rome. Sixtus IV later accused the Spanish inquisition of being overzealous, accused the monarchs for being greedy and issued a bull to stop it, but he was pressured into withdrawing the bull. On both occasions Sixtus IV went along with Ferdinand II of Aragon.[1] Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... A Papal bull is a particular type of patent or charter issued by a pope. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ...


During the 16th century a new target was found: Protestants. About 100 were burned as heretics. An index of prohibited books was drawn up that were alleged to contain heresy. In time, converts from Islam, called Moriscos, were also persecuted by the Holy Office. The Spanish Inquisition was an institution at the service of the monarchy, but had to follow procedures set up by the Holy See. Most of the inquisitors had a university education in law. The procedures would start with Edicts of Grace, where people were invited to step forward to confess heresy freely and to denounce others. Denunciations were followed by detentions. A defense counsel was assigned to the defendant, a member of the tribunal itself, whose role was simply to advise the defendant and to encourage him or her to speak the truth. A Notary of the Secreto meticulously wrote down the words of the accused. The archives of the Inquisition, in comparison to those of other judicial systems of the era, are striking in the completeness of their documentation. The percentage of cases where torture was used, which was as a means of getting confessions, varied. Sentences varied from fines to execution and those condemned had to participate in the ceremony of auto de fe. The arrival of the 18th century slowed inquisitorial activity and it was definitively abolished on July 15, 1834. From 1476 to 1834 probably between 3,000 and 5,000 people were executed. For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the mid-16th century to the mid-17th century, a time when Europe was torn apart by Catholic-Protestant strife, there began to appear from the pens of various European Protestant intellectuals, who generally had minimal or no direct access or experience of the Inquisition, what has come to be known as the Black Legend, as part of the Protestant polemic in support of the Reformation. With the gradual ebbing of religious hostilities professional historians began investigations, giving a detailed, nuanced and less exaggerated picture of the Inquisition. And, above all, showing also the same procedings between the accusers. For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Precedents

An inquisition was created through the papal bull Ad Abolendam, issued at the end of the 12th century by Pope Lucius III as a way to combat the Albigensian heresy in southern France. There were a number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages. In the Kingdom of Aragon, a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition was established by the statute of Excommunicamus of Pope Gregory IX, in 1232, during the era of the Albigensian heresy. Its principal representative was Raimundo de Peñafort. With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the 15th century, it was almost forgotten although still there according to the law. This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... A Papal bull is a particular type of patent or charter issued by a pope. ... Lucius III, né Ubaldo Allucingoli (1097 – November 25, 1185), was pope from September 1, 1181 to his death. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  – English  – Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166... Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti ( 1143–August 22, 1241), pope from 1227 to 1241, the successor of Honorius III, fully inherited the traditions of Gregory VII and of his uncle Innocent III, and zealously perpetuated their policy of Papal supremacy. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... St. ...


There was never a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition in Castile. Members of the episcopate were charged with surveillance of the faithful and punishment of transgressors. However, in Castile during the Middle Ages, little attention was paid to heresy. Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Episcopalian government in the church is rule by a hierarchy of bishops (Greek: episcopoi). ...


Background

The Spanish Inquisition was motivated in part by the multi-religious nature of Spanish society following the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors (Muslims). Much of the Iberian Peninsula was dominated by Moors following their invasion of the peninsula in 711 until they were expelled by means of a long campaign of reconquest. However, the reconquest did not result in the full expulsion of Muslims from Spain, but instead yielded a multi-religious society made up of Catholics, Jews and Muslims. Granada to the south, in particular remained under Moorish control until 1492, and large cities, especially Seville, Valladolid, and Barcelona, had large Jewish populations centred in Juderías[2]. For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see moor. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


The reconquest produced a relatively peaceful co-existence - although not without periodic conflicts - among Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the peninsula's kingdoms. There was a long tradition of Jewish service to the crown of Aragon. Ferdinand's father John II named the Jewish Abiathar Crescas to be Court Astronomer. Jews occupied many important posts, religious and political. Castile itself had an unofficial rabbi. Juan II (March 6, 1405 – July 20, 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. ... Abiathar Crescas was a Jewish physician and astrologer. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ...


Nevertheless, in some parts of Spain towards the end of the 14th century, there was a wave of anti-Judaism, encouraged by the preaching of Ferrant Martinez, Archdeacon of Ecija. The pogroms of June 1391 were especially bloody: in Seville, hundreds of Jews were killed, and the synagogue was completely destroyed. The number of people killed was equally high in other cities, such as Cordoba, Valencia and Barcelona.[3] This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... Écija is a city belonging to the province of Seville, Spain. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


One of the consequences of these disturbances was the mass conversion of Jews. Before this date, conversions were rare and tended to be motivated more for social rather than religious reasons.[citation needed] But from the 15th century, a new social group appeared: conversos, also called New Christians, who were distrusted by Jews and Christians alike for their religious beliefs. By converting, Jews could not only escape eventual persecution, but also obtain entry into many offices and posts that were being prohibited to Jews through new, more severe regulations. But converting was a hard long process involving many crucial steps and could not be done overnight. Many conversos attained important positions in 15th century Spain. Among many others, physicians Andrés Laguna and Francisco Lopez Villalobos (Ferdinand's court physician), writers Juan del Enzina, Juan de Mena, Diego de Valera and Alonso de Palencia, and bankers Luis de Santangel and Gabriel Sanchez (who financed the voyage of Christopher Colombus) were all conversos. Conversos - not without opposition - managed to attain high positions in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, at times becoming severe detractors of Judaism.[4] Some even received titles of nobility, and as a result, during the following century some works attempted to demonstrate that virtually all of the nobles of Spain were descended from Jews.[5] In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... This biography does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Juan de la Encina (1469-ca. ... Juan de Mena (1411-1456) was a Spanish poet from Cordova. ... Luis de Santangel, (d. ... No authentic contemporary portrait of Columbus has been found; this late 19th-century engraving is one of many conjectural images For information about the director, see the article on Chris Columbus. ...


Motives for instituting the Spanish Inquisition

Historians differ about Ferdinand and Isabella's motives for introducing the Inquisition into Spain. A number of possible reasons have been suggested:

  1. To establish political and religious homogeneity. The Inquisition allowed the monarchy to intervene actively in religious affairs, without the interference of the Pope. At the same time, Ferdinand and Isabella's objective was the creation of an efficient state machinery; thus one of their priorities was to achieve religious unity to promote more centralized political authority.
  2. To weaken local political opposition to the Catholic monarchs. Strengthening centralized political authority also entailed weakening local political opposition. Resistance to the installation of the Inquisition in the Kingdom of Aragon, for example, was often couched in terms of local legal privileges (fueros).
  3. Out of fear. The Jewish Encyclopedia of 1991 (Vol XI, p.485) states that, "It remains a fact that the Jews, either directly or through their correligionists in Africa, encouraged the Mohammedans to conquer Spain." Whether real or imagined there was a great fear among 15th Century Spaniards that they had a Fifth column living among them.[6]
  4. To do away with the powerful converso minority. Many members of influential families such as the Santa Fés, the Santangels, the Caballerias and the Sanchezes, were prosecuted in the Kingdom of Aragon. However the King of Aragon, Ferdinand, continued to employ many conversos in his administration.
  5. Profit. The property of people found guilty by the Inquisition was confiscated. Sixtus IV openly accused the monarchs of this sin.

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... A fifth column is a group of people which clandestinely undermines a larger group to which it is expected to be loyal, such as a nation. ...

Activity of the Inquisition

Beginnings

Alonso de Hojeda, a Dominican from Seville, convinced Queen Isabel of the existence of Crypto-Judaism among Andalusian conversos during her stay in Seville between 1477 and 1478.[7] A report, produced at the request of the monarchs by Pedro González de Mendoza, Archbishop of Seville and by the Segovian Dominican Tomás de Torquemada, corroborated this assertion. The monarchs decided to introduce the Inquisition to Castile to uncover and do away with false converts, and requested the Pope's assent. At first the request was turned down for a number of reasons. One reason was that they had requested the Spanish Inquisition to be under the control of the monarchs of Spain. This in turn would lessen papal authority over the clergy involved and make methods difficult to keep in line with official papal rules of inquisition, and instead easily become a mere political and semi-military tool of Spain. Ferdinand pressured Sixtus IV by threatening to withdraw militarily support during a time when the Turks were a major threat to Rome. On November 1, 1477, Pope Sixtus IV published the bull Exigit Sinceras Devotionis Affectus, through which the Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. The bull also gave the monarchs exclusive authority to name the inquisitors. The first two inquisitors, Miguel de Morillo and Juan de San Martín were not named, however, until two years later, on September 27, 1480 in Medina del Campo. Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering... Pedro González de Mendoza (May 3, 1428 - January 11, 1495), Spanish cardinal and statesman, was the fourth son of Íñigo López de Mendoza, marquess of Santillana, and duke of Infantado. ... Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada “Torquemada” redirects here. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Annual temperature average: 11,6ºC Annual range of temperatures: 18,4ºC Annual precipitations: 392 mm/m² Dry months: June, July, August and September Months with average temperatures under 0ºC: none Climate: MEDITERRANEAN CONTINENTALIZED // Introduction Medina del Campo is a small town located in the middle of de...


