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Encyclopedia > Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
Robert Capa, Death of a Loyalist Soldier‎
A Republican soldier, possibly Federico Borrell García, falls in battle.
(Photographer, Robert Capa)
Date 17 July 19361 April 1939
Location Continental Spain, Spanish Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, Spanish Guinea, Mediterranean Sea
Result Nationalist victory; dissolution of the Spanish Republic and formation of the Spanish State.
Belligerents
Flag of Spain Second Spanish Republic

Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Other meaning: Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) The Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823 was fought in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. ... Image File history File links Capa,_Death_of_a_Loyalist_Soldier. ... Federico Borrell García (January 3, 1912 - September 5, 1936) was a Republican soldier during the Spanish Civil War. ... Robert Capa (Budapest, October 22, 1913 – May 25, 1954) was a famous war photographer during the 20th century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled by Spain, created from the Spanish territories of Rio de Oro and La Aguera in 1924. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Spanish Guinea was an African colony of Spain that became the independent nation of Equatorial Guinea. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Second_Spanish_Republic. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Nationalists

Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Germany Germany
Flag of Portugal Portugal The Spanish State (Estado Español) was the formal name of Spain from 1936 to 1978, under the régime of Generalísimo Francisco Franco (d. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ...

Commanders
Manuel Azaña
Julián Besteiro
Francisco Largo Caballero
Juan Negrín
Indalecio Prieto
Francisco Franco
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Emilio Mola
José Sanjurjo
Juan Yagüe
Strength
450,000
350 aircraft
200 batteries
(1938)[1]
600,000
600 aircraft
290 batteries
(1938)[2]
Casualties and losses
~500,000[3]

The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of the Second Spanish Republic. The Civil War devastated Spain from July 17, 1936 to April 1, 1939, ending with the victory of the rebels and the founding of a dictatorship led by the Nationalist General Francisco Franco. The supporters of the Republic, or Republicans (republicanos), gained the support of the Soviet Union and Mexico, while the followers of the First Rebellion, nacionales (literally, "nationals" but rendered in English-language literature as "nationalists"), received the support of the major European Axis powers, namely Italy, Germany, and neighbouring Portugal. Image:F manuel azana. ... Julián Besteiro Fernández (September 21, 1870 - September 27, 1940) was a Spanish socialist politician and university professor. ... Francisco Largo Caballero (October 15, 1869 -March 23, 1946) was a Spanish politician and trade unionist. ... Juan Negrín López (February 3, 1887 - November 12, 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician. ... Indalecio Prieto Tuero (April 30, 1883 - February 11, 1962) was a Spanish politician, one of the leading figures of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) in the years before and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Sierra (Tordesillas, Spain, February 5, 1875 - Seville, March 9, 1951) was a Spanish Army Officer during the Spanish Civil War. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... Jose Sanjurjo José Sanjurjo Sacanell (Pamplona, 1872 - Estoril, Portugal, July 20, 1936) Marquess of the Rif and general, was a Spanish Army Officer who was one of the chief conspirators of the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. ... Juan Yagüe Blanco (1891 – October 29, 1952) was a Spanish army officer during the Spanish Civil War. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Cándido Cabello José Moscardó Ituarte, Pedro Romero Basart Strength 8,000 militia 1,028 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 65 dead, 438 wounded, 22 missing The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic battle in the opening stages of the Spanish... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Manuel Otero Antonio Pinilla † Strength Unknown 180 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 180 dead or wounded The Siege of Gijón took place in the Spanish Civil War between July 19 and August 16, 1936. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Popular Front militia units CNT-FAI UGT Nationalist Spain Commanders UGT miner, Otero CNT Steelworker, Higinio Carrocera Colonel Antonio Aranda Mata Strength Unknown 3000 Casualties Over 5,000 2,500 // A memorable event in the Spanish Civil War, the siege lasted from July 19, 1936, until... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Unknown Carlos Asensio Heli Rolando de Tella Strength 2,600 militia 1,000 regulars Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Mérida saw Republican militia twice fail to halt the Army of Africa near the historic town of Mérida early in the Spanish... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Ildefonso Puigdendolas Juan Yagüe Carlos Asensio Antonio Castejón Strength 6,000 militia 3,000 regulars 30 guns Casualties 750 dead 3,500 wounded, captured or missing 285 dead or wounded The Battle of Badajoz was one of the first major Nationalist... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Alberto Bayo Manuel Uribarri García Ruiz Strength 8,000 militia 10 guns 3,500 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Mallorca, known as the Mallorca Landings in Spanish (optimistically called the Reconquest of Mallorca by the Republicans) was an... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Manuel Riquelme André Malraux Juan Yagüe Carlos Asensio Antonio Castejón Heli Rolando de Tella Strength 9,000 regulars and militia 4,000 regulars Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of the Sierra Guadalupe (English: Guadalupe Mountains), also the Tagus Campaign, was a... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Mario Angeloni † Unknown Strength Unknown 500 regulars Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Monte Pelato (Bald Mountain) was an engagement of the Spanish Civil War fought on 28 August 1936. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Manuel Riquelme Juan Modesto Juan Yagüe Strength 10,000 regulars and militia 3,500 regulars Casualties 500 dead 1,000 captured 1,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Talavera de la Reina was fought on September 3, 1936 in the Spanish... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Unknown Francisco Moreno Strength 3 destroyers 2 heavy cruisers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk 1 destroyer damaged Unknown The Battle of Cape Espartel was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the naval... The Siege of Madrid was a three year siege of the Spanish capital Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... The Battle of the Corunna Road was a battle of the Spanish Civil War from 13 December 1936 to 15 January 1937, north west of Madrid. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders José Villalba Lacorte Queipo de Llano Mario Roatta Strength 40,000 militia 10,000 Moors 5,000 Requetés 5,000 Italians Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Málaga was the culmination of an offensive in early 1937 by the combined Nationalist... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders José Miaja, Sebastián Pozas Perea, Enrique Líster, Valentín González, Robert Merriman Enrique Varela, García Escámez, Carlos Asensio, Fernándo Barrón Ortiz Strength ~30,000 infantry, (June 15)[1] 19,000–40,000 infantry, ~40 guns[2... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Francisco Llano de la Encomienda Emilio Mola José Solchaga Strength  ?  ? Casualties ~? ~? // The War in the North, in the Spanish Civil War was the campaign in which the Nationalist forces defeated and occupied the parts of northern Spain that remained loyal to the Republican government. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Italian CTV Nationalist Spain Commanders Enrique Jurado José Miaja Cipriano Mera Mario Roatta Strength 20,000 infantry 45 guns 70 light tanks 80 aircraft 45,000 infantry 270 guns 140 light tanks 62 aircraft Casualties 6,000 dead or wounded 2,500 dead 4,000 wounded... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Strength  ?  ? Casualties ~? ~? The Battle of Bilbao was part of the War in the North, in the Spanish Civil War where the Nationalist Army conquered Bilbao and the part of the Basque Country still held by the Republic. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Mariano Gamir Ulibarri Fidel Dávila Arrondo Strength 80,000 infantry 90,000 infantry 126 guns 220 aircraft Casualties 60,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Santander was fought over the summer of 1937 in the Spanish Civil War. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Enrique Líster Alfonso Trallero † Strength 80,000 infantry 105 tanks 90 aircraft 7,000 infantry Casualties Unknown Unknown Battle of Belchite was a group of military operations that took place in the Spanish Civil War between august 24 and september 7, 1937... Combatants Asturian popular army (Second Spanish Republic) Army of the North (Nationalist Spain) Commanders Colonel Juan Ibarrola Orueta Colonel Francisco Galán Rodríguez General José Solchaga Zala Strength under 5,000 33,000, plus elements of the Legión Cóndor and Corpo Truppe Volontarie Casualties Unknown Unknown The... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength 2 cruisers 4 destroyers 1 heavy cruiser Casualties Unknown 1 ship damaged The Battle of Cape Cherchell was a sea battle between the Nationalist heavy cruiser Baleares and the Republican light cruisers Libertad and Méndez Núñez in the... A Republican soldier seeks cover on the Plaza de Toros in Teruel, north-east of Madrid The battle of Teruel was fought in and around the city of Teruel in the Spanish Civil War in December 1937-February 1938. ... The Battle of Cape Palos, also known as the Second Battle of Cape Palos, was the biggest naval battle of the Spanish Civil War, fought on the night of March 5 - 6 1938, 70 miles east of Cape Palos near Cartagena, Spain. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Juan Modesto Enrique Lister Queipo de Llano Francisco Franco Strength 100,000 90,000 Casualties 30,000 dead 20,000 wounded 19,563 captured 200 aircraft 6,500 dead 30,000 wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of the Ebro (Spanish: Batalla del Ebro... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Strength  ?  ? Casualties ~? ~? The Catalonia Offensive was part of the Spanish Civil War. ... The outbreak of war can be seen to be the uprising in Morocco on July 17 triggered by events in Madrid. ... This article covers the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) during 1937. ... This article covers the Spanish Civil War in the period from the start of 1938 to the end of 1939. ... Coup redirects here. ... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...


The war increased tensions in the lead-up to the Second World War and became in some cases a world war by proxy, with Germany in particular using the war as a rehearsal for many of the blitzkrieg tactics it later used in the war in Europe. The advent of the mass media allowed an unprecedented level of attention (Ernest Hemingway, George Orwell and Robert Capa all covered it) and so the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired, and for atrocities committed on both sides of the conflict. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... This article is about the military term. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Robert Capa (Budapest, October 22, 1913 – May 25, 1954) was a famous war photographer during the 20th century. ...

Contents

Prelude to the war

Salvador Dali, 1936 This work is copyrighted. ... Salvador Dali, 1936 This work is copyrighted. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War) (1936) is a painting by Spanish Surrealist Salvador Dalí. Depicted is a grimacing dismembered figure symbolic of the Spanish state in civil war, alternately grasping upward at itself and holding itself down underfoot, a relationship morbidly prescient of Eschers later...

Historical context

There were several reasons for the war, many of them long-term tensions that had escalated over the years.


Spain had undergone several civil wars and revolts, carried out by both the reformists and the conservatives, who tried to displace each other from power. A liberal tradition that first ascended to power with the Spanish Constitution of 1812 sought to abolish the absolutist monarchy of the old regime and to establish a liberal state. The most traditionalist sectors of the political sphere systematically tried to avert these reforms and to sustain the monarchy. The Carlists—supporters of Infante Carlos and his descendants—rallied to the cry of "God, Country and King" and fought for the cause of Spanish tradition (absolutism and Catholicism) against the liberalism and later the republicanism of the Spanish governments of the day. The Carlists, at times (including the Carlist Wars), allied with nationalists attempting to restore the historic liberties (and broad regional autonomy) granted by the fueros of the Basque Country and Catalonia. Further, from the mid-19th century onwards, the liberals were outflanked on their left by socialists of various types and especially by anarchists, who were far stronger and more numerous in Spain than anywhere else in Europe aside from (possibly) Russia. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated by the Cortes Generales (General Courts), the national legislative assembly of Spain. ... The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... Politics of Spain takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Infante Carlos of Spain Don Carlos María Isidro Benito de Borbón, Infante of Spain (1788-1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Louisa of Parma. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque County domain. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Left wing redirects here. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Anarchist redirects here. ...


