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Encyclopedia > Spanish Armada
Battle of Gravelines
Part of the Anglo-Spanish War

Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted in 1797, depicts the battle of Gravelines.
Date August 8, 1588
Location English Channel, near Gravelines, France (then part of the Netherlands)
Result Strategic English/Dutch victory
Belligerents
Flag of England Kingdom of England
Flag of the Netherlands Dutch Republic
Flag of Spain Spain
Flag of Portugal Kingdom of Portugal
Commanders
Elizabeth I of England
Charles Howard
Francis Drake
Philip II of Spain
Duke of Medina Sidonia
Strength
34 warships
163 armed merchant vessels
30 Dutch flyboats
22 galleons
108 armed merchant vessels
Casualties and losses
50–100 dead[1]
~400 wounded
6,000-8,000 died from disease
600 dead,
800 wounded,[2]
397 captured,
62 ships [1]
15,000-20,000 Soldiers and Sailors dead[2]

The Spanish Armada (Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or Armada Invencible, "Invincible Navy")[3] was the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, leading to the Norris-Drake Expedition or English Armada of 1589. Combatants Spain England Dutch Republic Commanders Philip II, Philip III, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Duke of Medina Sidonia, Duke of Parma Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Earl of Leicester The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England, which was never... Image File history File linksMetadata Loutherbourg-Spanish_Armada. ... Year 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lord Howes action, or the Glorious First of June by Philip James de Loutherbourg, painted 1795 Philip James de Loutherbourg, also seen as Philippe-Jacques (31 October 1740 – 11 March 1812) was an English artist. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Canal of Gravelines, Georges Seurat, 1890. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: O Hino da Carta (from 1834) The Kingdom of Portugal in 1561 Capital Lisbon¹ Language(s) Portuguese Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy King  - 1139-1185 Afonso I  - 1908-1910 Manuel II History  - Established 26 July, 1139  - Peninsular War 1808-1814  - Brazilian suzerainty 1815  - Brazilian independence October 12, 1822  - Revolution... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) was a British statesman and admiral. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia (es: Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno, séptimo duque de Medina Sidonia) (September 10, 1550 - 1615) was the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armada. ... For the fictional unit of money called a galleon, see Money in Harry Potter. ... Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ... The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada, or The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia (es: Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno, séptimo duque de Medina Sidonia) (September 10, 1550 - 1615) was the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armada. ... The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada, or The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). ...


King Philip II of Spain had been king consort of England until the death, in 1558, of his wife, Queen Mary I of England, and he took exception to the policies pursued by her successor, his sister-in-law Elizabeth I. The aim of his expedition was to invade and conquer England, thereby suppressing support for the United Provinces – that part of the Spanish Netherlands in possession of the Dutch rebels – and cutting off attacks by the English against Spanish possessions in the New World and against the Atlantic treasure fleets. The king was supported by Pope Sixtus V, who treated the invasion as a crusade, with the promise of a further subsidy should the Armada make land.[4][5] Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... King consort is a title given in some monarchies to the husband of a Queen regnant. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... A treasure fleet is being loaded with riches. ... Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


The Armada's appointed commander was the highly experienced Álvaro de Bazán, but he died in February 1588, and Medina Sidonia took his place. The fleet set out with 22 warships of the Spanish Royal Navy and 108 converted merchant vessels, with the intention of sailing through the English Channel to anchor off the coast of Flanders, where the Duke of Parma's army of tercios would stand ready for an invasion of the south-east of England. Alvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz (12 December 1526-1588) was a Spanish admiral born at Granada. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Alexander Farnese Portrait by Otto Vaenius (ca 1585). ... Tercio was a term used by the Spanish army to describe a mixed infantry formation of about 3,000 pikemen and musketeers, sometimes referred to by other nations as a Spanish Square. ...