At first, the activity of the Inquisition was limited to the dioceses of Seville and Cordoba, where Alonso de Hojeda had detected the centre of converso activity. The first auto de fe was celebrated in Seville on February 6, 1481: six people were burned alive. The sermon was given by the same Alonso de Hojeda whose suspicions had given birth to the Inquisition. From there, the Inquisition grew rapidly in the Kingdom of Castile. By 1492, tribunals existed in eight Castilian cities: Ávila, Córdoba, Jaén, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Sigüenza, Toledo and Valladolid. Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Complete name of this city: Ávila de los Caballeros Ávila is a town in the south of Old Castile, the capital of the province of the same name, now part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Annual temperature average: 11,6ºC Annual range of temperatures: 18,4ºC Annual precipitations: 392 mm/m² Dry months: June, July, August and September Months with average temperatures under 0ºC: none Climate: MEDITERRANEAN CONTINENTALIZED // Introduction Medina del Campo is a small town located in the middle of de... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Siguenza (in Latin Segontia) is a city and Roman Catholic episcopal see in the province of Guadalajara in Spain. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ...


Establishing the new Inquisition in the Kingdom of Aragón was more difficult. In reality, Ferdinand did not resort to new appointments, he simply resuscitated the old Pontifical Inquisition, submitting it to his direct control. The population of Aragón was obstinately opposed to the Inquisition. In addition, differences between Ferdinand and Sixtus IV prompted the latter to promulgate a new bull categorically prohibiting the Inquisition's extension to Aragon. In this bull, the Pope unambiguously criticized the procedures of the inquisitorial court, affirming that,

many true and faithful Christians, because of the testimony of enemies, rivals, slaves and other low people--and still less appropriate--without tests of any kind, have been locked up in secular prisons, tortured and condemned like relapsed heretics, deprived of their goods and properties, and given over to the secular arm to be executed, at great danger to their souls, giving a pernicious example and causing scandal to many.[8]

Nevertheless, pressure[citation needed] by Ferdinand caused the Pope to suspend this bull, and even promulgate another one, on October 17, 1483, naming Tomás de Torquemada Inquisidor General of Aragón, Valencia and Catalonia. With it, the Inquisition became the only institution with authority throughout all the kingdoms of the Spanish monarchy, and, in all of them, a useful mechanism at the service of the crown. However, the cities of Aragón continued resisting, and even saw periods of revolt, like in Teruel from 1484 to 1485. However, the murder of inquisidor Pedro Arbués in Zaragoza on September 15, 1485, caused public opinion to turn against the conversos and in favour of the Inquisition. In Aragón, the inquisitorial courts were focused specifically on members of the powerful converso minority, ending their influence in the Aragonese administration. is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... View of the mudéjar Cathedral of Teruel Teruel is a city in Aragon, Spain, the capital of Teruel Province. ... Depiction of Pedro de Arbués with the crown and palm of martyrdom Pedro de Arbués (ca. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ...


The Inquisition was extremely active between 1480 and 1530. Different sources give different estimates of the number of trials and executions in this period; Henry Kamen estimates about 2,000 executed, based on the documentation of the Autos de Fé, the great majority being conversos of Jewish origin.[9]


The number of Jews who left Spain is not even approximately known. Historians of the period give extremely high figures: Juan de Mariana speaks of 800,000 people, and Don Isaac Abravanel of 300,000. Modern estimates are much lower: Henry Kamen estimates that, of a population of approximately 80,000 Jews, about one half or 40,000 chose emigration [10]. The Jews of the kingdom of Castile emigrated mainly to Portugal (from where they were expelled in 1497) and to Morocco. However, according to Henry Kamen, the Jews of the kingdom of Aragon, went "to adjacent Christian lands, mainly to Italy," rather than to Muslim lands as is often assumed [11]. Much later the Sefardim, descendants of Spanish Jews, established flourishing communities in many cities of Europe, North Africa, and the Ottoman Empire. Juan de Mariana Juan de Mariana, (1536, Talavera - February 17th 1624, Madrid), was a Spanish historian. ... This article or section should be merged with Isaac Abrabanel. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Many Jews were baptised in the three months before the deadline for expulsion, some 40,000 if one accepts the totals given by Kamen: probably most were to avoid expulsion, rather than a sincere change of faith. These conversos were the principal concern of the Inquisition; continuing to practice Judaism put them at risk of denunciation and trial.


The most intense period of persecution of conversos lasted until 1530. From 1531 to 1560, however, the percentage of conversos among the Inquisition trials dropped to 3% of the total. There was a rebirth of persecutions when a group of crypto-Jews was discovered in Quintanar de la Orden in 1588; and there was a rise in denunciations of conversos in the last decade of the 16th century. At the beginning of the 17th century, some conversos who had fled to Portugal began to return to Spain, fleeing the persecution of the Portuguese Inquisition, founded in 1532. This led to a rapid increase in the trials of crypto-Jews, among them a number of important financiers. In 1691, during a number of Autos de Fe in Mallorca, 36 chuetas, or conversos of Mallorca, were burned. Country Autonomous community Province Toledo Municipality Quintanar de la Orden Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 691 m (2,267 ft) Population (2006)  - City 10,471  - Density 119. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... Location Location of Mallorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ...


During the 18th century the number of conversos accused by the Inquisition decreased significantly. Manuel Santiago Vivar, tried in Cordoba in 1818, was the last person tried for being a crypto-Jew.


Repression of Protestants

Conversos saw the 1516 arrival of Charles I, the new king of Spain, as a possible end to the Inquisition, or at least a reduction of its influence. Nevertheless, despite reiterated petitions from the Cortes of Castile and Aragon, the new monarch left the inquisitorial system intact.[12] For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Pablo Cortés, 18th century Spanish slave trader Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...


During the 16th century, however, the majority of trials were not focused on conversos. Instead, the Inquisition became an efficient mechanism to prune the few buds of Protestantism that had begun to appear in Spain. Some claim that a large percentage of these Protestants were of Jewish origin.[citation needed] Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


Depite much popular myth about the Inquisition relating to Protestants, it dealt with very few cases involving actual Protestants, as there were so few in Spain. About 100 persons in Spain were found to be Protestants and turned over to the secular authorities for execution in the 1560s and in the last decades of the century, an additional 200 Spaniards were accused of being followers of Luther. “Most of them were in no sense Protestants...Irreligious sentiments, drunken mockery, anticlerical expressions, were all captiously classified by the inquisitors (or by those who denounced the cases) as ‘Lutheran.’ Disrespect to church images, and eating meat on forbidden days, were taken as signs of heresy.”[13]


The first of these trials were those against the sect of mystics known as the "Alumbrados" of Guadalajara and Valladolid. The trials were long, and ended with prison sentences of differing lengths, though none of the sect were executed. Nevertheless, the subject of the "Alumbrados" put the Inquisition on the trail of many intellectuals and clerics who, interested in the Erasmian ideas, had strayed from orthodoxy (which is striking because both Charles I and Philip II of Spain were confessed admirers of Erasmus). Such was the case with the humanist Juan de Valdés, who was forced to flee to Italy to escape the process that had been begun against him, and the preacher, Juan de Ávila, who spent close to a year in prison. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Illuminati is the name of many groups, modern and historical, real and fictitious, verified and alleged. ... Guadalajara province Guadalajara is a province of central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Juan de Valdés (c. ... Saint John of Avila (in Spanish Juan dAvila, Apostle of Andalusia) (b. ...


The first trials against Lutheran groups, as such, took place between 1558 and 1562, at the beginning of the reign of Philip II, against two communities of Protestants from the cities of Valladolid and Seville.[14] The trials signaled a notable intensification of the Inquisition's activities. A number of enormous Autos de Fe were held, some of them presided over by members of the royal family.[15] After 1562, though the trials continued, the repression was much reduced, and it is estimated that only a dozen Spaniards were burned alive for Lutheranism by the end of the 16th century, although some 200 faced trial.[16] The Autos de Fe of the mid-century virtually put an end to Spanish Protestantism which was, throughout, a small phenomenon to begin with. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


Censorship

An image frequently misinterpreted as the Spanish Inquisition burning prohibited books. This is actually Pedro Berruguete's La Prueba del Fuego (1400s). It depicts a legend of St Dominic's dispute with the Cathars: they both consign their writings into the flames, and while the Cathars' text burn, St Dominic's miraculously leaps from the flames.
An image frequently misinterpreted as the Spanish Inquisition burning prohibited books. This is actually Pedro Berruguete's La Prueba del Fuego (1400s). It depicts a legend of St Dominic's dispute with the Cathars: they both consign their writings into the flames, and while the Cathars' text burn, St Dominic's miraculously leaps from the flames.

As one manifestation of the Counter-Reformation, the Spanish Inquisition worked actively to impede the diffusion of heretical ideas in Spain by producing "Indexes" of prohibited books. Such lists of prohibited books were common in Europe a decade before the Inquisition published its first. The first Index published in Spain in 1551 was, in reality, a reprinting of the Index published by the University of Louvain in 1550, with an appendix dedicated to Spanish texts. Subsequent Indexes were published in 1559, 1583, 1612, 1632, and 1640. The Indexes included an enormous number of books of all types, though special attention was dedicated to religious works, and, particularly, vernacular translations of the Bible. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1216x1842, 3496 KB) Spanish painting from the 1400s showing the Inquisition burning books. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1216x1842, 3496 KB) Spanish painting from the 1400s showing the Inquisition burning books. ... Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe by Pedro Berruguete (1475), at the Prado Museum, Madrid. ... St Dominic presiding over an auto de fe, Spanish, 1475 Saint Dominic (born at Calaroga, Spain, around 1170; died August 6, 1221, at Bologna, Italy) founded the Dominican Order. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...