Spain experienced a number of different systems of rule in the period between the Napoleonic wars of the early 19th century and the outbreak of the Civil War. During most of the 19th century, Spain was a constitutional monarchy, but under attack from these various directions. The First Spanish Republic, founded in 1873, was shortlived. A monarchy under Alfonso XIII lasted from 1887 to 1931, but from 1923 was held in place by the military dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. Following Primo de Rivera's overthrow in 1930, the monarchy was unable to maintain power and the Second Republic was declared in 1931. This Republic soon came to be led by a coalition of the left and center. A number of controversial reforms were passed, such as the Agrarian Law of 1932, distributing land among poor peasants. Millions of Spaniards had been living in more or less absolute poverty under the firm control of the aristocratic landowners in a quasi-feudal system. These reforms, along with anticlericalist acts, as well as military cut-backs and reforms, created strong opposition. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 - February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de Estella (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ...


Constitution of 1931

A new constitution was adopted on 9 December 1931. The document was largely sound, generally according thorough civil liberties and representation, the notable exclusion being the rights of Catholics, a flaw which prevented the forming of an expansive democratic majority. [4] The document provided for universal suffrage and proclaimed a purported complete separation of Church and State, but in actuality it provided for significant governmental interference in church matters, including the prohibition of teaching by religious orders, confiscation of and prohibitions on ownership of church property, and the banning of the Society of Jesus.[5] The constitution essentially established an anticlerical government.[6] Flag of the Second Spanish Republc The Second Spanish Republic (1931 – 1939) was the second period in Spanish history in which the election of both the positions of Head of State and Head of government were in the hands of the people. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


Not only advocates of establishment of religion but also advocates of church/state separation saw the constitution as hostile; one such advocate of separation, Jose Ortega y Gasset, stated "the article in which the Constitution legislates the actions of the Church seems highly improper to me." [7] Since the far left considered reform of these aspects of the constitution as totally unacceptable, commentators have opined that "the Republic as a democratic constitutional regime was doomed from the outset". [8] Commentators have posited that such a "hostile" approach to the issues of church and state were a substantial cause of the breakdown of democracy and the onset of civil war.[9] Establishment of religion refers to investing political power in a particular religious faith or body. ... José Ortega y Gasset José Ortega y Gasset (May 9, 1883 - October 18, 1955) was a Spanish philosopher. ...


1933 election and aftermath

Leading up to the Civil War, the state of the political establishment had been brutal and violent for some time. In the 1933 elections to the Cortes, the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas or CEDA) won a plurality of seats. It was however not enough to form a majority. Despite the results, then President Niceto Zamora declined to invite the leader of the CEDA to form a government and instead invited the Radical Republican Party and its leader Alejandro Lerroux to do so. CEDA supported the Lerroux government; it later demanded and, on October 1, 1934, received three ministerial positions. Hostility between both the left and the right increased after the formation of the Government. Spain experienced general strikes and street conflicts. Noted among the strikes was the miners' revolt in northern Spain and riots in Madrid. Nearly all rebellions were crushed by the Government and political arrests followed. The Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA) was a Spanish political party in the Second Spanish Republic. ... The Radical Republican Party (Spanish: Partido Republicano Radical), sometimes shortened to the Radical Party was a Spanish political party founded in 1908 by Alejandro Lerroux in Santander, Cantabria as a split from the Republican Union party. ... Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, 1864 - Madrid, 1949) was a Spanish politician who was the leader of the Spanish Radical Party during the Second Spanish Republic. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lerroux's alliance with the right, his harsh suppression of the revolt in 1934, and the Stra-Perlo scandal combined to leave him and his party with little support going into the 1936 election. (Lerroux himself lost his seat in parliament.) Straperlo or Stra-Perlo was the brand of a fraudulent electric roulette game, promoted by Strauss and Perlowitz. ...


1936 Popular Front victory and aftermath

In the 1936 Elections a new coalition of Socialists (PSOE), liberals (Republican Left Party of and the Republican Union Party), Communists, and various regional nationalists groups won the extremely tight election. The results gave 34 percent of the popular vote to the Popular Front and 33 percent to the incumbent government of the CEDA, this result when coupled with the Socialists refusal to participate in the new government led to a general fear of revolution. This was only made more apparent when Largo Caballero, hailed as "the Spanish Lenin" by Pravda, announced that the country was on the cusp of revolution. However these statements were meant only to remove any moderates from his coalition. Moderate Socialist Indalecio Prieto condemned the rhetoric and marches as insanely provocative.[6]


From the Comintern's point of view the increasingly powerful, if fragmented, left and the weak right were an optimum situation.[10] Their goal was to use a veil of legitimate democratic institutions to outlaw the right and to convert the state into the Soviet vision of a "people's republic" with total leftist domination, a goal which was repeatedly voiced not only in Comintern instructions but also in the public statements of the PCE (Communist Party of Spain).[11] The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ...


Azaña becomes president

Without the Socialists, Prime Minister Manuel Azaña, a liberal who favored gradual reform while respecting the democratic process, led a minority government. In April, parliament replaced President Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, a moderate who had alienated virtually all the parties[citation needed], with Azaña. The removal of Zamora was made on specious grounds and in violation of the constitution.[12] Although the right also voted for Zamora's removal, this was a watershed event which inspired many conservatives to give up on parliamentary politics. Azaña was the object of intense hate by Spanish rightists, who remembered how he had pushed a reform agenda through a recalcitrant parliament in 1931–33. Joaquín Arrarás, a friend of Francisco Franco, called him "a repulsive caterpillar of red Spain."[13] The Spanish generals particularly disliked Azaña because he had cut the army's budget and closed the military academy when he was war minister (1931). CEDA turned its campaign chest over to army plotter Emilio Mola. Monarchist José Calvo Sotelo replaced CEDA's Gil Robles as the right's leading spokesman in parliament.[13] Image:F manuel azana. ... Cover of Time Magazine, May 4, 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (July 6, 1877 – February 18, 1949), served (very briefly) as first Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic, and then - from 1931 to 1936 - as its president. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... Momument to Calvo Sotelo (1960) José Calvo Sotelo (Tui, Pontevedra, May 6, 1893—Madrid, July 13, 1936) was a Spanish political figure prior to and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones (Salamanca, 27 November 1898-Madrid, 14 September 1980) was a prominent Spanish politician in the period leading up to the Spanish Civil War. ...


Rising tensions — political violence

This was a period of rising tensions. Radicals became more aggressive, while conservatives turned to paramilitary and vigilante actions. According to official sources, 330 people were assassinated and 1,511 were wounded in politically-related violence; records show 213 failed assassination attempts, 113 general strikes, and the destruction (typically by arson) of 160 religious buildings.[14] Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ...


Deaths of Castillo and Calvo Sotelo

On July 12, 1936, in Madrid, a far right group murdered Lieutenant José Castillo of the Assault Guards, a special police corps created to deal with urban violence, and a Socialist. The next day, leftist gunman Luis Cuenca killed José Calvo Sotelo, a leader of the conservative opposition in the Cortes (Spanish parliament), in revenge. Cuenca was operating in a commando unit of the Assault Guard led by Captain Fernando Condés Romero. Condés was close to the Socialist leader Indalecio Prieto, but there is no indication that Prieto was complicit in Cuenca's assassination of Calvo Sotelo. However, the murder of such a prominent member of parliament, with involvement of the police, aroused suspicions and strong reactions amongst the Center and the Right.[15] Calvo Sotelo was the leading Spanish monarchist. He protested against what he viewed as escalating anti-religious terror, expropriations, and hasty agricultural reforms, which he considered Bolshevist and anarchist. He instead advocated the creation of a corporative state and declared that if such a state was fascist, he was also a fascist.[16] is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... José Castillo (? – July 12, 1936) was a Spanish Police Assault Guard lieutenant during the Second Spanish Republic. ... The blue-uniformed Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) were the para-military urban police force of Spain, similar to the green uniformed Guardia Civil which patrolled the countryside, during the Spanish Second Republic. ... Momument to Calvo Sotelo (1960) José Calvo Sotelo (Tui, Pontevedra, May 6, 1893—Madrid, July 13, 1936) was a Spanish political figure prior to and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


He also declared that Spanish soldiers would be mad to not rise for Spain against Anarchy. In turn, the leader of the communists, Dolores Ibarruri, known as La Pasionaria, allegedly vowed that Calvo Sotelo's speech would be his last speech in the Cortes.[17][18] Although the Nationalist generals were already at advanced stages of planning an uprising, the event is seen by some as a catalyst for what followed. Dolores Ibarruri Dolores Ibárruri Gómez, also known as La Pasionaria (the passion flower) (November 12, 1895–December 9, 1989) was a Spanish political leader. ...


Outbreak of the war

Nationalist military revolt

On July 17, 1936, the nationalist-traditionalist rebellion long feared by some in the Popular Front government began. Its start was signaled by the phrase "Over all of Spain, the sky is clear" that was broadcast on the radio. Casares Quiroga, who had succeeded Azaña as prime minister, had in the previous weeks exiled the military officers suspected of conspiracy against the Republic, including Puerto Rico-born General Manuel Goded Llopis and General Francisco Franco, sent to the Balearic Islands and to the Canary Islands, respectively. Both generals immediately took control of these islands. A British MI6 intelligence agent, Major Hugh Pollard, then flew Franco to Spanish Morocco[19] in a de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide to see Juan March Ordinas, where the Spanish Army of Africa, led by Nationalist ranks, were almost unopposed in assuming control. is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Manuel Goded Llopis (October 15, 1882 - August 12, 1936), was a high ranking Puerto Rican in the Spanish Army who was one the first generales to join Spanish General Francisco Franco, in the revolt against the Spanish Republican government (also known as Spanish loyalists) in what is known as... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Joan March i Ordinas (1880–1962) was a Spanish financier and British agent on the side of Francisco Francos forces during and after the Spanish Civil War. ... The Spanish Army of Africa was a Spanish field army that garrisoned Spanish Morocco until Moroccos independence. ...