The Armada achieved its first goal and anchored outside Gravelines, at the coastal border area between France and the Spanish Netherlands. While awaiting communications from Parma's army, it was driven from its anchorage by an English fire ship attack, and in the ensuing battle at Gravelines the Spanish were forced to abandon their rendezvous with Parma's army. Canal of Gravelines, Georges Seurat, 1890. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Alexander Farnese Portrait by Otto Vaenius (ca 1585). ... This article is not about the fireboats that fight fire Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts Drakes fire ship attack on the Spanish Armada. ...


The Armada managed to regroup and withdraw north, with the English fleet harrying it for some distance up the east coast of England. A return voyage to Spain was plotted, and the fleet sailed into the Atlantic, past Ireland. But severe storms disrupted the fleet's course, and more than 24 vessels were wrecked on the north and western coasts of Ireland, with the survivors having to seek refuge in Scotland. Of the fleet's initial complement, about 50 vessels failed to make it back to Spain. The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


The expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo–Spanish War (15851604). Combatants Spain England Dutch Republic Commanders Philip II, Philip III, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Duke of Medina Sidonia, Duke of Parma Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Earl of Leicester The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England, which was never... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ...

Contents

The planned invasion of England

Route taken by the Spanish Armada

Prior to the undertaking, Pope Sixtus V allowed Philip II of Spain to collect crusade taxes and granted his men indulgences. The blessing of the Armada's banner on 25 April 1588 was similar to the ceremony used prior to the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.[6] On 28 May 1588 the Armada set sail from Lisbon, headed for the English Channel. The fleet was composed of around 130 ships, 8,000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers, and bore 1,500 brass guns and 1,000 iron guns; it took two days for the last vessel to leave port. It contained 28 real warships: twenty galleons, four galleys and four galleasses; the remainder of the heavy vessels mainly consisted of armed carracks and hulks; also 34 light ships were present. In the Spanish Netherlands an army of 30,000 men awaited its arrival, the plan being to use the fleet to convey the continental army on barges to a place near London; the Spanish admirals probably intended to first land the ship-bound force in the west of England, though this had been explicitly forbidden by Philip. All told, it was envisaged to muster 55,000 men, a huge army for that time. On the day of the fleet's departure, Elizabeth's ambassador in the Netherlands, Dr Valentine Dale, met Parma's representatives to begin peace negotiations. On July 17 negotiations were abandoned, and the English fleet stood prepared – though ill-supplied – at Plymouth, awaiting news of Spanish movements, after having in vain tried to intercept the Armada in the Bay of Biscay. Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 – August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti, was Pope from 1585 to 1590. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Look up Indulgence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... A Spanish galleon. ... For other uses, see Galley (disambiguation). ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. ... A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ...


The Armada was delayed by bad weather, forcing the four galleys and one galleon to leave the fleet, and was not sighted in England until July 19, when it appeared off St Michael's Mount in Cornwall. The news was, albeit slowly, conveyed to London by a system of beacons that had been constructed along the length of the south coast of England. During the evening the English fleet was trapped in Plymouth harbour by the incoming tide. The Spanish convened a council of war, where it was proposed to ride into the harbour on the tide and incapacitate the English ships at anchor and from there to attack England; but Medina Sidonia declined this advice, and that same night 55 ships of the English fleet set out in pursuit from Plymouth under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham, with as Vice Admiral Sir Francis Drake. Howard gave Drake, being the more experienced naval commander, some control during the campaign. Rear Admiral was Sir John Hawkins. is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This page discusses beacons, fires designed to attract attention. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) was a British statesman and admiral. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ...


