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Encyclopedia > Spanish Creole

A number of Creole languages are based on the Spanish language. // A Creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...

Contents


Spanish Creole languages

List of Spanish-based Creole languages: // A Creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ...


Chavacano

Chavacano (also Chabacano) is a Spanish-based Creole spoken in the Philippines. The name of the language stems from the Spanish word Chabacano, which according to most Spanish dictionaries is defined as meaning "vulgar", "of poor taste", "grotesque" or "nasty". Chavacano, (also Chabacano or Zamboangueño), is a Spanish creole spoken in the Philippines. ...


According to a 1990 census, there are 292,630 speakers. It is the major language of Zamboanga City. Chavacano is also spoken in parts of Sabah, Malaysia nearest to the Philippines. 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Zamboanga City (Spanish: Ciudad de Zamboanga) is a 1st class city in the province of Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya Capital Kota Kinabalu Governor Ahmadshah Abdullah Chief Minister Hj. ...


The vocabulary comes from the Spanish language, while the grammar is mostly based on indigenous structures. It is used in primary education, television and radio. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Grammar is the discovery, enunciation, and study of rules governing the use of language. ... Primary or elementary education consist of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ...


It is still intelligible to Spanish speakers. However, English words are infiltrating the language.


For more information see the article Chavacano, or link to Chavacano: Ethnologue report on Chavacano. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ...


Palenquero

Palenquero (also Palenque) is a Spanish-based Creole spoken in Colombia. Palenquero (also Palenque) is a Spanish-based Creole spoken in Colombia. ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site not far from the Usumacinta River in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, about 130 km. ...


The ethnic group which speaks this Creole consists only of 2,500 people, as of 1989. 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It is spoken in Colombia, in the village of San Basilio de Palenque which is south and east of Cartagena, and in some neighborhoods of Barranquilla. For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Bocagrande Cartagena San Pedro Square, Old City Cartagena Fortresses of Cartagena are inscribed on the World Heritage List. ... A Colombian fisherman casts his line as the sun sets near Barranquilla, Colombia Barranquilla is the major industrial city on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. ...


The village was formed by escaped slaves (Maroons) and sometimes Native Americans. Since many slaves had not been subjected to a lot of contact with white people, the palenqueros spoke Creole languages from Spanish language and their African ones. This article needs cleanup. ... A Hupa man, 1923 The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... Whites is a broad term used to describe people of ethnic European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent, especially those with fair skin. ...


Spanish speakers are unable to understand Palenquero. There are some influences from Kongo in Democratic Republic of Congo. A 10% of the population of age under 25 years speaks Palenquero, as of 1998. Most common to the elderly. The Kongo Empire was an African kingdom located in southwest Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda, Republic of the Congo, and the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


For more information see Palenquero: Ethnologue report on Palenquero. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ...


Hawaiian Pidgin

Hawaiian Pidgin is creole spoken in Hawaii. It has Spanish words, but not considered a Spanish creole, because there are only a few and it is a substrate language. It is originally an English creole. Hawai‘i Pidgin English (Hawaiian Pidgin English is an inaccurate label), also known as Hawai‘i Creole English, HCE, or simply Pidgin, is actually a creole language based in part on English that is widely used by residents of Hawai‘i. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Monarch Akahi Nui Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ...


Yanito

Yanito is spoken in Gibraltar. It is mostly derived from Spanish and English. Yanito is the name for the patois or creole spoken in Gibraltar. ...


Spanish-influenced Creole languages

Papiamento

Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Creole language spoken by 359,000 people. Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Creole language and it is the primary language spoken on the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire. ... // A Creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. ...


Primarily spoken in Netherlands Antilles by 179,000 people (as of 1998) and Aruba by 100,000 people (as of 2004). 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This Creole is reportedly becoming more similar to Spanish language as the time passes due to extensive contact with the Hispanophone countries, but it is originally a Portuguese Creole. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... A Portuguese Creole is a creole language based on the Portuguese language. ...


Because of the similarities between these Iberian languages, it is difficult to ascertain whether a certain feature is derived from Portuguese, Spanish or Ladino, after the adaptation to Papiamento rules. Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ...


For more information see Papiamentu: Ethnologue report on Papiamentu. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ...


For a discussion about the origins of this language see [1].