Government reaction

The rising was intended to be a swift coup d'état, but was botched; conversely, the government was able to retain control of only part of the country. In this first stage, the rebels failed to take any major cities — in Madrid they were hemmed into the Montaña barracks. The barracks fell the next day with much bloodshed. In Barcelona, anarchists armed themselves and defeated the rebels. General Goded, who arrived from the Balearic islands, was captured and later executed. However, the turmoil facilitated anarchist control over Barcelona and much of the surrounding Aragonese and Catalan countryside, effectively breaking away with the Republican government. The Republicans held on to Valencia and controlled almost all of the Eastern Spanish coast and central area around Madrid. Except for Asturias, Cantabria and part of the Basque Country, the Nationals took most of northern and northwestern Spain and also a southern area in central and western Andalusia including Seville. Coup redirects here. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Anarchist Catalonia (July 21, 1936 - February 10, 1939) was the stateless territory and anarchist society in part of the territory of modern Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War, eventually headed by Buenaventura Durruti. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ...


The combatants

The Republicans

Polish volunteers of the International Brigades.
Polish volunteers of the International Brigades.

Republicans (also known as Spanish loyalists) received weapons and volunteers from the Soviet Union, Mexico, the international Socialist movement and the International Brigades. The Republicans ranged from centrists who supported a moderately capitalist liberal democracy to revolutionary anarchists and communists; their power base was primarily secular and urban, but also included landless peasants, and it was particularly strong in industrial regions like Asturias and Catalonia.[20] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x661, 66 KB) DÄ…browszczacy przed wycofaniem z Hiszpani przysiÄ™gajÄ… wierność sprawie Republiki. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x661, 66 KB) DÄ…browszczacy przed wycofaniem z Hiszpani przysiÄ™gajÄ… wierność sprawie Republiki. ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture Economics By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Anarchism has historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ...


The conservative, strongly Catholic Basque country, along with Catalonia and Galicia, sought autonomy or even independence from the central government of Madrid. This option was left open by the Republican government.[21] All these forces were gathered under the "Ejército Popular Republicano" (EPR) or Republican Popular Army. Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Scholar Stanley G. Payne noted that by the time of the outbreak of war Republicans had abandoned constitutional republicanism for leftist revolution: Stanley G. Payne is a historian of modern Spain and European Fascism at the University of Wisconsin--Madison. ...

The leftist zone has been variously designated 'Republican,' 'loyalist,' and 'Popular Front.' Of those terms, the adjective 'loyalist' is somewhat misleading, for there was no attempt to remain loyal to the constitutional Republican regime. If that had been the scrupulous policy of the left, there would have been no revolt and civil war in the first place. ...Thus after July 1936 what remained of the constitutional Republic gave way to the "revolutionary Republican confederation" of 1936-1937. [22][23]

The Nationalists

The Nationalists on the contrary opposed the separatist movements, but were chiefly defined by their anti-communism, which served as the galvanizing agent of diverse or even opposed movements like falangists or monarchists. Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ...


Their leaders had a generally wealthier, more conservative, monarchist, landowning background, and they favoured the centralization of state power. In turn, their support for the Catholic Church, provided them with popular support.[citation needed] Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, as well as most Roman Catholic clergy, supported the Nationalists, while Portugal's Estado Novo provided logistical support. Their forces were gathered into the "Ejército Nacional" or National Army. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Estado Novo (Portuguese for New State; pron. ... The National Army was the combined conscript and volunteer force that was was formed by the United States War Department in 1918 to fight in World War I. The National Army was formed from the old corps of the United States Army, augmented by units of the United States National...


Other factions in the war

The active participants in the war covered the entire gamut of the political positions and ideologies of the time. The Nationalist (nacionales) side included the Carlists and Legitimist monarchists, Spanish nationalists, the Falange, Catholics, and most conservatives and monarchist liberals. On the Republican side were socialists, communists, liberals and anarchists. Catalan and Basque nationalists were not univocal. Left-wing Catalan nationalists were in the Republican side. Conservative Catalan nationalists were far less vocal supporting the Republican government due to the anti-clericalism and confiscations occurring in some areas controlled by the latter (some conservative Catalan nationalists like Francesc Cambó actually funded the rebel side). Basque nationalists, heralded by the conservative Basque nationalist party, were mildly supportive of the Republican government, even though Basque nationalists in Álava and Navarre sided with the uprising for the same reasons influentiating Catalan conservative nationalists. Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... In politics, the term liberal refers to: an adherent of the ideology of liberalism or a state or quality of this ideology. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Catalan nationalism, or Catalanism, is a political movement that advocates for an increased political autonomy of Catalonia, if not independence itself, from Spain and France. ... Confiscation, from the Latin confiscato join to the fiscus, i. ... Francesc Cambó i Batlle (Verges, Catalonia, 2 September 1876 - Argentina, 30 April 1947) was a conservative Catalan politician, founder and leader of the autonomist party Lliga Regionalista. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ...


To view the political alignments from another perspective, the Nationals included the majority of the Catholic clergy and of practicing Catholics (outside of the Basque region), important elements of the army, most of the large landowners, and many businessmen. The Republicans included most urban workers, most peasants, and much of the educated middle class, especially those who were not entrepreneurs.


The genial monarchist General José Sanjurjo was figurehead of the rebellion, while Emilio Mola was chief planner and second in command. Mola began serious planning in the spring, but General Francisco Franco hesitated until early July, inspiring other plotters to refer to him as "Miss Canary Islands 1936." Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and the man who suppressed the Socialist uprising of 1934. Warned that a military coup was imminent, leftists put barricades up on the roads on July 17. Franco avoided capture by taking a tugboat to the airport. From there he was flown to Morocco by British intelligence, where he took command of the battle-hardened colonial army in Spanish Morocco.[24][25] Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash on July 20, leaving effective command split between Mola in the north and Franco in the South. Franco was chosen overall commander at a meeting of ranking generals at Salamanca on September 21. He outranked Mola and by this point his Army of Africa had demonstrated its military superiority. Jose Sanjurjo José Sanjurjo Sacanell (Pamplona, 1872 - Estoril, Portugal, July 20, 1936) Marquess of the Rif and general, was a Spanish Army Officer who was one of the chief conspirators of the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The de Havilland DH 89 Dragon Rapide was a successful British short-haul passenger airliner of the 1930s. ... The Spanish Army of Africa was a Spanish field army that garrisoned Spanish Morocco until Moroccos independence. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ...


One of the Nationalists principal claimed motives was to confront the anti-clericalism of the Republican regime and to defend the Roman Catholic Church, which had been the target of attacks, and which many on the Republican side blamed for the ills of the country. Even before the war religious buildings were burnt without action on the part of the Republican authorities to prevent it. As part of the social revolution taking place, others were turned into Houses of the People.[26] Similarly, many of the massacres perpetrated by the Republican side targeted the Catholic clergy. Franco's Moroccan Muslim troops found this repulsive as well, and for the most part fought loyally and often ferociously for the Nationalists. Articles 24 and 26 of the Constitution of the Republic had banned the Jesuits, which deeply offended many within the conservatives. After the beginning of the Nationalist coup, anger flared anew at the Church and its role in Spanish politics. Notwithstanding these religious matters, the Basque nationalists, who nearly all sided with the Republic, were, for the most part, practicing Catholics. Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... In Spanish history, there have been several revolutions. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... There have been two Spanish Republics: First Spanish Republic (1873-1874) Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939) Franco declared Spain to be a monarchy, but did not permit a monarch until his death in 1975. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


Republican sympathizers proclaimed it as a struggle between "tyranny and democracy", or "fascism and liberty", and many non-Spanish young, committed reformers and revolutionaries joined the International Brigades, believing the Spanish Republic was the front line of the war against fascism. Franco's supporters, however, portrayed it as a battle between the "red hordes" of communism and anarchism on the one hand and "Christian civilization" on the other. They also stated that they were protecting the Establishment and bringing security and direction to what they felt was an ungoverned and lawless society.[27] This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Central New York City. ... For other uses, see Establishment. ...


The Republicans were also split among themselves. The left and Basque or Catalan nationalist conservatives had many conflicting ideas. The Cortes (Spanish Parliament) consisted of 16 parties in 1931. When autonomy was granted to Catalonia and the Basque Provinces in 1932, a nationalist coup was attempted but failed. An anarchist uprising resulted in the massacre of hundreds of rebels and intra civil war between anarchists and communists in Catalonia. In addition to this opposition, Spanish exports decreased by 75% between 1931 and 1942. Thus, the rural reforms were of little help to the starving lower class. Economic difficulties on the whole prevented the Republic from doing anything constructive during its time in government. Anarchist Catalonia (July 21, 1936 - February 10, 1939) was the stateless territory and anarchist society in part of the territory of modern Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War, eventually headed by Buenaventura Durruti. ...


Foreign involvement

Main article: Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War
Flag of the Irish Blueshirts, an Irish fascist movement led by Eoin O'Duffy which participated in fighting alongside Franco's nationalists against republican and socialist forces.
Flag of the Irish Blueshirts, an Irish fascist movement led by Eoin O'Duffy which participated in fighting alongside Franco's nationalists against republican and socialist forces.

The Spanish Civil War had large numbers of non-Spanish citizens participating in combat and advisory positions. Foreign governments contributed large amounts of financial assistance and military aid to forces led by Generalísimo Francisco Franco. Forces fighting on behalf of the Second Spanish Republic also received limited aid but support was seriously hampered by the arms embargo declared by France and the UK. The Spanish Civil War had large numbers of non-Spanish citizens participating in combat and advisory positions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Irish_Blueshirts. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Irish_Blueshirts. ... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish organisation set up by former police commissioner and army General Eoin ODuffy in the 1930s. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... A generalissimo is a commissioned officer of the highest rank; the word is often translated as Supreme Commander or Commander in Chief. It is an Italian superlative substantive, which grammatically would actually be disallowed in Italian (superlatives can be made with adjectives only). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish...


These embargoes were never extremely effective however, and France especially was accused of allowing large shipments through to the Republicans - though the accusations often came from Italy, itself heavily involved for the Nationalists. The clandestine actions of the various European powers were at the time considered as risking another 'Great War' (as World War I had been named before World War II), though this was in the end avoided.[28] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Italy and Germany

Both Fascist Italy, under dictator Benito Mussolini, and Nazi Germany, under dictator Adolf Hitler, sent troops, aircraft, tanks, and other weapons to support Franco. The Italian government provided the "Corps of Volunteer Troops" (Corpo Truppe Volontarie) and Germany sent the "Condor Legion" (Legion Condor). The CTV reached a high of about 50,000 men and as many as 75,000 Italians fought in Spain. The German force numbered about 12,000 men at its zenith and as many as 19,000 Germans fought in Spain. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... Hermann Göring delivering an honour (likely to be the Spanienkreuz, Spanish Cross) to a member of the Legion Condor (April 1939) The Condor Legion was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the right wing Nationalists (i. ...