Included in the Indexes, at one point or another, were many of the great works of Spanish literature. Also, a number of religious writers who are today considered saints by the Catholic Church saw their works appear in the Indexes. At first, this might seem counter-intuitive or even nonsensical — how were these Spanish authors published in the first place if their texts were only to be prohibited by the Inquisition and placed in the Index? The answer lies in the process of publication and censorship in Early Modern Spain. Books in Early Modern Spain faced prepublication licensing and approval (which could include modification) by both secular and religious authorities. However, once approved and published, the circulating text also faced the possibility of post-hoc censorship by being denounced to the Inquisition — sometimes decades later. Likewise, as Catholic theology evolved, once prohibited texts might be removed from the Index.


At first, inclusion in the Index meant total prohibition of a text, however this proved not only impractical and unworkable, but also contrary to the goals of having a literate and well educated clergy. Works with one line of suspect dogma would be prohibited in their entirety, despite the remainder of the text's sound dogma. In time, a compromise solution was adopted in which trusted Inquisition officials blotted out words, lines or whole passages of otherwise acceptable texts thus allowing these expurgated editions to circulate. Although, in theory, the Indexes imposed enormous restrictions on the diffusion of culture in Spain, some historians, such as Henry Kamen argue that such strict control was impossible in practice and that there was much more liberty in this respect than is often believed. And Irving Leonard has conclusively demonstrated that, despite repeated royal prohibitions, romances of chivalry, such as Amadis of Gaul, found their way to the New World with the blessing of the Inquisition. Moreover, with the coming of the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, increasing numbers of licenses to possess and read prohibited texts were granted. Amadis of Gaul is a work of fiction on the subject of Portugal and it was probably written in the early 14th Century. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ...


Despite repeated publication of the Indexes and a large bureaucracy of censors, the activities of the Inquisition did not impede the flowering of Spanish literature's "Siglo de Oro," although almost all of its major authors crossed paths with the Holy Office at one point or another. Among the Spanish authors included in the Index are: Bartolomé Torres Naharro, Juan del Enzina, Jorge de Montemayor, Juan de Valdés and Lope de Vega, as well as the anonymous Lazarillo de Tormes and the Cancionero General by Hernando del Castillo. La Celestina, which was not included in the Indexes of the 16th century, was expurgated in 1632 and prohibited in its entirety in 1790. Among the non-Spanish authors prohibited were Ovid, Dante, Rabelais, Ariosto, Machiavelli, Erasmus, Jean Bodin and Thomas More, known in Spain as Tomás Moro. One of the most outstanding cases, and best known, in which the Inquisition directly confronted literary activity is with Fray Luis de León, noted humanist and religious writer of converso origin, who was imprisoned for four years,(from 1572 to 1576) for having translated the Song of Songs directly from Hebrew. Juan de la Encina (1469-ca. ... Jorge de Montemayor (or Montemor) (1520? - February 26, 1561), Spanish novelist and poet, of Portuguese descent, was born at Montemor o Velho (near Coimbra), whence he derived his name, the Spanish form of which is Montemayor. ... Juan de Valdés (c. ... Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ... Title page of the 1554 edition The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes and of His Fortunes and Adversities is a Spanish novel, published anonymously, 1554, in Alcalá de Henares in Spain, and, in 1557, in Antwerp, Flanders, then under Spanish rule. ... The Celestina (used as title, synecdoche, one of the characters of the book actually called Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea or Libro de Calisto y Melibea y de la puta vieja Celestina) is a novel published anonymously by Fernando de Rojas (about whom we know little) in 1499. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... François Rabelais (ca. ... Ludovico Ariosto (September 8, 1474 _ July 6, 1533) was a Ferrarese poet, author of the epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), Orlando Enraged. He was born at Reggio, in Hungary in 1518, and wished Aniosto to accompany him. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Jean Bodin (1530-1596) was a French jurist, member of the Parliament of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Fray Luis de León (Cuenca, La Mancha Spain 1527 – 1591) was a scholar and poet of the Spanish Golden Age. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ...


The Inquisition and the Moriscos

The Inquisition did not exclusively target Jewish conversos and Protestants, but also the moriscos, converts to Catholicism from Islam. The moriscos were mostly concentrated in the recently conquered kingdom of Granada, in Aragon, and in Valencia. Officially, all Muslims in Castile had been converted to Christianity in 1502; those in Aragon and Valencia were obliged to convert by Charles I's decree of 1526. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Many moriscos continued to practice Islam in secret. Initially they were not severely persecuted, but experienced a policy of peaceful evangelization, a policy never followed with Jewish converts. There were various reasons for this: in the kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon, a large majority of the moriscos were under the jurisdiction of the nobility and persecution would have been viewed as a frontal assault on the economic interests of this powerful social class. In Granada, the principal problem was fear of rebellion in a particularly vulnerable region during an era when Ottoman Turks ruled the Mediterranean.[original research?] The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


In the second half of the century, late in the reign of Philip II, things changed. The 1568-1570 Morisco Revolt in Granada was harshly suppressed, and the Inquisition intensified its attention to the moriscos. From 1570 morisco cases became predominant in the tribunals of Zaragoza, Valencia and Granada; in the tribunal of Granada, between 1560 and 1571, 82% of those accused were moriscos. [17] Nevertheless, the moriscos did not experience the same harshness as Jewish ' conversos and Protestants, and the number of capital punishments was proportionally less. The Morisco Revolt occurred in 1568. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ...


On the 4th of April 1609, during the reign of Philip III a staged expulsion to conclude in 1614 was decreed. Hundreds of thousands of converts from Islam to Catholicism were expelled, some of them probably sincere Christians. An indeterminate number of moriscos remained in Spain and, during the 17th century, the Inquisition pursued some trials against them of minor importance: according to Kamen, between 1615 and 1700, cases against moriscos constituted only 9 percent of those judged by the Inquisition. April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ...


Other offenses

Two priests ask a heretic to repent as torture is administered.

Although the Inquisition was created to halt the advance of heresy, it also occupied itself with a wide variety of offences that only indirectly could be related to religious heterodoxy. Of a total of 49,092 trials from the period 1560–1700 registered in the archive of the Suprema, appear the following: judaizantes (5,007); moriscos (11,311); Lutherans (3,499); alumbrados (149); superstitions (3,750); heretical propositions (14,319); bigamy (2,790); solicitation (1,241); offences against the Holy Office of the Inquisition (3,954); miscellaneous (2,575).[citation needed] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Illuminati is the name of many groups, modern and historical, real and fictitious, verified and alleged. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ...


This data demonstrates that not only New Christians (conversos of Jewish or Islamic descent) and Protestants faced persecution, but also many Old Christians were targeted for various reasons. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


The category "superstitions" includes trials related to witchcraft. The witch-hunt in Spain had much less intensity than in other European countries (particularly France, England, and Germany). One remarkable case was that of Logroño, in which the witches of Zugarramurdi in Navarre were persecuted. During the Auto de Fe that took place in Logroño on November 7 and November 8, 1610, 6 people were burned and another 5 burned in effigy.[18]. In general, nevertheless, the Inquisition maintained a sceptical attitude towards cases of witchcraft, considering it as a mere superstition without any basis. Alonso de Salazar Frías, who, after the trials of Logroño took the Edict of Faith to various parts of Navarre, noted in his report to the Suprema that, "There were no witches nor bewitched in the region after beginning to speak and write about them". [19] “Witch” redirects here. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Francisco de Goyas Sabbat (19th century). ... Zugarramurdi is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Location within Rioja Media (La Rioja). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... “Witch” redirects here. ... Location within Rioja Media (La Rioja). ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ... This article is about an American television sitcom. ...


Included under the rubric of heretical propositions were verbal offences, from outright blasphemy to questionable statements regarding religious beliefs, from issues of sexual morality, to behaviour of the clergy. Many were brought to trial for affirming that simple fornication (sex without the explicit aim of procreation) was not a sin or for putting in doubt different aspects of Christian faith such as Transubstantiation or the virginity of Mary. Also, members of the clergy itself were occasionally accused of heretical propositions. These offences rarely lead to severe penalties. For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... Our Lady redirects here. ...


The Inquisition also pursued offences against morals, at times in open conflict with the jurisdictions of civil tribunals. In particular, there were numerous trials for bigamy, a relatively frequent offence in a society that only permitted divorce under the most extreme circumstances. In the case of men, the penalty was five years in the galley (tantamount to a death sentence). Women too were accused of bigamy. Also, many cases of solicitation during confession were adjudicated, indicating a strict vigilance over the clergy. Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ...


Inquisitorial repression of the sexual offences of homosexuality and bestiality, considered, according to Canon Law, crimes against nature, merits separate attention. Homosexuality, known at the time as sodomy, was punished by death by civil authorities. It fell under the jurisdiction of the Inquisition only in the territories of Aragon, when, in 1524, Clement VII, in a papal brief, granted jurisdiction over sodomy to the Inquisition of Aragon, whether or not it was related to heresy. In Castile, cases of sodomy were not adjudicated, unless related to heresy. The tribunal of Zaragoza distinguished itself for its severity in judging these offences: between 1571 and 1579 more than 100 men accused of sodomy were processed and at least 36 were executed; in total, between 1570 and 1630 there were 534 trials and 102 executions.[20] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Look up Bestiality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Capital Zaragoza Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  – English  – Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...


In 1815, Francisco Xavier de Mier y Campillo, the Inquisitor General of the Spanish Inquisition and the Bishop of Almería, suppressed Freemasonry and denounced the lodges as “societies which lead to sedition, to independence, and to all errors and crimes.”[21] He then instituted a purge during which Spaniards could be arrested on the charge of being “suspected of Freemasonry”.[21] A translation of the Latin Inquisitor Generalis, meaning the leading official of an Inquisition. ... “Freemasons” redirects here. ...