Fá d'Ambô

The Creole of the island of Ano Bom (Equatorial Guinea) acknowledged as Falar de Ano Bom (Fá d'Ambô or even Fla d'Ambu) is analogous to the Portuguese Creole Forro, spoken by 9,000 people in Ano Bom and Fernando Póo Islands. In fact, Fá d'Ambô is derived from Forro as it shares the same structure (82% of lexicon). In the 15th century, the island was uninhabited and discovered by Portugal but, by the 18th century, Portugal exchanged it and some other territories in Africa for Uruguay with Spain. Spain wanted to get territory in Africa, and Portugal wanted to enlarge even more the territory that they saw as the “New Portugal” (Brazil). Nevertheless, the populace of Ano Bom was against the shift and was hostile toward the Spaniards. This hostility, combined with the isolation of mainland Equatorial Guinea and the proximity of São Tomé and Príncipe — just 400 km from the island — has assured the maintenance of its identity. Annobón or Annabon is an island south of São Tomé Island (São Tomé and Príncipe), belonging to Equatorial Guinea. ... Fá dAmbô (also named Fla dAmbu and Falar de Ano Bom) is a Portuguese creole spoken in Ano Bom, Equatorial Guinea. ... Forro is a Creole language based in Portuguese spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Bioko is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, formerly called Fernando Po or Fernando Poo. ...


Fá d'Ambô has gained some words of Spanish origin (10% of lexicon), but some words are dubious in origin because Spanish and Portuguese are also based on the same language (Spoken Latin or Vulgar Latin). Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ...


Like Papiamento and Macaista Chapado, it is originally a Portuguese Creole with some borrowings from Spanish. A Portuguese Creole is a creole language based on the Portuguese language. ...


See also: History of Equatorial Guinea The first inhabitants of the region that is now Equatorial Guinea are believed to have been Pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Rio Muni. ...


Spanish-influenced indigenous languages

Most languages indigenous to regions that came into contact with Spaniards are deeply influenced by the Spanish language. These languages include Tagalog of the Philippines, Chamorro of Guam, and most noticeably the indigenous languages of the Americas, in particular Quechua and Guaraní. All of these, however, are NOT creole languages. Apart from the generous borrowings from Spanish and various other languages, they remain fundamentally native in grammar and lexicon. Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Chamorro, or Chamoru, is the native language used in Guam and Northern Mariana Islands. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... Guarani was one of the most important tribal groups of South America, having the former home territory chiefly between the Uruguay and lower Paraguay Rivers, in what is now Paraguay and the Provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios of Argentina. ...


Chamorro

Chamorro (also Tjamoro) is a Spanish-influenced language spoken by about 78,000 people in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. According to a 1991 publication, 62,500 of the speakers live in Guam, which is roughly half the population, while research conducted in 1990 puts the number of speakers in the Northern Mariana islands at 14,205. Chamorro, or Chamoru, is the native language used in Guam and Northern Mariana Islands. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Temptations album, see 1990 (Temptations album) MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


Linguistically, Chamorro belongs to the Western Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family of languages.


It is taught at the University of Guam. Some Bible portions have been translated into Chamorro. The University of Guam is a land-grant institution accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. ... The Bible (sometimes The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, plural of βιβλιον, biblion, book, originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this writing material...


For more information see Chamorro: Ethnologue report on Chamorro. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ...


Tagalog

Tagalog, which is the most widely spoken indigenous language in the Philippines, has adopted into its vocabulary a large number of Spanish words. There are about 6,000 Spanish words in Tagalog, roughly forming about 17% of the language's root words. Other indigenous languages in the Philippines, such as Cebuano, have significantly also absorbed Spanish words. Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Cebuano, also known as Sugbuanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 18,000,000 people and is a subgroup or member of Bisaya, Visayan and Binisayâ. The name came from the Philippine island of Cebu, with the Spanish suffix -ano meaning native, of a place, added...


Like Chamorro, Tagalog belongs to the Western Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family of languages.


Most often the words adopted referred to foreign concepts such as the names of the days of the week and the names of months; such as the word Huwebes (Spanish, jueves meaning Thursday) and Mayo (Spanish, mayo meaning May). The Spanish decimals are also often used for counting currency, revealing one's age or telling time.


This adoption of words also gave rise to the curious phenomenon of two or more words referring to the same concept. For instance, the Tagalog word for chair is either the native upuan or the Spanish-based silya (from silla); or the word for city can be the native lungsod or syudad (Spanish, ciudad).


Here is an sample sentence: In Spanish, "Can you turn on the fan by the window?" is "¿Puede encender el ventilador de la ventana?", in Tagalog, it is "Puwede (puede) buksan ang bentilador (ventilador)na malapit sa bintana (ventana).


Tagalog became the basis of the Philippines' national language, Filipino.


Examples of borrowed words from Spanish:

  • hepe (Spanish:jefe)-chief
  • kumpisal (Spanish:confezar)-confess
  • dalanghita (Spanish:naranjita)-mandarins
  • silya (Spanish:cilla)-chair
  • kabayo (Spanish:cavallo)-horse
  • relos (Spanish:relojes)-watch
  • harina (Spanish:harina)-flour
  • oras (Spanish:horas)-hour
  • kotse (Spanish:coche)-car
  • saklolo (Spanish:socorro)-help
  • gobiyerno (Spanish:govierno)-government
  • luku-luko (Spanish:loco)-crazy
  • pero (Spanish:pero)-but
  • porke (Spanish:por que)-just because
  • o (Spanish:o)-or
  • Philipinas (Spanish:Filipinas)-Philippines

Quechua

Quechua was the official language of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca empire, which spanned through modern-day southern Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, northwestern Argentina and northern Chile. It is still spoken by many of the remaining Native Americans still inhabiting these countries and by some of the natives of Brazil. Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... - Peru (Spanish: República del Perú) is a country in western South America, bordering Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. ... A Hupa man, 1923 The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ...