Soviet Union

The Soviet Union primarily provided material assistance to the Republican forces. While Soviet troops amounted to no more than 700 men, Soviet "volunteers" often piloted aircraft or operated tanks purchased by the Spanish Republican forces. The Republic had to purchase Soviet assistance with the official gold reserves of the Bank of Spain (see Moscow Gold), obtaining armament of marginal quality that, in addition, was sold at deliberately inflated prices. The cost for the Republic of the Soviet support raised more than US$500 million, which made up two-thirds of the gold reserves that Spain had at the beginning of the war. CCCP redirects here. ... The Banco de España (Bank of Spain) is the national central bank of Spain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... CCCP redirects here. ... // Gold ingots, like these from the Bank of Sweden, form the base of many monetary systems Gold reserves (or gold holdings) are held by central banks as a store of value. ...


International brigade volunteers

The troops of the International Brigades represented the largest foreign contingent of troops fighting for the Republicans. Roughly 30,000 foreign nationals from a possibly up to 53 nations fought in the various brigades. Most of them were communists or trade unionists, and while organised by communists guided or controlled by Moscow, they were almost all individual volunteers. The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ...


Irish volunteers

Ireland was the only country where pro-Franco volunteers outnumbered the anti-Franco volunteers.[citation needed] Despite the declaration by the Irish government that participation in the war was illegal, around 250 Irishmen went to fight for the Republicans and around 700 of Eoin O'Duffy's followers ("The Blueshirts") went to Spain to fight on Franco's side. General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), later named National Guard and better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish political organisation set up by General Eoin ODuffy in 1932. ...


On arrival, however, O'Duffy's Irish contingent refused to fight the Basques for Franco, seeing parallels between their recent struggle and Basque aspirations. They saw their primary role in Spain as fighting communism, rather than defending Spain's territorial integrity. Eoin O'Duffy's men saw little fighting in Spain and were sent home by Franco after being accidentally fired on by Spanish Nationalist troops.


Evacuation of children

As war proceeded in the Northern front, the Republican authorities arranged the evacuation of children. These Spanish War children were shipped to Britain, Belgium, the Soviet Union, other European countries and Mexico. Those in Western European countries returned to their families after the war, but many of those in the Soviet Union, from Communist families, remained and experienced the Second World War and its effects on the Soviet Union.


Like the Republican side, the Nationalist side of Franco also arranged evacuations of children, women and elderly from war zones. Refugee camps for those civilians evacuated by the Nationalists were set up in Portugal, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Pacifism in Spain

In the 1930s Spain also became a focus for pacifist organizations including the Fellowship of Reconciliation, the War Resisters League and the War Resisters' International (whose president was the British MP and Labour Party leader George Lansbury). Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ... The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FoR or FOR) is the name used by a number of religious nonviolent organizations, particularly in English-speaking countries. ... The War Resisters League (WRL) was formed in 1923 by men and women who had opposed World War I. It is a section of the London-based War Resisters’ International. ... War Resisters International or WRI is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... George Lansbury (21 February 1859 – 7 May 1940) was a British politician, socialist, Christian pacifist and newspaper editor. ...


With their focus on government action and military reaction, and against the background of the terrible violence that took place, academic historians, authors, journalists and film-makers have all paid attention to the great political machines that were at work, and have largely overlooked many non-governmental international and grass roots movements including, as they are now called, the 'insumisos' ('defiant ones', i.e., conscientious objectors) who argued and worked for non-violent strategies.


Prominent Spanish pacifists such as Amparo Poch y Gascón and José Brocca supported the Republicans. As American author Scott H. Bennett has demonstrated, 'pacifism' in Spain certainly did not equate with 'passivism', and the dangerous work undertaken and sacrifices made by pacifist leaders and activists such as Poch and Brocca show that 'pacifist courage is no less heroic than the military kind' (Bennett, 2003: 67–68). Brocca argued that Spanish pacifists had no alternative but to make a stand against fascism. He put this stand into practice by various means including organising agricultural workers to maintain food supplies and through humanitarian work with war refugees.[29] Amparo Poch y Gascón was a Spanish anarchist, doctor, and activist in the years leading up to and during the Spanish Civil War, was one of the founding members of the Mujeres Libres and was appointed director of social assistance at the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance by... Jose Brocca (Professor José Brocca Ramón) was a pacifist and humanitarian of the Spanish Civil War, who allied himself with the republicans but sought non-violent ways of resisting fascism. ...


Atrocities during the war

Nationalist aircraft bomb Madrid in late November 1936.
Nationalist aircraft bomb Madrid in late November 1936.

At least 50,000 people were executed during the civil war.[30][31] In his recent, updated history of the Spanish Civil War, Antony Beevor "reckons Franco's ensuing 'white terror' claimed 200,000 lives. The 'red terror' had already killed 38,000."[32] Julius Ruiz concludes that "although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain."[33] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 141 KB)A Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 during a bombing raid in the Spanish Civil War, photograph most likely taken in 1935. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 141 KB)A Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 during a bombing raid in the Spanish Civil War, photograph most likely taken in 1935. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... During the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults during what has been termed Spains red terror included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy. ... Francism redirects here. ...

Picasso's Guernica was painted as a representation of the bombing of Guernica.
Picasso's Guernica was painted as a representation of the bombing of Guernica.

The atrocities of the Bando Nacional were common and were frequently ordered by authorities in order to eradicate any trace of leftism in Spain; many such acts were committed by radical groups during the first weeks of the war. This included the execution of school teachers[34] (because the efforts of the Republic to promote laicism and to displace the Church from the education system by closing religious schools were considered by the Bando Nacional side as an attack on the Church); the execution of individuals because of accusations of anti-clericalism[citation needed]; the massive killings of civilians in the cities they captured;[35] the execution of unwanted individuals (including non-combatants[36] such as trade-unionists and known Republican sympathisers etc)[37]An example of this kind of tactics on the Nationalist side was the Massacre of Badajoz in 1936. [38]. Image File history File links PicassoGuernica. ... Image File history File links PicassoGuernica. ... Guernica is a painting by Pablo Picasso, depicting the Nazi German bombing of Guernica, Spain, by twenty-eight bombers, on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... Francism redirects here. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... Francism redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Ildefonso Puigdendolas Juan Yagüe Carlos Asensio Antonio Castejón Strength 6,000 militia 3,000 regulars 30 guns Casualties 750 dead 3,500 wounded, captured or missing 285 dead or wounded The Battle of Badajoz was one of the first major Nationalist...


The Nationalist side also carried out aerial bombing of cities in the Republican territory, carried out mainly by the Luftwaffe volunteers of the Condor Legion and the Italian air force volunteers of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Guernica, and other cities). The most notorious example of this tactic of terror bombings was the Bombing of Guernica. The remains of German town of Wesel after intensive allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 97% of all buildings) The aerial bombing of cities began in 1911, developed through World War I, grew to a vast scale in World War II, and continued to the present day. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... Hermann Göring delivering an honour (likely to be the Spanienkreuz, Spanish Cross) to a member of the Legion Condor (April 1939) The Condor Legion was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the right wing Nationalists (i. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Guernica may refer to: Guernica (painting), a 1937 painting by Pablo Picasso Guernica (town), Basque town, historical capital of Biscay Guernica (1950 film), a short film directed by Alain Resnais Guernica (1978 film), a short film directed by Emir Kusturica Bombing of Guernica, an attack on April 26, 1937 during... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ...

Spanish Leftists shoot at a statue of Jesus Christ

Atrocities on the Republican side were committed by government agencies[citation needed], ruling parties[citation needed] and groups of radical leftists (mainly Communists and anarchists)[citation needed] against alleged rebel supporters, including the nobility, former landowners, rich farmers, industrialists, non-socialist workers and people associated to the Church. Atrocities by the Republicans have been termed Spain's red terror by those on the Nationalist side. Republican attacks on the Catholic Church, associated strongly with support for the old monarchist and hierarchical establishment, were particularly controversial. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... During the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults during what has been termed Spains red terror included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy. ... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of...


Nearly 7,000 clerics were killed and churches, convents and monasteries were attacked (see Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War). Some 13 bishops, 4184 diocesan priests, 2365 male religious (among them 114 Jesuits) and 283 nuns were killed. There are unverified accounts of Catholics being forced to swallow rosary beads and/or being thrown down mine shafts, as well as priests being forced to dig their own graves before being buried alive. [39] Pope John Paul II beatified several hundred people murdered for being priests or nuns, and Pope Benedict XVI beatified almost 500 more on October 28, 2007.[40] [41] [42]. Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by Catholics to the tens of thousands of people who were killed during the Spanish Civil War for their Christian faith. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...


Other repressive actions in the Republican side were committed by specific factions such as the Stalinist NKVD (the Soviet secret police)[43]. In addition, many Republican politicians, such as Lluís Companys the Catalan nationalist president of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the autonomous government of Catalonia –which remained initially loyal to the Republic before proclaiming independence from it– carried out numerous actions to mediate in cases of deliberate executions of the clergy[44]. Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Lluís Companys i Jover (21 June 1882 – Spain, 15 October 1940) was a Catalan politician and leader of the Esquerra Party (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catalan nationalism. ... The Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia ) is the institution in which the self-government of Catalonia is politically organised. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish...


The war: 1936

Situation of the fronts in August-September 1936.

In the early days of the war, over 50,000 people who were caught on the "wrong" side of the lines were assassinated or executed. In these paseos ("promenades"), as the executions were called, the victims were taken from their refuges or jails by armed people to be shot outside of town. The corpses were abandoned or interred in graves dug by the victims themselves. Local police just noted the apparition of the corpses. Probably the most famous such victim was the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca. The outbreak of the war provided an excuse for settling accounts and resolving long-standing feuds. Thus, this practice became widespread during the war in conquered areas. This article covers the Spanish Civil War in 1936. ... Extrajudicial execution and extrajudicial punishment are terms to describe death sentences and other types of punishment, respectively, executed without prior proper judicial procedure. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ...