The next night, in order to execute their "line ahead" attack, the English tacked upwind of the Armada, thus gaining the weather gage, a significant advantage. Over the next week there followed two inconclusive engagements, at Eddystone and the Isle of Portland. Two Spanish ships, the carrack Rosario and the galleon San Salvador, were abandoned after having been severely damaged by accidents; they were taken by the English who thereby captured a large supply of much-needed gunpowder. At the Isle of Wight the Armada had the opportunity to create a temporary base in protected waters and wait for word from Parma's army. In a full-scale attack, the English fleet broke into four groups – Martin Frobisher now also being given command over a squadron – with Drake coming in with a large force from the south. At the critical moment Medina Sidonia sent reinforcements south and ordered the Armada back in to open sea to avoid sandbanks. There were no secure harbours nearby, so the Armada was compelled to make for Calais, without regard to the readiness of Parma's army. To have the weather gauge describes the favorable position of a sailing vessel relative to another with respect to the wind. ... Eddystone is a group of rocks about 14 miles off the coast of England southwest of Plymouth, on which there is an important lighthouse (Eddystone Lighthouse) indicating the approaches to the English Channel. ... The Isle of Portland is a long by wide limestone island in the English Channel. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... Sir Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel, c. ...


On July 27, the Armada anchored off Calais in a tightly packed defensive crescent formation, not far from Dunkirk, where Parma's army, reduced by diseases to 16,000, was expected to be waiting, ready to join the fleet in barges sent from ports along the Flemish coast. Communications had proven to be far more difficult than anticipated, and it only now transpired that this army yet had to be assembled in port, which would take at least six days, while Medina Sidonia waited at anchor; and that Dunkirk was blockaded by a Dutch fleet of thirty flyboats under Lieutenant-Admiral Justin of Nassau. Parma desired that the Armada send its light petaches to drive away the Dutch, but this was not acted upon by Medina Sidonia because he feared to need these ships himself for his protection. There was no deep-water port where the fleet might shelter – always acknowledged as a major difficulty for the expedition – and the Spanish found themselves vulnerable as night drew on. At midnight on July 28 the English set alight eight fireships, sacrificing regular warships by filling them with pitch, brimstone, some gunpowder, and tar, and cast them downwind among the closely-anchored vessels of the Armada. The Spanish feared that these uncommonly large fireships were 'hellburners'[7], specialised fireships filled with large gunpowder charges, which had been used to deadly effect at the Siege of Antwerp.[8]: two were intercepted and towed away, but the remainder bore down on the fleet. Medina Sidonia's flagship and the principal warships held their positions, but the rest of the fleet cut their cables and scattered in confusion. No Spanish ships were burnt, but the crescent formation had been broken, and the fleet now found itself too far to leeward of Calais in the rising south-westerly wind to recover its position. The English closed in for battle. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Dutch fluyts of the 17th Century A fluyt or a flute (IPA: ) is a type of sailing vessel originally designed as a dedicated cargo vessel. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pitch may refer to: Look up Pitch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Brimstone is an archaic name for sulfur. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Hellburners - specialised fireships used in the Siege of Antwerp (1584-1585). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The Battle of Gravelines

The small port of Gravelines was then part of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, close to the border with France and the closest Spanish territory to England. Medina Sidonia tried to re-form his fleet there, and was reluctant to sail further east owing to the danger from the shoals off Flanders, from which his Dutch enemies had removed the sea-marks. Canal of Gravelines, Georges Seurat, 1890. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ...


The English had learned more of the Armada's strengths and weaknesses during the skirmishes in the English Channel, and had concluded it was necessary to close within a hundred metres to penetrate the oak hulls of the Spanish ships. In the first engagements they had spent most of their gunpowder and had after Wight been forced to conserve their heavy shot and powder for a final decisive attack near Gravelines on July 29 Old Style, August 8 New Style. During all engagements, the Spanish heavy guns proved unwieldy, and their gunners had not been trained to reload – in contrast to their English counterparts, they fired once and then jumped to the rigging to attend to their main task as marines ready to board enemy ships. In fact, evidence from Armada wrecks in Ireland shows that much of the fleet's ammunition was never spent. Their determination to thrash out a victory in hand-to-hand fighting proved a weakness for the Spanish; it had been effective on occasions such as the Battle of Lepanto and at the Battle of Punta Delgada (1582), but the English were aware of this strength and sought to avoid it. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The naval Battle of Punta Delgada, also called the Battle of Terceira, took place on July 26, 1582 during the Eighty Years War that resulted in the defeat of a combined Dutch, English, Portuguese, and French Huguenot fleet by a Spanish fleet under Santa Cruz. ...