Organization

Beyond its role in religious affairs, the Inquisition was also an institution at the service of the monarchy. The Inquisitor General, in charge of the Holy Office, was designated by the crown. The Inquisitor General was the only public office whose authority stretched to all the kingdoms of Spain (including the American viceroyalties), except for a brief period (1507-1518) during where there were two Inquisitor Generals, one in the kingdom of Castile, and the other in Aragon. Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...


The Inquisitor General presided over the Council of the Supreme and General Inquisition (generally abbreviated as "Council of the Suprema"), created in 1483, which was made up of six members named directly by the crown (the number of members of the Suprema varied over the course of the Inquisition's history, but it was never more than 10). Over time, the authority of the Suprema grew at the expense of the power of the Inquisitor General.


The Suprema met every morning, save for holidays, and for two hours in the afternoon on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. The morning sessions were devoted to questions of faith, while the afternoons were reserved for cases of sodomy, bigamy, witchcraft, etc. [22] François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... “Witch” redirects here. ...


Below the Suprema were the different tribunals of the Inquisition, which were, in their origins, itinerant, installing themselves where they were necessary to combat heresy, but later being established in fixed locations. In the first phase, numerous tribunals were established, but the period after 1495 saw a marked tendency towards centralization.


In the kingdom of Castile, the following permanent tribunals of the Inquisition were established:

There were only four tribunals in the kingdom of Aragon: Zaragoza and Valencia (1482), Barcelona (1484), and Mallorca (1488). [23] Ferdinand the Catholic also established the Spanish Inquisition in Sicily (1513), housed in Palermo and Sardinia.[24] In the Americas, tribunals were established in Lima and in Mexico City (1569) and, in 1610, in Cartagena de Indias (present day Colombia). For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Llerena is: A place in Badajoz province, Spain, postal code 7049 A Hispanic surname, including the poet José A. Llerena This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Location of Cuenca in Spain Looking through an arch in old Cuenca Cuenca is a city (2004 pop. ... Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is a Spanish city, the capital city of Gran Canaria one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean, 210 kilometers located off the northwestern coast of Africa. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Location within Rioja Media (La Rioja). ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Location Location of Mallorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Bocagrande Cartagena San Pedro Square,Old City Cartagena Cartagena, Colombia, also known as Cartagena de Indias, is a large seaport on the north coast of Colombia. ...


Composition of the tribunals

Initially, each of the tribunals included two inquisitors, a calificador, an alguacil (bailiff) and a fiscal (prosecutor); new positions were added as the institution matured.


The inquisitors were preferably jurists more than theologians, and, in 1608, Philip III even stipulated that all the inquisitors must have a background in law. The inquisitors did not typically remain in the position for a long time: for the Court of Valencia, for example, the average tenure in the position was about two years.[25] Most of the inquisitors belonged to the secular clergy (priests, rather than members of the religious orders), and had a university education. Pay was 60,000 maravedíes at the end of the 15th century, and 250,000 maravedíes at the beginning of the 17th century! Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ...


The fiscal was in charge of presenting the accusation, investigating the denunciations and interrogating the witnesses. The calificadores were generally theologians; it fell to them to determine if the defendant's conduct constituted a crime against the faith. Consultants were expert jurists who advised the court in questions of procedure. The court had, in addition, three secretaries: the notario de secuestros (Notary of Property), who registered the goods of the accused at the moment of his detention; the notario del secreto (Notary of the Secreto), who recorded the testimony of the defendant and the witnesses; and the escribano general (General Notary), secretary of the court.


The alguacil was the executive arm of the court: he was responsible for detaining and jailing the defendant. Other civil employees were the nuncio, ordered to spread official notices of the court, and the alcalde, jailer in charge of feeding the prisoners.


In addition to the members of the court, two auxiliary figures existed that collaborated with the Holy Office: the familiares and the comissarios (commissioners). Familiares were lay collaborators of the Inquisition, who had to be permanently at the service of the Holy Office. To become a familiar was considered an honour, since it was a public recognition of limpieza de sangre — Old Christian status — and brought with it certain additional privileges. Although many nobles held the position, most of the familiares many came from the ranks of commoners. The commissioners, on the other hand, were members of the religious orders who collaborated occasionally with the Holy Office.


One of the most striking aspects of the organization of the Inquisition was its form of financing: devoid its own budget, the Inquisition depended exclusively on the confiscaciones of the goods of the denounced. It is not surprising, therefore, that many of those prosecuted were rich men. That the situation was open to abuse is evident, as stands out in the memorial that a converso from Toledo directed to Charles I: For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...


Your Majesty must provide, before all else, that the expenses of the Holy Office do not come from the properties of the condemned, because if that is the case, if they do not burn they do not eat.[26]


Functioning of the inquisition

The Inquisition operated in conformity with Canon Law of the Roman Catholic Church; its operations were in no way arbitrary. Its procedures were set out in various Instrucciones issued by the successive Inquisitors General, Torquemada, Deza, and Valdés. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


Accusation

When the Inquisition arrived in a city, the first step was the Edict of Grace. Following the Sunday mass, the Inquisitor would proceed to read the edict: it explained possible heresies and encouraged all the congregation to come to the tribunals of the Inquisition to "relieve their consciences". They were called Edicts of Grace because all of the self-incriminated who presented themselves within a period of grace (approximately one month) were offered the possibility of reconciliation with the Church without severe punishment. The promise of benevolence was effective, and many voluntarily presented themselves to the Inquisition. But self-incrimination was not sufficient, one also had to accuse all one's accomplices. As a result, the Inquisition had an unending supply of informants. With time, the Edicts of Grace were substituted by the Edicts of Faith doing away with the possibility of quick, painless reconciliation.


The denunciations were anonymous, and the defendant had no way of knowing the identity of his accusers.[27] This was one of the points most criticized by those who opposed the Inquisition (for example, the Cortes of Castile, in 1518). In practice, false denunciations were frequent, resulting from envy or personal resentments. Many denunciations were for absolutely insignificant reasons. The Inquisition stimulated fear and distrust among neighbours, and denunciations among relatives were not uncommon.


Detention

After a denunciation, the case was examined by the calificadores, who had to determine if there was heresy involved, followed by detention of the accused. In practice, however, many were detained in preventive custody, and many cases of lengthy incarcerations occurred, lasting up to two years, before the calificadores examined the case.[28]


Detention of the accused entailed the preventive sequestration of his or her property by the Inquisition. The property of the prisoner was used to pay for procedural expenses and the accused's own maintenance and costs. Often the relatives of the defendant found themselves in outright misery. This situation was only remedied following instructions written in 1561.


The entire process was undertaken with the utmost secrecy, as much for the public as for the accused, who were not informed about the accusations that were levied against them. Months, or even years could pass without the accused being informed about why they were locked up. The prisoners remained isolated, and, during this time, the prisoners were not allowed to attend mass nor receive the sacraments. The jails of the Inquisition were no worse than those of civil society, and there are even certain testimonies that occasionally they were much better. Some prisoners died in prison, as was frequent at the time. For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ...


The trial

The inquisitorial process consisted of a series of hearings, in which both the denouncers and the defendant gave testimony. A defense counsel was assigned to the defendant, a member of the tribunal itself, whose role was simply to advise the defendant and to encourage him or her to speak the truth. The prosecution was directed by the fiscal. Interrogation of the defendant was done in the presence of the Notary of the Secreto, who meticulously wrote down the words of the accused. The archives of the Inquisition, in comparison to those of other judicial systems of the era, are striking in the completeness of their documentation. In order to defend himself, the accused had two possibilities: abonos (to find favourable witnesses) or tachas (to demonstrate that the witnesses of accusers were not trustworthy).


In order to interrogate the criminals, the Inquisition made use of torture, but not in a systematic way. It was applied mainly against those suspected of Judaism and Protestantism, beginning in the 16th century. For example, Lea estimates that between 1575 and 1610 the court of Toledo tortured approximately a third of those processed for heresy.[29] In other periods, the proportions varied remarkably. Torture was always a means to obtain the confession of the accused, not a punishment itself. It was applied without distinction of sex or age, including children and the aged. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ...


The methods of torture most used by the Inquisition were garrucha, toca and the potro. The application of the garrucha, also known as the strappado, consisted of suspending the criminal from the ceiling by a pulley with weights tied to the ankles, with a series of lifts and drops, during which arms and legs suffered violent pulls and were sometimes dislocated.[30]. The toca, also called tortura del agua, consisted of introducing a cloth into the mouth of the victim, and forcing them to ingest water spilled from a jar so that they had impression of drowning.[31] The potro, the rack, was the instrument of torture used most frequently.[32] For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... The strappado is a form of torture in which a victim is suspended in the air by means of a rope attached to his hands which are tied behind his back. ... A torture rack in the Tower of London The rack is a term for certain physical punishment devices. ...