Any hope of a quick ending to the war was dashed on July 21, the fifth day of the rebellion, when the Nationalists captured the main Spanish naval base at Ferrol in northwestern Spain. This encouraged the Fascist nations of Europe to help Franco, who had already contacted the governments of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy the day before. On July 26, the future Axis Powers cast their lot with the Nationalists. A rebel force under Colonel Beorlegui Canet, sent by General Emilio Mola, advanced on Guipúzcoa. On September 5th, after heavy fighting it took Irún closing the French border to the Republicans. On September 13th the Basques surrendered San Sebastián to the Nationalists who then advanced toward their capital, Bilbao but were halted by the Republican militias on the border of Viscaya at the end of September. The capture of Guipúzcoa had isolated the Republican provinces in the north. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... Ferrol can refer to: EUROPE Ferrol, Spain City and Naval Station in North Western Spain, European Union Note: Place of birth of both Francisco Franco (1892) the Spanish dictator and Pablo Iglesias (1850) founder of PSOE and UGT. ASIA Ferrol, Romblon Small Town in the Philippines Note: The Philippines got... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Alfonso Beorlegui Canet (1888 - 1936) was a Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry in the Spanish Army. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... Dont confuse Irun with Iruñea, the Basque name of Pamplona. ... San Sebastián (the Spanish-language name of Saint Sebastian) may refer to: Donostia-San Sebastián, a city in the Basque Country, between Spain and France San Sebastián de La Gomera, a town in the Canary Islands, Spain San Sebastián de los Reyes, a city in Madrid... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Categories: Spain geography stubs | Basque | Provinces of Spain | Bizkaia ...


To the south, Nationalist forces under Franco won another victory on September 27 when they relieved the Alcázar at Toledo. A Nationalist garrison under Colonel Moscardo had held the Alcázar in the center of the city since the beginning of the rebellion, resisting for months against thousands of Republican troops who completely surrounded the isolated building. The inability to take the Alcázar was a serious blow to the prestige of the Republic, as it was considered inexplicable in view of their overwhelming numerical superiority in the area. Two days after relieving the siege, Franco proclaimed himself Generalísimo and Caudillo ("chieftain") while forcibly unifying the various and diverse Falangist, Royalist and other elements within the Nationalist cause. is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Cándido Cabello José Moscardó Ituarte, Pedro Romero Basart Strength 8,000 militia 1,028 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 65 dead, 438 wounded, 22 missing The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic battle in the opening stages of the Spanish... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte (1878-1956) was a Nationalist officer fighting against the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War. ... The Alcázar of Toledo at dusk The Alcázar of Toledo is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. ... A generalissimo is a commissioned officer of the highest rank; the word is often translated as Supreme Commander or Commander in Chief. It is an Italian superlative substantive, which grammatically would actually be disallowed in Italian (superlatives can be made with adjectives only). ... Caudillo is a Spanish (caudilho in Portuguese) word usually used to designate a political-military leader at the head of an authoritative power. ... Yoke and Arrows. ...


In October, the Francoist troops launched a major offensive toward Madrid, reaching it in early November and launching a major assault on the city on November 8. The Republican government was forced to shift from Madrid to Valencia, out of the combat zone, on November 6. However, the Nationalists' attack on the capital was repulsed in fierce fighting between November 8 and 23. A contributory factor in the successful Republican defense was the arrival of the International Brigades, though only around 3000 of them participated in the battle. Having failed to take the capital, Franco bombarded it from the air and, in the following two years, mounted several offensives to try to encircle Madrid. (See also Siege of Madrid (1936-39)) This article is about the Spanish capital. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... Madrid during the Civil War The Siege of Madrid was a three year siege of the Spanish capital Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ...


On November 18, Germany and Italy officially recognized the Franco regime, and on December 23, Italy sent "volunteers" of its own to fight for the Nationalists. is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The war: 1937

With his ranks being swelled by Italian troops and Spanish colonial soldiers from Morocco, Franco made another attempt to capture Madrid in January and February of 1937, but failed again. This article covers the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) during 1937. ...


On February 21 the League of Nations Non-Intervention Committee ban on foreign national "volunteers" went into effect. The large city of Málaga was taken on February 8. On March 7 German Condor Legion equipped with Heinkel He 51 biplanes arrived in Spain; on April 26 the Legion was responsible for the infamous massacre of hundreds, including numerous women and children, at Guernica in the Basque Country; the event was committed to notoriety by Picasso. Two days later, Franco's army overran the town. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The purpose of Non-Intervention Committee (1936-1939) was to prevent personnel and matériel reaching the warring parties of the Spanish Civil War. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... Location of Málaga Government  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area  - Total 385. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders José Villalba Lacorte Queipo de Llano Mario Roatta Strength 40,000 militia 10,000 Moors 5,000 Requetés 5,000 Italians Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Málaga was the culmination of an offensive in early 1937 by the combined Nationalist... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hermann Göring delivering an honour (likely to be the Spanienkreuz, Spanish Cross) to a member of the Legion Condor (April 1939) The Condor Legion was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the right wing Nationalists (i. ... The Heinkel He 51 was a single-seat biplane which was produced in a number of different versions. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... Flag of Gernika-Lumo. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ...


After the fall of Guernica, the Republican government began to fight back with increasing effectiveness. In July, they made a move to recapture Segovia, forcing Franco to pull troops away from the Madrid front to halt their advance. Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on June 3, and in early July, despite the fall of Bilbao in June, the government actually launched a strong counter-offensive in the Madrid area, which the Nationalists repulsed with some difficulty. The clash was called "Battle of Brunete" (Brunete is a town in the province of Madrid). The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Capital Madrid Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  8,030. ...


After that, Franco regained the initiative, invading Aragón in August and then taking the city of Santander. After the Basque nationalists surrendered and two months of bitter fighting in Asturias, Gijón finally fell in late October, which effectively ended the war in the North of Spain. Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Mariano Gamir Ulibarri Fidel Dávila Arrondo Strength 80,000 infantry 90,000 infantry 126 guns 220 aircraft Casualties 60,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown The Battle of Santander was fought over the summer of 1937 in the Spanish Civil War. ... Cantabria Population (2004) 183,799 inhabitants Area 34 km² Altitude 15 metres, at its peak Population density (2004) 5406 people/km² The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain between Asturias (to the west) and the Basque... The Santoña Agreement or Pact of Santoña is an agreement signed in the port town of Santoña, Santander province the August 24th, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, between politicians close to the Basque Nationalist Party (BNP), fighting with the Republican Side, and Italian forces fighting with... Location Location of Gijon Coordinates : Time zone : General information Native name Gijón / Xixón (Asturian) Spanish name Gijón Postal code 33200 to 33299 Website http://www. ...


Meanwhile, on August 28, the Vatican recognized Franco, and at the end of November, with Franco's troops closing in on Valencia, the government had to move again, this time to Barcelona. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


The war: 1938

Situation of the fronts in November 1938.
Main article: Spanish Civil War chronology 1938-1939

The Battle of Teruel was an important confrontation between Nationalist and Republican troops. The city belonged to the Nationalists at the beginning of the battle, but the Republicans conquered it in January. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by February 22. On March 7th, the Nationalists launched the Aragon Offensive. By April 14, they had pushed through to the Mediterranean Sea, cutting the Republican government-held portion of Spain in two. The Republican government tried to sue for peace in May[45] but Franco demanded unconditional surrender, and the war raged on. The Nationalist army pressed southward from Teruel and along the coast toward the capital of the Republic at Valencia but were halted in heavy fighting along the fortified XYZ Line. This article covers the Spanish Civil War in the period from the start of 1938 to the end of 1939. ... A Republican soldier seeks cover on the Plaza de Toros in Teruel, north-east of Madrid The battle of Teruel was fought in and around the city of Teruel in the Spanish Civil War in December 1937-February 1938. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to reconnect their territory in the Battle of the Ebro, beginning on July 24 and lasting until November 26. The campaign was militarily unsuccessful, and was undermined by the Franco-British appeasement of Hitler in Munich. The concession of Czechoslovakia destroyed the last vestiges of Republican morale by ending all hope of an anti-fascist alliance with the great powers. The retreat from the Ebro all but determined the final outcome of the war. Eight days before the new year, Franco struck back by throwing massive forces into an invasion of Catalonia. Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Juan Modesto Enrique Lister Queipo de Llano Francisco Franco Strength 100,000 90,000 Casualties 30,000 dead 20,000 wounded 19,563 captured 200 aircraft 6,500 dead 30,000 wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of the Ebro (Spanish: Batalla del Ebro... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ...


The war: 1939

Main article: Spanish Civil War chronology 1938-1939
Franco declares the end of the war. However, small pockets of insurgents still fought.
Franco declares the end of the war. However, small pockets of insurgents still fought.

Franco's troops conquered Catalonia in a whirlwind campaign during the first two months of 1939. Tarragona fell on January 14, followed by Barcelona on January 26 and Girona on February 5. Five days after the fall of Girona, the last resistance in Catalonia was broken. This article covers the Spanish Civil War in the period from the start of 1938 to the end of 1939. ... Download high resolution version (695x899, 56 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (695x899, 56 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Tarragona, Davao Oriental. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On February 27, the governments of the United Kingdom and France recognized the Franco regime. is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Only Madrid and a few other strongholds remained for the Republican government forces. Then, on March 28, with the help of pro-Franco forces inside the city (not as effective as described by General Mola in his propagandistic broadcasts of 1936 referring to the so-called "fifth column"), Madrid fell to the Nationalists. The next day, Valencia, which had held out under their guns for close to two years, also surrendered. Franco proclaimed victory in a radio speech aired on April 1, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered. This article is about the Spanish capital. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Fifth Column (disambiguation). ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the end of the War, there were harsh reprisals against Franco's former enemies,[46] when thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and at least 30,000 executed.[47] Others have calculated these deaths at from 50,000 to 200,000. Many others were put to forced labour, building railways, drying out swamps, digging canals (La Corchuela, the Canal of the Bajo Guadalquivir), construction of the Valle de los Caídos monument, etc. Hundreds of thousands of other Republicans fled abroad, especially to France and Mexico. Some 500,000 of them fled to France.[48] Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... The Guadalquivir is the second longest river in Spain (after the Tagus). ... Image:ValleCaidos. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ...


On the other side of the Pyrenees, refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions (mostly soldiers from the Durruti Division [49]). The 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs were divided into four categories (Brigadists, pilots, Gudaris and ordinary Spaniards). The Gudaris (Basques) and the pilots easily found local backers and jobs, and were allowed to quit the camp, but the farmers and ordinary people, who could not find relations in France, were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to Spain. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Francoist authorities in Irún. From there they were transferred to the Miranda de Ebro camp for "purification" according to the Law of Political Responsibilities. Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... There have been internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II. Beside the camps created during World War I to intern German, Austrian and Ottomans civilians prisoners, the Third Republic (1871-1940) opened various internment camps for the Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Camp Gurs was an internment and refugee camp constructed by the French government in 1939 in Southwest France after the fall of Catalonia at the end of the Spanish Civil War to control those who fled Spain out of fear of retaliation from Francisco Francos regime. ... The French département where Le Vernet is located. ... Members of the Durruti Column. ... The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... Euzko Gudarostea (modern spelling: Eusko Gudarostea, Basque army) was the name of the army commanded by the government of the Basque Autonomous Community during the Spanish civil war. ... Dont confuse Irun with Iruñea, the Basque name of Pamplona. ... Location Location of Miranda de Ebro in Spain Coordinates : 42°41′ N 2°56′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Miranda de Ebro (Spanish) Spanish name Miranda de Ebro Postal code 09200 Area code 34 (Spain) + 947 (Burgos) Website http://www. ...