With its superior maneuverability, the English fleet provoked Spanish fire while staying out of range. Once the Spanish had lost their heavy shot, the English then closed, firing repeated and damaging broadsides into the enemy ships. This also enabled them to maintain a position to windward so that the heeling Armada hulls were exposed to damage below the water-line. Windward is the side of a boat into which the wind is blowing. ...


Five Spanish ships were lost. The galleass San Lorenzo ran aground at Calais and was taken by Howard after murderous fighting, between the crew, the galley slaves, the English and the French who ultimately took possession of the wreck. The galleons San Mateo and San Felipe drifted away in a sinking condition, ran aground on the isle of Walcheren the next day and were taken by the Dutch. One carrack ran aground near Blankenberge, another foundered. Many other Spanish ships were severely damaged, especially the Spanish and Portuguese Atlantic-class galleons who had to bear the brunt of the fighting during the early hours of the battle in desperate individual actions against groups of English ships. The Spanish plan to join with Parma's army had been defeated, and the English had afforded themselves some breathing space. But the Armada's presence in northern waters still posed a great threat to England. Satellite image of the Scheldt estuary Walcheren is a former island in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. ... The beach at Blankenberge circa 1895 Blankenberge is a municipality in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ...


Tilbury speech

On the day after the battle of Gravelines, the wind had backed southerly, enabling Medina Sidonia to move his fleet northward away from the French coast. Although their shot lockers were almost empty, the English pursued in an attempt to prevent the enemy from returning to escort Parma. On August 2 Old Style, August 12 New Style, Howard called a halt to the pursuit in the latitude of the Firth of Forth off Scotland. By that point, the Spanish were suffering from thirst and exhaustion, and the only option left to Medina Sidonia was to chart a course home to Spain, along the most hazardous parts of the Atlantic seaboard. The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury was delivered by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces assembled at Tilbury in Essex in preparation to repel a possible invasion by the Spanish Armada. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The threat of invasion from the Netherlands had not yet been discounted, and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester maintained a force of 4,000 soldiers at West Tilbury, Essex, to defend the estuary of the River Thames against any incursion up-river towards London. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (also referred to as Lord Leycester such as at the Lord Leycester Hospital. ... West Tilbury is a parish in the unitary authority of Thurrock, Essex, England. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ...


On August 8 (Old Style), August 18 New Style, Queen Elizabeth went to Tilbury to encourage her forces, and the next day gave to them what is probably her most famous speech: is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Elizabeth, or Elizabeth, may refer to: Elizabeth II, Queen Regnant of the Commonwealth Realms Elizabeth I of England, reigned 1558–1603 Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort of Edward IV Elizabeth of York Queen Consort of Henry VII Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (1900-2002), Queen Consort of George VI and mother of...

My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that we are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but, I do assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself, that under God I have placed my chiefs' strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and goodwill of my subjects; and, therefore, I am come amongst you as you see at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of battle, to live or die amongst you all - to lay down for my God, and for my kingdoms, and for my people, my honour and my blood even in the dust. I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king - and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which, rather than any dishonour should grow by me, I myself will take up arms - I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarded of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, for your forwardness, you have deserved rewards and crowns, and, we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. For the meantime, my Lieutenant-General Leicester shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my General, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over these enemies of my God, of my kingdom and of my people.