The assertion that "confessionem esse veram, non factam vi tormentorum" (the confession was true and free) sometimes follows a description of how, presently after torture ended, the subject freely confessed to his offenses. [33]


Some of the torture methods attributed to the Spanish Inquisition were never used. For example, the "Iron Maiden" never existed in Spain, and was a post-Reformation invention of Germany. Thumbscrews on display in an English museum as Spanish were recently argued to be of English origin. Various torture instruments. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Scottish thumbscrew Scottish thumbscrews This page is about the torture device. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Once the process concluded, the inquisidores met with a representative of the bishop and with the consultores, experts in theology or Canon Law, which was called the consulta de fe. The case was voted and sentence pronounced, which had to be unanimous. In case of discrepancies, the Suprema had to be informed. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


Sentencing

The results of the trial could be the following:

  1. The defendant could be acquitted. In actual practice, acquittals were very rare.
  2. The process could be suspended, in which the defendant went free, although under suspicion, and with the threat that his process could be continued at any time. Suspension was a form of acquittal without admitting specifically that the accusation had been erroneous.
  3. The defendant could be penanced. Considered guilty, he had to abjure publicly his crimes (de levi if it was a misdemeanor, and de vehementi if the crime were serious), and was condemned to punishment. Among these were the sambenito, exile, fines or even sentence to the galleys.
  4. The defendant could be reconciled. In addition to the public ceremony in which the condemned was reconciled with the Catholic Church, more severe punishments existed, among them long sentences to jail or the galleys, and the confiscation of all property. Also physical punishments existed, such as whipping.
  5. The most serious punishment was relaxation to the secular arm, that implied burning at the stake. This penalty was frequently applied to impenitent heretics and those who had relapsed. Execution was public. If the condemned repented, he was garroted before his body was given to the flames. If not, he was burned alive.

Frequently, cases were judged in absentia, and when the accused died before the trial finished, the condemned were burned in effigy. To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... A garrote (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, scarf, or wire used to strangle someone to death. ...


The distribution of the punishments varied much over time. It is believed that sentences of death were frequent mainly in the first stage of the history of the Inquisition (according to García Cárcel, the court of Valencia employed the death penalty in 40% of the processings before 1530, but later that percentage lowered to 3%). [34] Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ...


The Autos de Fe

For more details on this topic, see Auto de fe.

If the sentence were condemnatory, this implied that the condemned had to participate in the ceremony of an auto de fe, that solemnized his return to the Church (in most cases), or punishment as an impenitent heretic. The autos de fe could be private (auto particular) or public (auto publico or auto general). Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475). ...


Although initially the public autos did not have any special solemnity nor sought a large attendance of spectators, with time they became solemn ceremonies, celebrated with large public crowds, amidst a festive atmosphere. The auto de fe eventually became a baroque spectacle, with staging meticulously calculated to cause the greatest effect among the spectators. For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


The autos were conducted in a large public space (in the largest plaza of the city, frequently), generally on holidays. The rituals related to the auto began the previous night (the "procession of the Green Cross") and lasted the whole day sometimes. The auto de fe frequently was taken to the canvas by painters: one of the better known examples is the painting by Francesco Rizzi held by the Prado Museum in Madrid and which represents the auto celebrated in the Plaza Mayor of Madrid on June 30, 1680. The last public auto de fe took place in 1691. Prado may refer to: Land Cruiser Prado, a 4WD vehicle from Toyota Museo del Prado, an art gallery in Madrid Prado, Spain, a village in Castile-Leon the prado dam Prado River Miguelanxo Prado, a spanish comic book artist Ed Prado, a U.S. appeals court judge PRADO, a PHP... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ...


Decline of the inquisition

The arrival of the Enlightenment in Spain slowed inquisitorial activity. In the first half of the 18th century, 111 were condemned to be burned in person, and 117 in effigy, most of them for judaizing. In the reign of Philip V, there were 728 autos de fe, while in the reigns of Charles III and Charles IV only four condemned were burned. The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ...


With the Century of Lights, the Inquisition changed: Enlightenment ideas were the closest threat that had to be fought. The main figures of the Spanish Enlightenment were in favour of the abolition of the Inquisition, and many were processed by the Holy Office, among them Olavide, in 1776; Iriarte, in 1779; and Jovellanos, in 1796. The latter sent a report to Charles IV in which he indicated the inefficiency of the Inquisition's courts and the ignorance of those who operated them: Pablo de Olavide y Jáuregui (Lima, Peru, 1725 January 25 - Baeza, Spain, 1803 February 25) was a Spanish-Peruvian politician, lawyer and writer. ... Tomás de Iriarte (or Yriarte) y Oropesa (September 18, 1750 - September 17, 1791), Spanish poet, was born at Orotava in the island of Tenerife. ... Image:Jovellanos Location. ...

friars who take [the position] only to obtain gossip and exemption from choir; who are ignorant of foreign languages, who only know a little scholastic theology...[35] Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100 - 1500. ...

In its new role, the Inquisition tried to accentuate its function of censoring publications, but found that Charles III had secularized censorship procedures and, on many occasions, the authorization of the Council of Castile hit the more intransigent position of the Inquisition. Since the Inquisition itself was an arm of the state, being within the Council of Castile, it was generally civil censorship and not ecclesiastic that ended up prevailing. This loss of influence can also be explained because the foreign Enlightenment texts entered the peninsula through prominent members of the nobility or government,[36] influential people with whom it was very difficult to interfere. Thus, for example, Diderot's Encyclopedia entered Spain thanks to special licenses granted by the king. For other uses, see Censor. ... The Council of Castile (Consejos de Castilla, plural, in Spanish) was a high council for the domestic government of feudal Spain. ...


However, with the coming of the French Revolution, the Council of Castile, fearing that revolutionary ideas would penetrate Spain's borders, decided to reactivate the Holy Office that was directly charged with the persecution of French works. An Inquisition edict of December 1789, that received the full approval of Charles IV and Floridablanca, stated that: The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca, painted by Goya José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca (October 21, 1728 - December 30, 1808), Spanish statesman. ...

having news that several books have been scattered and promoted in these kingdoms... that, without being contented with the simple narration events of a seditious nature... seem to form a theoretical and practical code of independence from the legitimate powers.... destroying in this way the political and social order... the reading of thirty and nine French works is prohibited, under fine...[37]

However, inquisitorial activity was impossible in the face of the information avalanche that crossed the border, seeing in 1792 that,

the multitude of seditious papers... does not allow formalizing the files against those who introduce them...

The fight from within against the Inquisition almost always took place in clandestine form. The first texts that questioned the inquisitorial role and praised the ideas of Voltaire or Montesquieu appeared in 1759. After the suspension of pre-publication censorship on the part of the Council of Castile in 1785, the newspaper El Censor began the publication of protests against the activities of the Holy Office by means of a rationalist critique and, even, Valentin de Foronda published Espíritu de los Mejores Diarios, a plea in favour of freedom of expression that was avidly read in the salons. Also, Manuel de Aguirre, in the same vein, wrote, On Toleration in El Censor, El Correo de los Ciegos and El Diario de Madrid.[38] For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... A list of films produced in Argentina by year in the 1990s in the List of Argentine films // Argentine film at the Internet Movie Database Categories: | ...


End of the Inquisition

During the reign of Charles IV and, in spite of the fears that the French Revolution provoked, several events took place that accentuated the decline of the Inquisition. In the first place, the state stopped being a mere social organizer and began to worry about the well-being of the public. As a result, it had to consider the land-holding power of the Church, in the señoríos and, more generally, in the accumulated wealth that had prevented social progress.[39] On the other hand, the perennial struggle between the power of the throne and the power of the Church, inclined more and more to the former, under which, Enlightenment thinkers found better protection for their ideas. Manuel Godoy and Antonio Alcalá Galiano were openly hostile to an institution whose only role had been reduced to censorship and was the very embodiment of the Spanish Black Legend, internationally, and was not suitable to the political interests of the moment: The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Manuel de Godoy (May 12, 1767 – October 4, 1851) was a Spanish statesman. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ...

The Inquisition? Its old power no longer exists: the horrible authority that this bloodthirsty court had exerted in other times was reduced... the Holy Office had come to be a species of commission for book censorship, nothing more...[40]

In fact, prohibited works circulated freely in the public bookstores of Seville, Salamanca or Valladolid. For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ...


The Inquisition was abolished during the domination of Napoleon and the reign of Joseph I (1808-1812). In 1813, the liberal deputies of the Cortes of Cádiz also obtained its abolition, largely as a result of the Holy Office's condemnation of the popular revolt against French invasion. But the Inquisition was reconstituted when Ferdinand VII recovered the throne on July 1, 1814. It was again abolished during the three year Liberal interlude known as the Trienio liberal. Later, during the period known as the Ominous Decade, the Inquisition was not formally re-established,[41] although, de facto, it returned under the so-called Meetings of Faith, tolerated in the dioceses by King Ferdinand. These had the dubious honour of executing the last heretic condemned, the school teacher Cayetano Ripoll, garroted in Valencia on July 26 1826 (presumably for having taught deist principles), all amongst a European-wide scandal at the despotic attitude still prevailing in Spain. Juan Antonio Llorente, who had been the Inquisition's general secretary in 1789, became a Bonapartist and published a critical history in 1817 from his French exile, based on his privileged access to its archives. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Monument in Cádiz to the Cortes and the 1812 constitution The Cádiz Cortes was a national legislative body, known in Spain as the Cortes based in the refuge of Cádiz during the occupation of Spain in the Napoleonic Wars. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A poor schoolmaster from Valencia,Spain, who was garroted or hanged to death on Jul 26 1826 for allegedly teaching Deist principles. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... Juan Antonio Llorente (born March 30, 1756 in Rincon de Soto (La Rioja), Spain; died February 5, 1823 in Madrid) was a Spanish historian. ... Afrancesado was the term used to denote liberal or revolutionary pro-French Spaniards particularly during the Peninsula War. ...