After the proclamation by Marshall Pétain of the Vichy regime, the refugees became political prisoners, and the French police attempted to round-up those who had been liberated from the camp. Along with other "undesirables", they were sent to the Drancy internment camp before being deported to Nazi Germany. About 5,000 Spaniards thus died in Mauthausen concentration camp [50]. The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, who had been named by the Chilean President Pedro Aguirre Cerda special consul for immigration in Paris, was given responsibility for what he called "the noblest mission I have ever undertaken": shipping more than 2,000 Spanish refugees, who had been housed by the French in squalid camps, to Chile on an old cargo ship, the Winnipeg. Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain (April 24, 1856 – July 23, 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and Head of State of Vichy France, a Nazi puppet state, from 1940 to 1944. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The National Police (Police Nationale) is one of two national police forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. ... Drancy deportation camp was an infamous temporary prison camp in the city of Drancy, north of Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mauthausen (from summer 1940, Mauthausen-Gusen) was a group of 49 Nazi concentration camps situated around the small town of Mauthausen in Upper Austria, about 20 kilometers east of the city of Linz. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Pedro Aguirre Cerda (February 6, 1879 - November 25, 1941) was a Chilean political figure. ... The Winnipeg is the name of the ship which arrived on the coasts of Valparaíso, Chile, on 3 September 1939, with 2,200 Spanish immigrants fleeing Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ...


After the official end of the war, guerrilla war was waged on an irregular basis, well into the 1950s, being gradually reduced by the scant support from an exhausted population and military defeats. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, who also fought in the French resistance against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but they were defeated after 10 days. Members of the Basque branch of the Agrupación de Guerrilleros in 1944. ... The Croix de Lorraine, chosen by General de Gaulle as the symbol of the resistance. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Val dAran, a small valley (620. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ...


Social revolution

Main article: Spanish Revolution

In the anarchist-controlled areas, Aragón and Catalonia, in addition to the temporary military success, there was a vast social revolution in which the workers and peasants collectivised land and industry, and set up councils parallel to the paralyzed Republican government. This revolution was opposed by both the Soviet-supported communists, who ultimately took their orders from Stalin's politburo (which feared a loss of control), and the Social Democratic Republicans (who worried about the loss of civil property rights). The agrarian collectives had considerable success despite opposition and lack of resources, as Franco had already captured lands with some of the richest natural resources.[51] In Spanish history, there have been several revolutions. ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... The term social revolution may have different connotations depending on the speaker. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Because land is a limited resource and property rights include the right to exclude others, land rights are a form of monopoly. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... A collective is a group of people who are organized around an issue or to accomplish a goal together. ...


As the war progressed, the government and the communists were able to leverage their access to Soviet arms to restore government control over the war effort, through both diplomacy and force. Anarchists and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista, or POUM) were integrated with the regular army, albeit with resistance; the POUM was outlawed and falsely denounced as an instrument of the fascists. In the May Days of 1937, many hundreds or thousands of anti-fascist soldiers fought one another for control of strategic points in Barcelona, recounted by George Orwell in Homage to Catalonia. Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... A POUM poster urges Workers: to victory! A POUM poster appeals to peasants: Peasants: the land is yours The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer dUnificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and... The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista) was a Spanish political party around the time of the Spanish Civil War. ... From May 3rd to May 8th of 1937, factions on the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War engaged in violent street battles. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and novelist George Orwells personal account of his experiences and observations in the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ...


People

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ... Ilya Grigoryevich Ehrenburg (Russian: IPA: ), January 27 [O.S. January 15] 1891 (Kiev, Ukraine) – August 31, 1967 (Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet-Jewish Russian writer and journalist whose 1954 novel gave name to the Khrushchev Thaw. ... Simon Samuel Krafsur (January 10, 1913 - June 1983) was a Boston-born journalist who worked for the Soviet news agency TASS during World War II. He was also known as Bill Krafsur. ... Carl Aldo Marzani (4 March 1912 - 11 December 1994), was an American who served in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II and later the U.S. Department of State. ... This article is about an Soviet spy who was an American citizen. ... Ture Nerman, passport photo Ture Nerman (May 18 , 1886 – October 7, 1969) was a Swedish Communist politician, and as a journalist and author, he was one of the most well-known political activists in his time. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Kim Philby Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Unions NKVD and KGB. In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of... Ludwig Renn (April 22, 1889, Dresden — July 21, 1979, Berlin) was a German writer. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... Alexander Mikhailovich Orlov (Russian: ) (Leiba Lazarevich Felbing, ) (21 August 1895–25 March 1973) was a Soviet-Jewish espionage administrator. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Nicolás Guillén (10 July 1902 – 16 July 1989) was a Cuban poet. ... Martha Gellhorn Martha Gellhorn (8 November 1908 - 15 February 1998) was an American novelist and journalist considered one of the greatest war correspondents of the 20th century. ... Eddie August Schneider (1911-1940) circa 1930 Emil Schneider (c1880-1955) and Inga Petersen (c1880-1928) circa 1920 From left to right are: Maria Elisabeth Winblad III (1895-1987) sitting in the lap of Ralph Freudenberg (1903-1980); Arthur Oscar Freudenberg (1891-1968) in the black tie; Sigrid; and Clara. ... Bert Acosta (1895-1954) in 1927 Bert Acosta (1895-1954) in New Bridgeport Telegram, Bridgeport, CT, September 02, 1954 Obituary in New Bridgeport Telegram, Bridgeport, CT, September 02, 1954 Bertrand Blanchard Acosta (January 1, 1895 - September 1, 1954) was an aviator who flew in the Spanish Civil War and was... Frank Glasgow Tinker (July 14, 1909 – June 13, 1939) was an American mercenary fighter pilot during the Spanish Civil War. ...

Political parties and organizations

Military architecture of the Spanish civil war. Archaeological studies in Oviedo, Asturias. Republican bunker constructed in 1937 during the siege to the city.
Military architecture of the Spanish civil war. Archaeological studies in Oviedo, Asturias. Republican bunker constructed in 1937 during the siege to the city.
Puente Nuevo, the bridge that links together the two parts of Ronda in Spain. Behind the window near the center of the bridge is a prison cell. There have been allegations that during the Civil War the nationalists threw people who supported the Republicans from the bridge to their deaths many meters down at the bottom of the El Tajo canyon. On the other hand, authorities confirm the atrocities committed by the Republicans against the Nationalists at Ronda. "Thus the description in Ernest Hemingway's novel For Whom the Bell Tolls of how the inhabitants of a small pueblo first beat all male members of the fascist party with heavy flails and then flung them over a cliff is near to the reality of what happened in the superb Andalusian town of Ronda. There 512 were murdered in the first month of the war."
Puente Nuevo, the bridge that links together the two parts of Ronda in Spain. Behind the window near the center of the bridge is a prison cell. There have been allegations that during the Civil War the nationalists threw people who supported the Republicans from the bridge to their deaths many meters down at the bottom of the El Tajo canyon. On the other hand, authorities confirm the atrocities committed by the Republicans against the Nationalists at Ronda. "Thus the description in Ernest Hemingway's novel For Whom the Bell Tolls of how the inhabitants of a small pueblo first beat all male members of the fascist party with heavy flails and then flung them over a cliff is near to the reality of what happened in the superb Andalusian town of Ronda. There 512 were murdered in the first month of the war." [52]