Return to Spain around the British Isles

The Armada sailed around Scotland and Ireland into the North Atlantic. The ships were beginning to show wear from the long voyage, and some were kept together by having their hulls bundled up with cables. Supplies of food and water ran short, and the cavalry horses were cast overboard into the sea. The intention would have been to keep well to the west of the coast of Scotland and Ireland, in the relative safety of the open sea. However, there being at that time no way of accurately measuring longitude, the Spanish were not aware that the Gulf Stream was carrying them north and east as they tried to move west, and they eventually turned south much further to the east than planned, a devastating navigational error. Off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland the fleet ran into a series of powerful westerly gales, which drove many of the damaged ships further towards the lee shore. Because so many anchors had been abandoned during the escape from the English fireships off Calais, many of the ships were incapable of securing shelter as they reached the coast of Ireland and were driven on to the rocks. The late 1500s, and especially 1588, were marked by unusually strong North Atlantic storms, likely associated with a high accumulation of polar ice off the coast of Greenland, a characteristic phenomenon of the "Little Ice Age." [9]. As a result many more ships and sailors were lost to cold and stormy weather than in combat. Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... Lee (red) and windward (green) shores, given wind from due east (blue arrows) The terms lee shore and weather or windward shore describe a stretch of shoreline with respect to the wind direction, and is of particular importance when sailing. ...


Following the gales it is reckoned that 5,000 men died, whether by drowning and starvation or by execution at the hands of English forces in Ireland. The reports from Ireland abound with strange accounts of brutality and survival, and attest on occasion to the brilliance of Spanish seamanship. Some survivors were concealed by Irish people, but few shipwrecked Spanish survived to be taken into Irish service, fewer still to return home. In the end, 67 ships and around 10,000 men survived. Many of the men were near death from disease, as the conditions are very cramped and most of the ships ran out of food and water. Many more died in Spain, or on hospital ships in Spanish harbours, from diseases contracted during the voyage. It was reported that, when Philip II learned of the result of the expedition, he declared, "I sent the Armada against men, not God's winds and waves".[10] Greatly disappointed, he still forgave the Duke of Medina Sidonia. Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ...


Consequences

English losses were comparatively few, and none of their ships were sunk. But after the victory, typhus, dysentery and hunger killed many sailors and troops (estimated at 6,000–8,000) as they were discharged without pay: a demoralising dispute occasioned by the government's fiscal shortfalls left many of the English defenders unpaid for months, which was in contrast to the assistance given by the Spanish government to its surviving men. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2442x1479, 1751 KB) The Spanish Barn in Torquay. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x664, 470 KB) A closeup of the plaque on The Spanish Barn in Torquay. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ...


Although the English fleet was unable to prevent the regrouping of the Armada at the Battle of the Gravelines, requiring it to remain on duty even as thousands of its sailors died, the outcome vindicated the strategy adopted, resulting in a revolution in naval warfare with the promotion of gunnery, which until then had played a supporting role to the tasks of ramming and boarding. The battle of Gravelines is regarded by specialists in military history as reflecting a lasting shift in the naval balance in favour of the English, in part because of the gap in naval technology and armament it confirmed between the two nations, '[11] which continued into the next century. In the words of Geoffrey Parker, by 1588 'the capital ships of the Elizabethan navy constituted the most powerful battlefleet afloat anywhere in the world.'[12] Historians now recognize that the Armada campaign did not have lasting consequences upon the naval balance of power. In fact it led the Spanish Navy undergoing a major reform which helped it to continue dominating European waters well into the next century. Sir Geoffrey Parker (born 1943 in Nottingham, England) is a leading expert on military history. ... Year 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ...


In England, the boost to national pride lasted for years, and Elizabeth's legend persisted and grew well after her death. The repulse of Spanish naval might gave heart to the Protestant cause across Europe, and the belief that God was behind the Protestant cause was shown by the striking of commemorative medals that bore the inscription, He blew with His winds, and they were scattered. There were also more lighthearted medals struck, such as the one with the play on Julius Caesar's words: Venit, Vidit, Fugit (he came, he saw, he fled). The victory was acclaimed by the English as their greatest since Agincourt.[citation needed] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ...