The Inquisition was definitively abolished on July 15, 1834, by a Royal Decree signed by regent Maria Cristina de Borbon, during the minority of Isabel II and with the approval of the President of the Cabinet Francisco Martínez de la Rosa. (It is possible that something similar to the Inquisition acted during the First Carlist War, in the zones dominated by the Carlists, since one of the government measures praised by Conde de Molina Carlos Maria Isidro de Borbon was the re-implementation of the Inquisition). is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maria Christina, Queen Regent of Spain Maria Christina of Bourbon, Princess of the Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain (Maria Cristina Ferdinanda of the Two Sicilies branch of the Royal House of Bourbon) (April 27, 1806–August 22, 1878) was Queen Consort of Spain (1829 to 1833) and Queen Regent of... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was queen of Spain. ... Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa, Spanish statesman and dramatist Tombstone of Martínez de la Rosa and other five Spanish Liberal politicians of the 19th century at the Panteón de Hombres Ilustres, Atocha, Madrid, Spain Francisco de Paula Martinez de la Rosa (1789–1862), Spanish statesman... Combatants Carlists supporting Infante Carlos of Spain Portuguese loyal to Miguel of Portugal Liberals (Isabelinos or Cristinos) supporting Isabella II of Spain and her regent mother Maria Christina Great Britain France Portuguese loyal to Pedro IV Commanders Tomás de Zumalacárregui Ramón Cabrera Rafael Maroto Sebestian Gabriel de... Infante Carlos of Spain Don Carlos María Isidro Benito de Borbón, Infante of Spain (1788-1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma. ...


Death tolls

The historian Hernando del Pulgar, contemporary of Ferdinand and Isabella, estimated that the Inquisition had burned at the stake 2,000 people and reconciled another 15,000 by 1490 (just one decade after the Inquisition began).[42] Hernando del Pulgar (1436 - c. ...


Modern historians have begun to study the documentary records of the Inquisition. The archives of the Suprema, today held by the National Historical Archive of Spain (Archivo Histórico Nacional), conserves the annual relations of all processes between 1560 and 1700. This material provides information about 49,092 judgements, the latter studied by Gustav Henningsen and Jaime Contreras. These authors calculate that only 1.9% of those processed - approximately 933 - were burned at the stake.


The archives of the Suprema only provide information surrounding the processes prior to 1560. To study the processes themselves, it is necessary to examine the archives of the local tribunals; however, the majority have been lost to the devastation of war, the ravages of time or other events. Pierre Dedieu has studied those of Toledo, where 12,000 were judged for offences related to heresy.[43] Ricardo García Cárcel has analyzed those of the tribunal of Valencia.[44] These authors' investigations find that the Inquisition was most active in the period between 1480 and 1530, and that during this period the percentage condemned to death was much more significant than in the years studied by Henningsen and Contreras.


García Cárcel estimates that the total number processed by the Inquisition throughout its history was approximately 150,000. Applying the percentages of executions that appeared in the trials of 1560-1700--about 2%--the approximate total would be about 3,000 put to death. Nevertheless, very probably this total should be raised keeping in mind the data provided by Dedieu and García Cárcel for the tribunals of Toledo and Valencia, respectively. It is likely that the total would be between 3,000 and 5,000 executed.


Other documents, discovered in the Vatican Archives in 2004 put the toll of heresy cases tried by the Spanish Inquisition at 44,647, of which 1.8% (804) led to an execution, while another 1.7% were burned in effigy because they had somehow escaped before the sentence was carried out. If this information is correct, the death toll for the entire Spanish Inquisition lies closer to 800.[45] The Vatican Secret Archives (Archivio Segreto Vaticano), located in Vatican City, contain the central repository of all the acts that have been promulgated by the Roman Catholic Churchs Papal See, as well as diplomatic materials and correspondence of the Papal See and other documents that have accumulated over the... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, it is impossible to determine the precision of this total, and owing to the gaps in documentation, it is unlikely that the exact number will ever be known.


Historiography

How historians and commentators have viewed the Spanish Inquisition has changed over time, and continues to be a source of controversy to this day. Before and during the 19th century historical interest focused on who was being persecuted. In the early and mid 20th century historians examined the specifics of what happened and how it influenced Spanish history. In the later 20th and 21st century, historians have re-examined how severe the Inquisition really was, calling into question some of the conclusions made earlier in the 20th century.


The Spanish "Black Legend"

Main article: Black Legend

In the mid-16th century, coincident with the persecution of the Protestants, there began to appear from the pens of various European Protestant intellectuals, an image of the Inquisition that exaggerated its negative aspects for propaganda purposes. One of the first to write about this theme was the Englishman John Foxe (1516-1587), who dedicated an entire chapter of his book The Book of Martyrs to the Spanish Inquisition. Other sources of the Black Legend of the Inquisition were the Sanctae Inquisitionis Hispanicae Artes, authored under the pseudonym of Reginaldus Gonzalvus Montanus (possibly an allusion to the German astronomer Regiomontanus), that was probably written by two exiled Spanish Protestants, Casiodoro de Reina and Antonio del Corro. The book saw great success, and was translated into English, French, Dutch, German and Hungarian and contributed to cementing the negative image that the Inquisition had in Europe. The Dutch and English, political rivals of Spain, also built on the Black Legend. For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Johannes Müller von Königsberg (June 6, 1436 – July 6, 1476), known by his Latin pseudonym Regiomontanus, was an important German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. ... Casiodoro de Reina or de Reyna was a former monk who, perhaps with several others, translated the Bible into Spanish. ...


Other sources for the Black Legend of the Inquisition come from Italy. Ferdinand's efforts to export the Spanish Inquisition to Naples provoked many revolts, and even as late as 1547 and 1564 there were anti-Spanish uprisings when it was believed that the Inquisition would be established. In Sicily, where the Inquisition was established, there were also revolts against the activity of the Holy Office, in 1511 and 1516. Many Italian authors of the 16th century referred with horror to the actions of the Inquisition. Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Professional historians

Before the rise of professional historians in the 19th century, the Spanish Inquisition had largely been studied and portrayed by Protestant scholars who saw it as the archetypal symbol of Catholic intolerance and ecclesiastical power.[46] The Spanish Inquisition for them was largely associated with the persecution of Protestants.[46] The 19th century professional historians, including the Spanish scholar Amador de los Rios, were the first to challenge this perception and look seriously at the role of Jews and Muslims.[46]


At the start of the 20th century Henry Charles Lea published the groundbreaking History of the Inquisition in Spain. This influential work saw the Spanish Inquisition as "an engine of immense power, constantly applied for the furtherance of obscurantism, the repression of thought, the exclusion of foreign ideas and the obstruction of progress."[46] Lea documented the Inquisition's methods and modes of operation in no uncertain terms calling it "theocratic absolutism" at its worst.[46] William H. Prescott, the Boston historian, likened it to an "eye that never slumbered". In the context of the polarization between Protestants and Catholics during the second half of the nineteenth century[47], some of Lea's contemporaries, as well as most modern scholars thought Lea's work had an anti-Catholic bias.[47] [48] Henry Charles Lea (September 19, 1825 - October 24, 1909) was an American historian who was born in Philadelphia. ... William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 - January 29, 1859) was a historian. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Starting in the 1920s, Jewish scholars picked up where Lea's work left off.[46] Yitzhak Baer's History of the Jews in Christian Spain, Cecil Roth's History of the Marranos and, after World War II, the work of Haim Beinart who for the first time published trial transcripts of cases involving conversos. Cecil Roth, (London, 1899–1970) was a Jewish historian and educator. ...


Modern Scholarship

One of the first books to challenge the now antiquated view was The Spanish Inquisition (1965) by Henry Kamen. Kamen established that the Inquisition was not nearly as cruel or as powerful as commonly believed. The book was very influential and largely responsible for subsequent studies in the 1970s to try to quantify (from archival records) the Inquisition's activities from 1480 to 1834. Those studies showed there was an initial burst of activity against conversos suspected of relapsing into Judaism, and a mid-16th-century pursuit of Protestants - but the Inquisition served principally as a forum Spaniards occasionally used to humiliate and punish people they did not like: blasphemers, bigamists, foreigners and, in Aragon, homosexuals and horse smugglers.[46] There were so few Protestants in Spain that widespread persecution of Protestantism was not physically possible.[citation needed] Kamen went on to publish two more books in 1985 and 2006 that incorporated new findings, further supporting the view that the Inquisition was not as bad as once described by Lea and others. Along similar lines is Edward Peters's Inquisition (1988). Historical revision of the Inquisition is a historiographical project that has emerged in recent years. ... Henry Arthur Francis Kamen (Rangoon, Burma, 1936), is a British historian. ...


The Spanish Inquisition in the Arts

The Tribunal of the Inquisition as illustrated by Francisco de Goya
The Tribunal of the Inquisition as illustrated by Francisco de Goya

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1279x800, 155 KB) Goya, The Inquisition Tribunal 1812-19 Oil on panel, 46 x 73 cm Museo de la Real Academia de San Fernando, Madrid detail: Image:Goya Tribunal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1279x800, 155 KB) Goya, The Inquisition Tribunal 1812-19 Oil on panel, 46 x 73 cm Museo de la Real Academia de San Fernando, Madrid detail: Image:Goya Tribunal. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ...

Painting

During the 17th century, various representations of the auto de fe were produced, like the large oil painted by Francisco Ricci that represents the auto de fe celebrated at the Plaza Mayor of Madrid in 1680. This type of painting emphasized above all the solemnity and spectacle of the autos. Plaza Mayor with the Casa de la Panadería to the left The Plaza Mayor is a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain. ...


Criticism of the Inquisition is a constant in the work of painter Francisco de Goya, especially in Los Caprichos (The Whims). In this series of engravings, produced at the end of the 18th century, various figures penanced by the Inquisition appear, with biting legends underlining the frivolity of the motives in contrast to the criminal's expressions of anguish and desperation. A foreigner who had been judged as a heretic carries the legend "For having been born elsewhere." These engravings brought the painter problems with the Holy Office, and, to avoid trial, Goya presented the original engravings to Charles IV as a gift. This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Much later, between 1815 and 1819, Goya painted other canvases about the Inquisition. Most notably Auto de Fe de la Inquisición (pictured).