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ... Jose Sanjurjo José Sanjurjo Sacanell (Pamplona, 1872 - Estoril, Portugal, July 20, 1936) Marquess of the Rif and general, was a Spanish Army Officer who was one of the chief conspirators of the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. ... Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... José Calvo Sotelo (Tuy, Pontevedra, 1893-Madrid, July 13, 1936) was a Spanish political figure prior to and during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Ramiro de Maeztu y Whitney (May 4, 1875 - October 29, 1936) was a Spanish political theorist, journalist, literary critic and member of the Generation of 98. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Francisco Javier de Borbón y Braganza (Francis Xavier of Bourbon and Bragança). ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons throught the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... Pelayo (in Spanish), Pelágio (in Portuguese), or Pelagius (in Latin) (690–737) was the founder of the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death. ... Carlos María de los Dolores Juan Isidor Jose Francisco Quirin Antonio Miguel Gabriel Raphael de Borbón y Austria-Este, Duke of Madrid (March 30, 1848 - July 18, 1909) was the senior member of the House of Bourbon from 1887 until his death. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... Ramiro Ledesma Ramos (May 23, 1905, Alfaraz de Sayago, Zamora—October 29, 1936, Aravaca, Madrid) was a Spanish national syndicalist-fascist politician, essayist, and journalist. ... Symbol of J.O.N.S. Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista was a far-right National Syndicalist movement in Spain. ... José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones (Salamanca, 27 November 1898-Madrid, 14 September 1980) was a prominent Spanish politician in the period leading up to the Spanish Civil War. ... The Popular Action (Acción Popular) is a conservative liberal party in Peru. ... Ramón Serrano Súñer (September 12, 1901 – September 1, 2003), was a Spanish politician and creator of the radio station Radio Intercontinental. ... The Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (Traditional Spanish Falange and of the Juntas of National-Syndicalist Offensive in English) was the official political party founded by Francisco Franco April 19, 1937 in the midst of the Spanish Civil War... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 498 KB) Picture taken by myself. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 498 KB) Picture taken by myself. ... The Puente nuevo, whose name means new bridge in Spanish, is the newer and larger of two bridges that span the 120m-deep chasm that divides the city of Ronda in southern Spain. ... Ronda sits at the edge of a canyon Ronda city view Ronda is a city in the Spanish province of Málaga. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Thomas, p. 628
  2. ^ Thomas, p. 619
  3. ^ The number of casualties is disputed; estimates generally suggest that between 500,000 and 1 million people were killed. Over the years, historians kept lowering the death figures and modern research concludes that 500,000 deaths is the correct figure. Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (2001), pp. xviii & 899–901, inclusive.
  4. ^ Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol. 2, Ch. 25, p. 632 (Print Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973) (LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE Accessed May 30, 2007)
  5. ^ Torres Gutiérrez, Alejandro ,RELIGIOUS MINORITIES IN SPAIN. A NEW MODEL OF RELATIONSHIPS? Center for Study on New Religions 2002
  6. ^ AnticlericalismBrittanica Online Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Paz, Jose Antonio Souto Perspectives on religious freedom in Spain Brigham Young University Law Review Jan. 1, 2001
  8. ^ Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol. 2, Ch. 25, p. 632 (Print Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973) (LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE Accessed May 30, 2007)
  9. ^ Stepan, Alfred, Arguing Comparative Politics, p. 221, Oxford University Press
  10. ^ Payne, Stanley George The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism p. 118 (2004 Yale University Press)
  11. ^ Payne, Stanley George The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism p. 118 (2004 Yale University Press)
  12. ^ Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol. 2, Ch. 25, p. 642 (Print Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973) (LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE Accessed May 30, 2007)
  13. ^ a b Preston, Paul, Franco and Azaña, Volume: 49 Issue: 5, May 1999, pp. 17–23
  14. ^ The statistics on assassinations, destruction of religious buildings, etc. immediately before the start of the war come from The Last Crusade: Spain: 1936 by Warren Carroll (Christendom Press, 1998). He collected the numbers from Historia de la Persecución Religiosa en España (1936–1939) by Antonio Montero Moreno (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 3rd edition, 1999).
  15. ^ Bullón de Mendoza, Alfonso Calvo Sotelo: Vida y muerte (2004) Barcelona. Thomas, Hugh The Spanish Civil War (1961, rev. 2001) New York pp. 196–198 and p.309. Condés was a close personal friend of Castillo. His squad had originally sought to arrest Gil Robles as a reprisal for Castillo's murder, but Robles was not at home, so they went to the house of Calvo Sotelo. Thomas concluded that the intention of Condés was to arrest Calvo Sotelo and that Cuenca acted on his own initiative, although he acknowledges other sources that dispute this finding. Cuenca and Condés were both killed in action in the first Rebel offensive against Madrid shortly after the start of the war.
  16. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, (1987), p. 8.
  17. ^ Hugh Thomas, (1987), p. 207.
  18. ^ Hugh Thomas notes, in a footnote, that the remark does not appear in the official record of debates, nor was it heard by two reliable witnesses who then were present, Henry Buckley and Miguel Maura. Hugh Thomas, (1987), p. 207.
  19. ^ Alpert, Michael BBC History Magazine April 2002
  20. ^ Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain (2006), pp 30-33
  21. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, (1987), pp. 86–90.
  22. ^ Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol. 2, Ch. 26, p. 646-647 (Print Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973) (LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE Accessed May 15, 2007)
  23. ^ Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol. 2, Ch. 25, p. 641-647 (Print Edition: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973) (LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE Accessed May 15, 2007)Among the non-constitutional actions of the Republicans prior to the revolt, he mentions, for example, the removal of President Alcalá Zamora on specious grounds; the declaration of an amnesty for leftist political prisoners "without bothering to observe full constitutional requirements"; the siezure of private property without due process; the disenfranchisement of the center and the conservatves, after which the "extreme left" used its power to bypass the Republic's constitutional system; the local implementations of the promised agrarian reform in Badajoz province, which were only legalized by the government ex post facto; and a "wave of terrorism and street violence" by leftist militias.
  24. ^ Preston, Paul, "From rebel to Caudillo: Franco's path to power," History Today Volume: 33 Issue: 11, November 1983, pp. 4–10
  25. ^ Alpert, Michael BBC History Magazine April 2002
  26. ^ notes to the documentary Reportaje Del Movimiento Revolucionario en Barcelona, Hastings Free TV
  27. ^ Beevor, The Battle for Spain, (2006) ("Chapter 21: The Propaganda War and the Intellectuals")
  28. ^ Business & Blood - Time, Monday, 19 April 1937
  29. ^ Bennett, Scott, Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963, Syracuse NY, Syracuse University Press, 2003; Prasad, Devi, War is A Crime Against Humanity: The Story of War Resisters' International, London, WRI, 2005. Also see Hunter, Allan, White Corpsucles in Europe, Chicago, Willett, Clark & Co., 1939; and Brown, H. Runham, Spain: A Challenge to Pacifism, London, The Finsbury Press, 1937.
  30. ^ Spanish Civil War
  31. ^ A revelatory account of the Spanish civil war
  32. ^ "Men of La Mancha". Rev. of Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain. The Economist (June 22, 2006).
  33. ^ Julius Ruiz, "Defending the Republic: The García Atadell Brigade in Madrid, 1936". Journal of Contemporary History 42.1 (2007):97.
  34. ^ Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain; The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006), p.89.
  35. ^ Preston 2007, p. 121
  36. ^ Preston 2007, p. 120
  37. ^ Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain; The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006), pp 88-89.
  38. ^ (1) (Spanish) Rafael Tenorio, Las matanzas de Badajoz ("The massacres of Badajoz"), originally in Tiempo de Historia, Number 56, July 1979.
    (2) Other stories of people who were murdered by the nationalists because of their beliefs: (Spanish) Víctimas del fascismo en la Fosa Común de Oviedo ("Victims of Fascism in the Mass Grave of Oviedo"), fosacomun.com; see also many articles (also in Spanish) at Asociación para la recuperación de la memoria histórica.
  39. ^ Julio de la Cueva, "Religious Persecution, Anticlerical Tradition and Revolution: On Atrocities against the Clergy during the Spanish Civil War" Journal of Contemporary History 33.3 (July 1998): 355.
  40. ^ Thousands of Servant of God candidates for sainthood have been accepted by the Vatican "General Index: Martyrs of the Religious Persecution during the Spanish Civil War (X 1934, 36–39)"
  41. ^ New Evangelization with the Saints, L'Osservatore Romano 28 November 2001, page 3 (Weekly English Edition)
  42. ^ Tucson priests one step away from sainthood Arizona Star 06.12.2007
  43. ^ Article that explains how the Stalinist NKVD tortured the prisoners in the Checas: 1
  44. ^ History website where this situation is explained: 1.
  45. ^ Thomas, p. 820-821
  46. ^ Spain: Repression under Franco after the Civil War
  47. ^ Spain torn on tribute to victims of Franco
  48. ^ Spanish Civil War fighters look back
  49. ^ (French) Camp Vernet Website
  50. ^ Film documentary on the website of the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration (French)
  51. ^ Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship
  52. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, (1961) p. 176

Location Badajoz, Spain location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Badajoz (Spanish) Spanish name Badajoz Founded 875 Area code 34 (Spain) + 924 (Badajoz) Website http://www. ... TIME redirects here. ... Servant of God is the title given to a person of the Roman Catholic Church upon whom a pope has opened a cause of sainthood. ... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ...

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  • Orwell, George (2000, first published in 1938). Homage to Catalonia. London: Penguin Books in association with Martin Secker & Warburg. ISBN 0-14-118305-5. 
  • Payne, Stanley (2004). The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism. New Haven; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10068-X. 
  • Prasad, Devi (2005). War is a Crime Against Humanity: The Story of War Resisters' International. London: War Resisters' International, wri-irg.org. ISBN 0-903517-20-5. 
  • Preston, Paul (1978). The Coming of the Spanish Civil War. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-23724-2. 
  • Preston, Paul (1996). A Concise history of the Spanish Civil War. London: Fontana. ISBN 978-0006863731. 
  • Preston, Paul (2007). The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution, and Revenge, W. W. Norton and Company, ISBN 0393329879.
  • Puzzo, Dante Anthony (1962). Spain and the Great Powers, 1936–1941. Freeport, N.Y: Books for Libraries Press (originally Columbia University Press, N.Y.). ISBN 0-8369-6868-9. 
  • Radosh, Ronald; Mary Habeck, Grigory Sevostianov (2001). Spain betrayed: the Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08981-3. 
  • Rust, William (2003 Reprint of 1939 edition). Britons in Spain: A History of the British Battalion of the XV International Brigade. Pontypool, Wales (NP4 7AG): Warren and Pell. 
  • Stradling, Rob (1996). Cardiff and The Spanish Civil War. Cardiff (CF1 6AG): Butetown History and Arts Centre. ISBN 1-898317-06-2. 
  • Thomas, Hugh (2003 reissued). The Spanish Civil War. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-101161-0. 
  • Walters, Guy (2006). Berlin Games – How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream. London, New York: John Murray (UK), HarperCollins (US). ISBN 0-7195-6783-1, 0-0608-7412-0. 
  • Wheeler, George; Jack Jones (foreword), David Leach (editor) (2003). To Make the People Smile Again: a Memoir of the Spanish Civil War. Newcastle upon Tyne: Zymurgy Publishing. ISBN 1-903506-07-7. 
  • Williams, Alun Menai (2004). From the Rhondda to the Ebro: The Story of a Young Life. Pontypool, Wales (NP4 7AG): Warren & Pell. 
  • Wilson, Ann; Raymond Carr (introduction) (1986). Images of the Spanish Civil War. London: Allen & Unwin. 

Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... Gerald Brenan (1894-1987) was an English writer who spent much of his life in Spain. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... André Malraux, French author, adventurer, and statesman André Malraux (November 3, 1901 – November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman, and a dominant figure in French politics and culture. ... Michael ORiordan (November 11, 1917 – May 18, 2006) was the founder of the Communist Party of Ireland (3rd) and also fought with the Connolly Column in the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Paul Preston is a British historian, working in the London School of Economics, specialising in Spanish history, in particular the Spanish Civil War, which he has studied for more than 30 years. ... Paul Preston is a British historian, working in the London School of Economics, specialising in Spanish history, in particular the Spanish Civil War, which he has studied for more than 30 years. ... Ronald Radosh is an American historian specializing in the espionage case of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. ... Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (born October 21, 1931 Windsor), is a British historian. ... Guy Walters (born August 8, 1971, Kensington, London) is a British author and journalist. ... Captain George Montague Wheeler (born Grafton, Massachusetts, October 9, 1842) was a pioneering explorer and cartographer, leader of the Wheeler Survey, one of the major surveys of the western United States in the late nineteenth century. ... Jack Jones may refer to: Jack Jones (banker) Jack Jones (singer) (born 1938) Jack Jones (novelist) (1884–1970) Jack Jones (trade union leader) (born 1913) Lance-Corporal Jack Jones - a character in the sitcom Dads Army Jack Jones (actor) (There have been several actors with this name. ... David Leach (born February 4, 1962) is an American musician/percussionist of the 1990s and 2000s. ...

See also

The Spanish Civil War lasted from July 17, 1936 to April 1, 1939. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... The European Civil War is a debated period in history between the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War on July 19, 1870 and end of the European portion of World War II on May 8, 1945. ... While officially neutral during the Second World War, General Francos Spanish State gave considerable material, economic, and military assistance to the Axis Powers. ... Spanish Bombs is a song by The Clash, featured on their 1979 album London Calling. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ...