Quechua has experienced 500 years of Spanish influence, and when listening to monolingual speakers of Quechua talk, one can hear the use of Spanish jargon and verbs interspersed among the rest of their expressions. Many Spanish verbs are even expressed using Quechua conjugations, such as "parlanichik".


A great volume of Spanish words have been absorbed into Quechua, and often expressions used are blatantly Spanish, such as; "Las once de la mañana-kama" [until eleven o’clock in the morning] which is pure Spanish except for the -kama suffix (meaning until).


Hundreds upon hundreds of Spanish words were Quechuanized and integrated into the Quechuan language. Many of these borrowings were words describing foreign concepts, as was the case for the reason of borrowings by other native languages.


Some Quechuan dialects contain more Spanish borrowings than others, but all nonetheless have generous quantities of Spanish words, verbs, idioms and expression.


Borrowings in the core lexicon of Quechua have led to there being more than one word for the same object or concept. Consequently, one may here speakers of Quechua use either form. The choice of word for brother in Quechua can be either the native "tura" or "irmanu" (Spanish, hermano); the word forty can be the native "tawa chunka" or "kwarenta" (Spanish, cuarenta); the word for day can be "p'unchay" or "dia" (Spanish día); understand can be "jamut'ay" or "intyendiy" (Spanish, entender).


Most Quechuan dialects rival, while others far surpass, the number of Spanish borrowings that can be found in Tagalog or the other indigenous languages influenced by Spanish.


Some Quechuan words of Spanish origin:

  • trigu - wheat (from trigo)
  • abugadu - lawyer (from abogado)
  • jirmay - to sign (from firmar)
  • irmanu - brother (from hermano)
  • taita - father, dad (from Old Spanish taita)
  • intyendiy - to understand (from entender)
  • pasay - to pass (from pasar)
  • plata - money, silver (from plata)
  • keday - to stay (from quedar)
  • piedey - to lose (from perder)
  • burru - donkey (from burro)
  • bwenu - well (from bueno, good)
  • porke - because (from porque)
  • pero - but (from pero)
  • aun - even so (from aún)
  • filiadu - affiliated (from afiliado)
  • entós, tóns - then (from entonces)
  • puis, ps - then (from pues)
  • dyiáy ka? - so what?, what else! (from ¿de ahí qué?)
  • awra ka? - now what? (from ¿ahora qué?)
  • tóns ka? - then what? what else! (from ¿entonces qué?)

Mamani Patiguana (2001) while studying the influence of Spanish on Quechua discerned;


"La lengua quechua ha ido poco a poco castellanizándose. Algunos quechuahablantes han conservado gran parte de su propio vocabulario, pero en otros muchos aspectos han cambiado de tal manera que parecen más castellano."


English translation: "The Quechuan language has been hispanicized little by little. Some Quechuan-speakers have maintained a great part of their own vocabulary, but among others, many aspects have changed so significantly that they sound more like Spanish."


If there is an indigenous language that has more Spanish borrowings than Quechua, it is another Native American language, also spoken in South America, the Guaraní language. Guarani was one of the most important tribal groups of South America, having the former home territory chiefly between the Uruguay and lower Paraguay Rivers, in what is now Paraguay and the Provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios of Argentina. ...


Guaraní (Jopará)

Since 1992 the Education Ministry of Paraguay began to teach Guaraní in its pure form, differentiating from what is called jopará, which is actually the real mother tongue of almost all Paraguayans. Jopará is a mixed language spoken in Paraguay, combining the Spanish and Guaraní languages. ...


Ladino

Ladino is not a creole but an independent evolution of the Medieval Castilian language historically spoken by Sephardic Jews in Southern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. It is mostly based on Spanish, with influences of Hebrew, French, Greek, Turkish, Arabic and the South Slavic languages. Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Castilian is a noun and adjective that refers to the region and former kingdom of Spain; in particular, it refers to the language of this region, and is therefore considered by many to be a synonym of Spanish, though with different nuances. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... (see also North Africa, Tamazgha, Arab Maghreb Union, Mashreq) The Maghreb (المغرب العربي ; sometimes also rendered Moghreb), meaning western in Arabic, is the region of the continent of Africa north of the Sahara desert and west of the Nile - specifically, the modern countries of Morocco, Western Sahara (annexed and occupied by Morocco... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... The Arabic language (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... South Slavic languages is one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ...


See also

This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy; often RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. ...

External link

  • RAE: Real Academia Española.

 
 

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