English Armada

However, an attempt to press home the English advantage failed the following year, when a comparable English fleet sailed against Spain in 1589 during the Norris-Drake Expedition or English Armada which met a similar fate, limping home after being held by the Spanish on the coasts of Portugal. The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada, or The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). ...


The supply of troops from England to Philip II's enemies in the Netherlands and France continued, but with dwindling success. High seas buccaneering against the Spanish also persisted but with little success. The Anglo-Spanish War thereafter generally favoured Spain. It was not until half a century later that the Dutch interrupted Spanish dominance at sea at the Battle of the Downs in 1639. The strength of Spain's tercios – the dominant fighting unit in European land campaigns for over a century – was likewise broken by the French at the Battle of Rocroi in 1643. Combatants Iberian Union United Provinces Commanders Antonio DOquendo Maarten Tromp Strength 77 ships 117 ships Casualties 6,000 dead 43 ships destroyed or captured 1000 dead 10 ship burned Dutch Revolt Oosterweel – Rheindalen – Heiligerlee – Jemmingen – Jodoigne – Brielle – Haarlem – Flushing – Borsele – Zuiderzee – Alkmaar – Leiden – Reimerswaal – Mookerheyde – Gembloux – Maastricht – 1st Breda... Spanish Military formation well known for it`s superiority in 1600th century Europe. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Duc dEnghien Francisco de Melo Count of Fuentes † Strength 16,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 14 guns 15,000 infantry 5,000 cavalry 18 guns Casualties 2,000 dead 2,000 wounded[1] 7,500 dead, 7,000 captured and 6, 500 wounded[2] The...


Other meanings

  1. Spanish Armada (Armada Española) can also describe the modern navy of Spain, part of the Spanish Armed Forces. The Spanish navy has participated in a number of military engagements, including the dispute over the Isla Perejil. This is not a reference to the Armada above – "armada" simply means "navy" in Spanish.
  2. In Tennis slang, Spanish Armada is used to refer to the group of highly ranked Spanish players, such as Rafael Nadal, Felix Mantilla, Albert Portas, Juan Carlos Ferrero, Carlos Moyá, and others.

The Spanish Armada (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... Naval redirects here. ... The Spanish Armed Forces consists of the Army, Navy and Air Force. ... A satellite NASA World Wind caption of Isla Perejil seen as a tiny island (top middle) The Isla Perejil (Parsley Island in English; Arabic: Leila, night , local, i. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Rafael Nadal Parera (IPA: ) (born June 3, 1986, in Manacor, Mallorca) is a Spanish professional tennis player. ... Felix Mantilla (September 23, 1974) is a Spanish professional tennis player, born in Barcelona. ... Albert Portas (November 15, 1973) is a Spanish prof tennis player, born in Barcelona. ... Juan Carlos Ferrero Donat (born February 12, 1980) is a former World No. ... Carlos Moyá Llompart (born August 27, 1976, in Palma de Mallorca, Spain) (also known as Carles Moyá, Carlos Moyá or Carlos Moya) is a former world number-1 ranked Spanish tennis player. ...

See also

For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... The Spanish Armada in Ireland refers to the descent upon the coast of Ireland in September 1588 of a large portion of the 130 strong fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain for the invasion of England. ... Francisco de Cuellar was a Spanish sea captain who sailed with the Spanish Armada in 1588 and was wrecked on the coast of Ireland. ... Fernando (or Fernán) Sánchez de Tovar († Lisbon, 1384) was a Spanish (Castilian) soldier and admiral of the Middle Ages. ... Carlos de Amésquita (also Carlos de Amézola) was a Spanish naval officer from 16th century. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...