Literature

  • The literature of the 18th century approaches the theme of the Inquisition from a critical point of view. In Candide by Voltaire, the Inquisition appears as the epitome of intolerance and arbitrary justice in Portugal and America.
  • One of the best known stories of Edgar Allan Poe, The Pit and the Pendulum, explores along the same lines the use of torture by the Inquisition. The types of torture that appear in the story have no basis in history, however.
  • In France, in the early 19th century, the epistolary novel Cornelia Bororquia, or the Victim of the Inquisition, which has been attributed to Spaniard Luiz Gutiérrez, ferociously criticizes the Inquisition and its representatives.
  • Small Gods, (1992) one of the Discworld Novels by Terry Pratchett centres around a small country - Omnia - in which all the inhabitants are (nominally) followers of the "Great God Om". One of the ways to ensure that all Omnians follow the words of the Omnian prophets, is a torture body, known as the Quisition, whose methods are reminiscent of those ascribed to the Spanish Inquisition.
  • Carme Riera's novella, published in 1994, Dins el Darrer Blau (In the Last Blue) is set during the repression of the chuetas (conversos from Mallorca) at the end of the 17th century.
  • In 1998, the Spanish writer Miguel Delibes published the historical novel The Heretic, about the Protestants of Valladolid and their repression by the Inquisition.
  • The Argentine Author, Marcos Aguinis, produced a work titled "La Gesta del Marrano", which portrays the length of the Inquisition's arm to reach people in Argentina during the 16th and 17th centuries.

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Film

  • The Inquisition appears in a musical segment of Mel Brooks' movie History of the World, Part I (1981).
  • The Inquisition captures the main character in the Polish film Rekopis Znaleziony w Saragossie (The Saragossa Manuscript).
  • The film The Fountain (2006) by Darren Aronofsky, features the Spanish Inquisition as part of a plot in 1500 when the Grand Inquisitor threatens Queen Isabella's life.
  • The beginning of the film 1492: Conquest of Paradise (1992) by Ridley Scott speaks of the fear induced by the Spanish Inquisition and shows several aspects of the relaxation to the secular arm.
  • Goya's Ghosts (2006) by Milos Forman is set in Spain between 1792 and 1809 and focuses realistically on the role of the Inquisition and its end under Napoleon's rule.

Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... This article is about the short story by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Roger Corman Roger William Corman (born April 5, 1926), sometimes nicknamed King of the Bs for his output of B-movies (though he himself rejects this appelation as inaccurate), is a prolific American producer and director of low-budget exploitation movies. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... History of the World, Part I is a 1981 film written, produced and directed by Mel Brooks. ... Pedro Olea (June 30, 1938, Bilbao ) is a Spanish screenwriter, film producer and film director. ... Francisco de Goyas Sabbat (19th century). ... Zugarramurdi is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (original French title Manuscrit trouvé à Saragosse, also known in English as Saragossa Manuscript), by the Polish author Jan Potocki (1761-1815), is a frame tale novel from the period of the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Fountain is a 2006 science fiction/fantasy film directed by Darren Aronofsky that follows three interwoven narratives that take place in the age of conquistadors, the modern-day period, and the far future. ... Darren Aronofsky (born February 12, 1969 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American film director, screenwriter and film producer. ... 1492: Conquest of Paradise is a 1992 American/Spanish adventure/drama film. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... Goyas Ghosts is a 2006 Spanish film directed by Academy Award winner MiloÅ¡ Forman (Amadeus, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest), Xuxa Producciones (Spain) and by Saul Zaentz (The English Patient, Amadeus, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest), and written by MiloÅ¡ Forman and Jean-Claude Carri... Jan Tomáš Forman (born February 18, 1932), better known as Miloš Forman, is a film director, actor and script writer. ...

Theatre and television

  • In the Monty Python comedy team's Spanish Inquisition sketch, the Inquisition repeatedly burst unexpectedly into scenes after someone utters the words "I didn't expect a kind of Spanish Inquisition", screaming "Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!" The Inquisition would then use ineffectual forms of torture, including a dish-drying rack, soft cushions and a comfy chair.
  • The Histeria! episode "Megalomaniacs!" featured a game show sketch based on the Spanish Inquisition titled "Convert or Die!" The sketch was later banned from the episode and replaced with a new sketch about Custer's Last Stand in re-runs due to complaints from the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights that the sketch was teaching kids to reject Catholicism. However, it was restored when the episode was broadcast on In2TV.

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See also

For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... Cisneros visits the construction of the Hospital of the Charity. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ... Grand Inquisitor (Latin: Inquisitor Generalis) is the lead official of an Inquisition. ... Christians have at times persecuted non-Christians or adherents of other Christian denominations on the basis of conflicts in their religious beliefs. ... Historical revision of the Inquisition is a historiographical project that has emerged in recent years. ... Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule, before the Jews of Spain were expelled in 1492. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... T he Mexican Inquisition was the extension of the Spanish Inquisition to Mexico, in 1571. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... The Roman Inquisition began in 1542 when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. ... St. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ THE ROLE OF THE VATICAN IN THE ENCOUNTER, by RICHARD W. SCHULTZ
  2. ^ http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juder%C3%ADa
  3. ^ Kamen, Henry, The Spanish Inquisition, p. 17. Kamen cites approximate numbers for Valencia (250) and Barcelona (400), but no solid data about Cordoba.
  4. ^ Notably Bishop Pablo de Santa Maria, author of Scrutinium Scripturarum, Jeronimo de Santa Fe (Hebraomastix) and Pedro de la Caballeria (Zelus Christi contra Judaeos). All three were conversos. (Kamen, op. cit., p.39)
  5. ^ Notably the Libro verde de Aragon and Tizón de la nobleza de España (cited in Kamen, op. cit. p. 38.
  6. ^ From the eighth century to the seventeenth century Spain was in the front line of the Christian-Muslim struggle. In that period Spain was invaded by no less than four Islamic empires: the Ummayad, Almoravid, Almohad the last, the Marinids, tried to re-establish Muslim rule in Iberia in the 14th century, though it never got beyond establishing a few short-lived enclaves in the south. The rapid rise of the Ottoman Empire following the 1453 conquest of Europe's greatest city, Constantinople, laid the basis for the rapid expansion of that Islamic empire into Europe's southeast and made it a massive menace in the Mediterranean basin as it expanded quickly into North Africa. Barbary pirates - which were under the aegis of the Ottomans and in fact formed part of the rapidly growing naval dominance of the Ottomans in Mediterranean - caused immense havoc to Christian lands on the European side. According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by North African pirates and sold as slaves between the 16th and 17th century. These slaves were captured mainly from seaside villages in Spain, Italy and Portugal. It should be noted that the Ottoman caliphate claimed sovereignty over all lands previously under Islamic rule, which included most of Spain.
  7. ^ The terms converso and crypto-Jew are somewhat vexed, and occasionally historians are not clear on how, precisely, they are intended to be understood. For the purpose of clarity, in this article converso will be taken to mean one who has sincerely renounced Judaism or Islam and embraced Catholicism. Crypto-Jew will be taken to mean one who accepts Christian baptism, yet continues to practice Judaism.
  8. ^ Cited in Kamen, op. cit., p. 53.
  9. ^ He offers striking statistics: 91.6% of those judged in Valencia between 1484 and 1530 and 99.3% of those judged in Barcelona between 1484 and 1505 were of Jewish origin. (Kamen, op. cit., p. 60)
  10. ^ Kamen, op. cit., pp. 29-31.
  11. ^ Kamen, op. cit. p. 24.
  12. ^ The Cortes of Castile asked the king to reform the inquisitorial process no fewer than four times, in 1518, 1520, 1523 and 1525. The Cortes of Aragon at least in 1518. (Kamen, The Inquisition: An Historical Revision, pp. 78-81).
  13. ^ Kamen p. 98
  14. ^ These trials, specifically those of Valladolid, form the basis of the plot of "The Heritic: A novel of the Inquisition" by Miguel Delibes (Overlook: 2006)
  15. ^ Kamen, (op. cit. p. 99) gives the figure of about 100 executions between 1559 and 1566. He compares these figures with those condemned to death in other European countries during the same period, concluding that in similar periods England, under Mary Tudor, executed about twice as many for heresy: in France, three times the number, and ten times as many in the Low Countries.
  16. ^ Kamen, op. cit., pp. 99-100.
  17. ^ Kamen, op. cit. p. 217
  18. ^ These trials are the theme of the film Akelarre, by the Spanish director Pedro Olea
  19. ^ Cited in Kamen, op. cit., p. 264.
  20. ^ Kamen, op. cit., p. 259.
  21. ^ a b William R. Denslow, Harry S. Truman: 10,000 Famous Freemasons, ISBN 1-4179-7579-2
  22. ^ García Cárcel, Ricardo: La Inquisición, p. 21.
  23. ^ Kamen, op. cit., p. 141.
  24. ^ In Sicily, the Inquisition functioned until March 30, 1782, when it was abolished by King Ferdinand IV. It is estimated that 200 people were executed during this period.
  25. ^ García Cárcel, Ricardo, op.cit., p. 24.
  26. ^ Cited in Kamen, op. cit., p. 151.
  27. ^ Though over the course of the trial, their identities likely became apparent.
  28. ^ "In the tribunal of Valladolid, in 1699, various suspects (including a girl of 9 and a boy of 14) were jailed for up to two years with having had the least evaluation of the accusations presented against them" (Kamen, op. cit., p. 180)
  29. ^ H. C. Lea, III, p 33, Cited in Kamen, op. cit, p. 185. García Cárcel, op. cit. p. 43 finds the same statistics.
  30. ^ Sabatini, Rafael, Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition: A History, p.190, Kessinger Publishing (2003), ISBN 0-7661-3161-0
  31. ^ Scott, George Ryley, The History of Torture Throughout the Ages, p.172, Columbia University Press (2003) ISBN 0-7103-0837-X
  32. ^ Carrol. James, Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews: A History , p. 356, Houghton Mifflin Books (2002), ISBN 0-618-21908-0
  33. ^ by Peters, Edward, Inquisition, Dissent, Heterodoxy and the Medieval Inquisitional Office, p.65, University of California Press (1989), ISBN 0-520-06630-8
  34. ^ García Cárcel, op. cit., p. 39
  35. ^ Cited in Elorza, La Inquisición y el pensamiento ilustrado. Historia 16. Especial 10º Aniversario La Inquisición; p. 81.
  36. ^ Members of the government and the Council of Castile, as well as other members close to the court, obtained special authorization for books purchased in France, the Low Countries or Germany to cross the border without inspection by members of the Holy Office. This practice grew beginning with the reign of Charles III
  37. ^ Elorza, La Inquisición y el pensamiento ilustrado. p. 84
  38. ^ The argument presented in the periodicals and other works circulating in Spain were virtually exact copies of the reflections of Montesquieu or Rousseau, translated into Spanish.
  39. ^ Church properties, in general, and those of the Holy Office in particular, occupied large tracts of today's Castile and Leon, Extremadura and Andalucia. The properties were given under feudal terms to farmers or to localities who used them as community property with many restrictions, owing a part of the rent, generally in cash, to the church.
  40. ^ Elorza, La Inquisición y el Pensamiento Ilustrado. Historia 16. Especial 10º Aniversario La Inquisición; p. 88.
  41. ^ Historians have different interpretations. One argument is that during the Ominous Decade, the Inquisition was re-established, but the Royal Decree that would have abolished the order of the Trienio Liberal was never approved, or at least, never published. The formal abolition under the regency of Maria Cristina was thus nothing more than a ratification of the abolition of 1820.
  42. ^ Cited in Kamen op. cit., p. 62.
  43. ^ Jean-Pierre Dedieu, Los Cuatro Tiempos, in Bartolomé Benassar, Inquisición Española: poder político y control social, pp. 15-39.
  44. ^ Ricardo García Cárcel, Orígenes de la Inquisición Española. El Tribunal de Valencia, 1478-1530. Barcelona, 1976.
  45. ^ Michael Hesemann, Die Dunkelmänner: Mythen, Lügen und Legenden um die katholische Kirche, Augsburg: Sankt Ulrich Verlag, 2007, p. 165.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g "A Kinder, Gentler Inquisition", by Richard Kagan in the New York Times, April 19, 1998.
  47. ^ a b Henry Charles Lea Papers - Biographical Sketch. Univ. of Penn.-Penn Special Collections (Jan. 11, 2003). Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  48. ^ Van Hove, Brian (Nov. 12, 1996). A New Industry: The Inquisition. Catholic.net. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.