Related films

A documentary short made by Luis Buñuel about the early days of the Spanish Civil War. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Spanish Earth (1937) was a propaganda film made during the Spanish Civil War in favor of the Republicans (communists, socialists and anarchists). ... Joris Ivens (November 18, 1898–June 28, 1989) was a Dutch documentary filmmaker and devout communist. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... John Roderigo Dos Passos (January 14, 1896 — September 28, 1970) was an American novelist and artist. ... Defenders of the Faith is the 10th album by British heavy metal band Judas Priest. ... Raza is a 1942 Spanish biographical war film directed by José Luis Sáenz de Heredia. ... For Whom the Bell Tolls is a 1943 film based on the famous novel by Ernest Hemingway. ... Sam R Woods is by far the coolest person in the world :D(January 13, 1990, Grantown-on-SpeyHollywood) was a prolific Scotland samwoods999. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Richard Wallace may refer to: Richard Wallace (1818 - 1890), art collector Richard Wallace (1894-1951), motion picture director Richard Wallace (born 1960), Chairman of A.L.I.C.E. Artificial Intelligence Foundation Richard Wallace, author of Jack the Ripper, Light-Hearted Friend Richard Wallace, editor of The Daily Mirror newspaper... Dorothy Belle Hughes (1904—May 6, 1993) was a U.S. crime writer and critic. ... John Garfield (March 4, 1913 – May 21, 1952) was an Academy Award nominated American actor. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Behold A Pale Horse is a film loosely based on the life of the Spanish anarchist guerrilla, Francisco Sabaté Llopart‎. Released in 1964, the film stars Gregory Peck and Anthony Quinn. ... Fred Zinnemann (April 29, 1907–March 14, 1997) was an Austrian-American film director. ... Francisco Sabaté Llopart (March 30, 1915 LHospitalet de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain – January 5, 1960 Sant Celoni, Catalonia, Spain), also known as El Quico, was a Spanish libertarian anarchist involved in the resistance against the fascist regime of Franco. ... El espíritu de la colmena (The Spirit of the Beehive) is a quiet, enigmatic film featuring a very young child in the leading role. ... Víctor Erice (born 30 June 1940) is a Spanish film director. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the film. ... Mario Camus (Santander,April 20, 1935) is a Spanish screenwriter and film director. ... Luis García Berlanga (b. ... This 1990 film was directed by Carlos Saura and based on the eponymous play by José Sanchís Sinisterra. ... Carlos Saura (born 4 January 1932, Atarés, Huesca) is a Spanish film director. ... Belle Époque is a 1992 Spanish film directed by Fernando Trueba. ... Fernando Trueba ( January 18, 1955 in Madrid) is an awarded Spanish screenwriter and film director. ... This article is about the Ken Loach film. ... Ken Loach Kenneth Loach (born June 17, 1936), known as Ken Loach, is an English television and film director, known for his naturalistic style and socialist themes. ... Libertarias is a historical drama made in 1996 (International release: 2004), directed by Vicente Aranda. ... Vicente Aranda is a Spanish film director, screenwriter and producer born in Barcelona on 9 November 1926. ... Antonio Mercero is a Spanish director of the series Verano Azul and later Farmacia de Guardia. ... José Luis Cuerda (18 February 1947 Albacete) is a Spanish film director, screenwriter and producer. ... The Devils Backbone (Spanish: El espinazo del diablo, literally The Backbone of the Devil) is a 2001 Mexican/Spanish gothic horror film written by Guillermo del Toro, Antonio Trashorras, and David Muñoz, and directed by Guillermo del Toro. ... Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964 in Guadalajara, Jalisco) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ... Soldados de Salamina is the title a book and a movie based on the book. ... David Trueba (Madrid, 10 September 1969) is a Spanish novelist, film director and screenwriter. ... Pans Labyrinth (Spanish: , literally The Labyrinth of the Faun) is an Academy Award-winning Spanish language fantasy film[2][3] written and directed by Mexican film-maker Guillermo del Toro. ... Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964 in Guadalajara, Jalisco) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ...

Related literature

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and novelist George Orwells personal account of his experiences and observations in the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... For other uses, see For Whom the Bell Tolls (disambiguation). ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Stanley G. Payne is a historian of modern Spain and European Fascism at the University of Wisconsin--Madison. ... The Living and the Dead is a novel by Nobel Prize laureate Patrick White, his second published book (1941). ... For the football player, see Patrick White (football player). ... As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning (1969) by Laurie Lee was his sequel to his semi-autobiographical Cider with Rosie, detailing life in mid-20th century Gloucestershire. ... Laurence Edward Alan Laurie Lee, MBE (June 26, 1914 – May 13, 1997) was an English poet, novelist, and screenwriter, raised in the village of Slad, Gloucestershire. ... A Moment of War (1991) by author Laurie Lee is the last book of his semi-autobiographical trilogy. ... Laurence Edward Alan Laurie Lee, MBE (June 26, 1914 – May 13, 1997) was an English poet, novelist, and screenwriter, raised in the village of Slad, Gloucestershire. ... The Shadow of the Wind (Spanish: La sombra del viento) is a 2001 novel by Spanish writer Carlos Ruiz Zafón, and a worldwide bestseller. ... Carlos Ruiz Zafón is a Spanish novelist. ... Andr Malraux, French author, adventurer and statesman Andr Malraux (November 3, 1901 - November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman. ... Mercè Rodoreda i Gurgui (Barcelona, 1908- Girona, 1983) - Catalan novelist, born in Barcelona. ... Fernando Fernández Gómez (born August 28, 1921) was born in Lima, Peru, the son of actress Carola Fernán-Gómez. ... Georges Bernanos (February 20, 1888 – July 5, 1948) was a French author, and a soldier in World War I. Of Catholic and monarchist leanings, he was a violent adversary to bourgeois thought and to a certain defeatism that led, in his view, to Frances defeat in 1940. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Modified cover using Giovanni Bellinis Madonna with saints. ... One of Jean-Paul Sartres greatest existentialist works, The Wall (1939) is a story about the Spanish Civil War (in Spanish, the Guerra Civil) that began July 17, 1936. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... This article is about the novel. ... Camilo Jos Cela Trulock (May 11, 1916–January 17, 2002) was a Spanish writer. ... C. J. Sansom is an English writer of crime novels. ... Edward Bond (born July 18, 1934) is an English playwright, theatre director, theorist and screenwriter. ...

External links

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Spanish Civil War
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Condecoraciones otorgadas por Francisco Franco a Benito Mussolini y a Adolf Hitler

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Primary documents

  • Magazines and journals published during the war, an online exhibit maintained by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • A collection of essays by Albert and Vera Weisbord with about a dozen essays written during and about the Spanish Civil War.
  • Constitución de la República Española (1931)
  • La Cucaracha, The Spanish Civil War Diary, a detailed chronicle of the events of the war
  • Ronald Hilton, Spain, 1931–36, From Monarchy to Civil War, An Eyewitness Account
  • Mary Low and Juan Breá: Red Spanish Book. A testimony by two surrealists and trotskytes
  • Spanish Civil War and Revolution text archive in the libcom.org library
  • Pamphlets on the Spanish Civil War published in the UK

A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ...

Images and films

  • Spain in Revolt 1, newsreel documentary (Video Stream)
  • Spain in Revolt 2, newsreel documentary (Video Stream)
  • Revistas y Guerra 1936-1939: La Guerra Civil Espanola y la Cultura Impresa online exhibition
  • Imperial War Museum Collection of Spanish Civil War Posters hosted online by Visual Arts Data Service (VADS)
  • Posters of the Spanish Civil War from UCSD's Southworth collection
  • Civil War Documentaries made by the CNT
  • Spanish Civil War and Revolution image gallery – photographs and posters from the conflict
  • The Spanish Civil War and Revolution 1936–1939 Web sites, articles, books & pamphlets online, and films (on Tidsskriftcentret.dk)
  • Aircraft of the Spanish Civil War
  • "spanish+civil+war") 64 "spanish civil war" objects in The European Library Harvest

The European Library is a library portal for searching the databases and open public access catalogues as well as for accessing the digital content of European national libraries. ...

Academics and governments

  • (Spanish) A description, according to the Vatican, of the religious persecution suffered by Catholics during the Spanish Civil War.
  • Professor Marek Jan Chodakiewicz on The Spanish Civil War
  • A History of the Spanish Civil War, excerpted from a U.S. government country study.
  • Columbia Historical Review Dutch Involvement in the Spanish Civil War
  • Noam Chomsky's Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship
  • "The Spanish Civil War – causes and legacy" on BBC Radio 4’s In Our Time featuring Paul Preston, Helen Graham and Dr Mary Vincent
  • Audio Interview: Sid Lowe on the Juventud de Accion Popular and the Outbreak of Civil War in Spain [1]

old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ...

Other

  • Obituary of Rosario Sanchez Mora, a seamstress, volunteer soldier, teenage war-bride and mother, underground resistance activist and tobacconist
  • Anarchism in the Spanish Revolution
  • Patrick Joseph Read: An Irish Anarchist in the Spanish Civil War, by Ciaran Crossey
  • Spain and Peace, a pamphlet on the Spanish Civil War by Howard Fast
  • The Anarcho-Statists of Spain, a different view of the anarchists in the Spanish Civil War, George Mason University
  • A reply to the above by an anarchist
  • Spanish Civil War information, from Spartacus Educational
  • American Jews in Spanish Civil War, by Martin Sugarman
  • Causa General, conclusions of the process started by Franco's government after the war to judge their enemies' actions during the conflict (in Spanish)
  • Irish and Jewish Volunteers in the Spanish Anti-Fascist War, by Manus O'Riordan
  • The Spanish Revolution, 1936–39 articles & links, from Anarchy Now!
  • The Revolutionary Institutions: The Central Committee of Anti-Fascist Militias, by Juan García Oliver
  • Warships of the Spanish Civil War
  • ¡No Pasarán! Speech Dolores Ibárruri's famous rousing address for the defense of the Second Republic
  • ¡No Pasarán! 36, Spanish Civil War website including photos and videos

Howard Melvin Fast (11 November 1914, New York City - 12 March 2003, Old Greenwich, Connecticut) was a Jewish American novelist and television writer, who wrote also under the pen names E. V. Cunningham and Walter Ericson. ... George Mason University, also known as GMU or simply Mason, is a large public university in the United States. ... Spartacus Educational - an historical encyclopedia mainly focused on Britain and the U.S.[1] In 1984 Simkin John Simkin established Spartacus Education. ...


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Badajoz, a Spanish province on the border with Portugal, was controlled by the Republican Army during the early days of the Spanish Civil War.
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The Spanish Civil War was also an example of total war, where the bombing of the Basque town of Guernica by the Legión Cóndor, as depicted by Pablo Picasso in Guernica, foreshadowed episodes of World War II such as the bombing campaign on Britain by the Nazis and the bombing of Dresden by the Allies.
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The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931-1939.
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