References

  1. ^ Lewis, The Spanish Armada, p. 184
  2. ^ Lewis, p. 182
  3. ^ This term was of English origin.
  4. ^ "The Spanish Armada". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  5. ^ Riley Smith (1990) p.160.
  6. ^ Riley Smith (1990) p.160.
  7. ^ HellburnersPDF (143 KiB).
  8. ^ The Spanish Armada. London: The Folio Society.
  9. ^ Brian Fagan, The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History 1300-1850,. New York: Basic Books, 2000
  10. ^ SparkNotes: Queen Elisabeth - Against the Spanish Armada
  11. ^ Aubrey N. Newman, David T. Johnson, P.M. Jones (1985) The Eighteenth Century Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature 69 (1) , 93–109 doi:10.1111/j.1467-8314.1985.tb00698.
  12. ^ Geoffrey Parker, 'The Dreadnought Revolution of Tudor England', Mariner's Mirror, 82 (1996): 273.

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Literature

  • Geoffrey Parker, 'The Dreadnought Revolution of Tudor England', Mariner's Mirror, 82 (1996): 269-300.
  • Armada (1988) ISBN 0-575-03729-6
  • A History of England, from the Defeat of the Armada to the Death of Elizabeth, Edward Cheyney ISBN 1428629106
  • The Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Garrett Mattingly ISBN 0-395-08366-4
  • England and the Spanish Armada (1990) ISBN 0-7317-0127-5
  • The Expedition of Sir John Norris and Sir Francis Drake to Spain and Portugal, 1589, edited by RB Wernham ISBN 0-566-05578-3
  • The Enterprise of England (1988) ISBN 0-86299-476-4
  • The Return of the Armadas: the Later Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain, 1595–1603, RB Wernham ISBN 0-19-820443-4
  • Sir Francis Drake: the Queen's Pirate, Harry Kelsey ISBN 0-300-07182-5
  • The Spanish Armada, Michael Lewis (1960). First published Batsford, 1960 – republished Pan, 1966
  • The Spanish Armada, C. Martin & G. Parker. (1988) ISBN 0-241-12125-6
  • The Spanish Armada: the Experience of the War in 1588, Felipe Fernández-Armesto ISBN 0-19-822926-7
  • The voyage of the Armada (1981) ISBN 0-00-211575-1
  • Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors vols. 2 & 3 (London, 1885–1890)
  • John O'Donovan (ed.) Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters (1851)
  • Cyril Falls Elizabeth's Irish Wars (1950; reprint London, 1996) ISBN 0-09-477220-7
  • T.P.Kilfeather Ireland: Graveyard of the Spanish Armada (Anvil Books, 1967)
  • Winston Graham The Spanish Armadas (1972; reprint 2001) ISBN 0-14-139020-4
  • The Prince, Nicolo Machiavelli – numerous editions, including ISBN 1-85326-306-0
  • Historic Bourne etc., J.J.Davies (1909)
  • Chambers Biographical Dictionary, J.O.Thorne. (1969) SBN [sic] 550-16001-9
  • Dutch Republic and the links from it give an insight into the politics in the Netherlands which ran parallel with political developments in England.
  • BBC-ZDF etc TV coproduction Natural History of Europe
  • Discovery Civilization Battlefield Detectives – What Sank The Armada?
  • The Atlas of the Crusades, Jonathan Riley-Smith. (1999) ISBN 0192853643.

The Defeat of the Spanish Armada is a book by Garrett Mattingly, a popular history of the Spanish Armadas attempt to invade England. ... Garrett Mattingly (1900-1962) was a professor of European history at Columbia University, specializing in early modern diplomatic history. ... Felipe Fern ndez-Armesto (born 1950) is a British historian and author of several popular works of history. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...

Online resources

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Bibliography

  • From Merciless Invaders: The Defeat of the Spanish Armada, Alexander McKee, Souvenir Press, London, 1963. Second edition, Grafton Books, London, 1988.
  • The Armada, Garrett Mattingly, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1959
  • The Spanish Armadas, Winston Graham, Dorset Press, New York, 1972.

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