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Further reading

  • Henry Charles Lea, A History of the Inquisition of Spain (4 volumes), (New York and London, 1906–1907).
  • Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. (Yale University Press, 1999).
  • Juan Antonio Llorente, “Historia crítica de la Inquisición de España”
  • William Thomas Walsh, Isabella of Spain (1930) and Characters of the Inquisition (1940). Both reprinted by TAN Books (1987).
  • R. Sabbatini, “Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition,” (1913).
  • C. Roth, “The Spanish Inquisition,” (1937).
  • C. Roth, “History of the Marranos,” (1932).
  • A.S. Turberville, “Medieval History and the Inquisition,” (1920).
  • A.S. Turberville, “The Spanish Inquisition,” (1932).
  • Genaro García, “La Inquisición de México,” (1906).
  • Genaro Garcia, “Autos de fe de la Inquisición de Mexico,” (1910).
  • F. Garau, “La Fee Triunfante,” (1691-reprinted 1931).
  • J.T. Medina, “Historia de la Inquisicion de Lima; de Chile; le la Plata; de Cartagena de las Indias; en las islas Filipinas” (6 volumes), (1887–1899).
  • V. Vignau, “Catálogo... de la Inquisición de Toledo,” (1903).
  • J. Baker, “History of the Inquisition,” (1736).
  • “History of the Inquisition from its origin under Pope Innocent III till the present time. Also the private practices of the Inquisitors, the form of trial and modes of torture,” (1814).
  • J. Marchant, “A Review of the Bloody Tribunal,” (1770).
  • E.N Adler, “Autos de fe and the Jew,” (1908).
  • González de Montes, “Discovery and Playne Declaration of Sundry Subtile Practices of the Holy Inquisition of Spayne”
  • Ludovico a Paramo, “De Origine et Progressu Sanctae Inquisitionis,” (1598).
  • J.M. Marín, “Procedimientos de la Inquisición” (2 volumes), (1886).
  • I. de las Cagigas, “Libro Verde de Aragon,” (1929).
  • R. Cappa, “La Inquisicion Espanola,” (1888).
  • A. Paz y Mellia, “Catálogo Abreviado de Papeles de Inquisición,” (1914).
  • A.F.G. Bell, “Luis de Leon,” (1925).
  • M. Jouve, “Torquemada,” (1935).
  • Sir Alexander G. Cardew, “A Short History of the Inquisition,” (1933).
  • G. G. Coulton, The Inquisition, (1929)
  • “Memoires Instructifs pour un Voyageur dans les Divers Etats de l’Europe,” (1738).
  • Ramon de Vilana Perlas, “La verdadera práctica apostólica de el S. Tribunal de la Inquisición,” (1735).
  • H.B. Piazza, “A Short and True Account of the Inquisition and its Proceeding,” (1722).
  • A.L. Maycock, “The Inquisition,” (1926).
  • H. Nickerson, “The Inquisition,” (1932).
  • Conde de Castellano, “Un Complot Terrorista en el Siglo XV; los Comienzos de la Inquisicion Aragonesa,” (1927).
  • Bernard Gui, “Manuel de l’Inquisiteur,” (1927).
  • L. Tanon, “Histoire des Tribunaux de l’Inquisition,” (1893).
  • A.J. Texeira, “Antonio Homem e a Inquisicao,” (1902).
  • A. Baiao, “A Inquisiçao em Portugal e no Brasil,” (1921).
  • A. Herculano, “Historia da Origem e Estabelecimento da Inquisiçao em Portugal,” (English translation, 1926).
  • Simon Whitechapel, Flesh Inferno: Atrocities of Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition (Creation Books, 2003).
  • Miranda Twiss, The Most Evil Men And Women In History (Michael O'Mara Books Ltd., 2002).
  • Geoffrey Parker “Some Recent Work on the Inquisition in Spain and Italy” Journal of Modern History 54:3 1982
  • Warren H. Carroll, "Isabel: the Catholic Queen" Front Royal, Virginia, 1991 (Christendom Press)
  • Joseph de Maistre, Letters on the Spanish Inquisition (1822, composed 1815):— late defence of the Inquisition.
  • Ludwig von Pastor, History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages; Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and other original sources, 40 vols. St. Louis, B.Herder 1898

Henry Charles Lea (September 19, 1825 - October 24, 1909) was an American historian who was born in Philadelphia. ... Henry Arthur Francis Kamen (Rangoon, Burma, 1936), is a British historian. ... Juan Antonio Llorente (born March 30, 1756 in Rincon de Soto (La Rioja), Spain; died February 5, 1823 in Madrid) was a Spanish historian. ... George Gordon Coulton (1858-1947) was a British historian, known for numerous works on medieval history. ... Bernards Arbor genealogiae regum Francorum, showing consanguinity of the kings of France Bernard Gui (1261 or 1262 – 30 December 1331), also known as Bernardo Gui or Bernardus Guidonis, was an inquisitor of the Dominican Order in the Late Middle Ages during the Medieval Inquisition, Bishop of Lodève, and... Professor Geoffrey Alan Parker FRS (born 24 May 1944) is a professor of biology at the University of Liverpool. ... The Journal of Modern History is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press. ... Dr. Warren H. Carroll is a historian who is the author of many books. ... Joseph de Maistre (portrait by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, 1810) Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (April 1, 1753- February 26, 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher. ... Ludwig Pastor, created Freiherr von Campersfelden, (January 31, 1854, Aachen – September 30, 1928, Innsbruck), was the great Catholic historian of the Papacy, who published his Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters in sixteen volumes that appeared from 1886 to a last posthumous volume in 1933. ... The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum), is the central repository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. ...

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Bible Believers is the website of the Bible Believers Church of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Spanish Inquisition (719 words)
The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy.
The Papal Inquisition in the 1230s was in response to the failures of the Episcopal Inquisition and was staffed by professionals, trained specifically for the job as decreed by the Pope.
The Spanish Inquisition was decreed by the Catholic Church in 1478 in Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile.
Spanish Inquisition (392 words)
The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 as a court for the detection of heretics, although its true purpose remains somewhat obscure.
The political justification for the Spanish Inquisition was the existence of a threat to the monarchy.
The Spanish Christians (Christianity was the most widespread faith) were outraged at the Jews for a variety of reasons, most of them religious, and saw the Spanish Inquisition as a means of controlling the Jewish population, removing the actual source of the problem.
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