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Spanglish — also called espanglish, espaninglish, el Spanish broken, ingléspañol, ingleñol, espan'glés a blend of the English-language words for "Spanish" and "English" —, espanolo, or jerga fronteriza is a name used to refer to a range of language-contact phenomena, primarily in the speech of the Latin American and population of the United States and the population of Mexico that lives near the border with U.S.A., which are exposed to both Spanish and English. These phenomena are a product of close border contacts or large bilingual communities, such as along the United States-Mexico border and throughout California, Oregon, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Florida, Puerto Rico, New York City, and Chicago. It is also quite common in Panama, where the 96-year (1903-1999) U.S. control of the Panama Canal has influenced many aspects of society, especially among the former residents of the Panama Canal Zone, commonly referred to as "Zonians". Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into spanglish. ... Spanglish is a 2004 American film written and directed by James L. Brooks, and starring Adam Sandler, Téa Leoni, Paz Vega, and Cloris Leachman. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... Argentine Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the southeast South American nation of Argentina. ... // Bolivia, the only landlocked country in the Western Hemisphere, is home to almost eight million people. ... Chilean Americans are a group of 68,849 people who emigrated from Chile and their descendants. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ... A Dominican American or Dominican-York [2] is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from the Dominican Republic to the United States. ... An Ecuadorian American is someone who is of Ecuadorian descent or was born in Ecuador and achieved American citizenship. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Nicaraguan American (Spanish: Nicaragüense Americano) are Americans of Nicaraguan ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to the United States. ... A Peruvian American is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from Peru that arrived in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Puerto Rican. ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Salvadoran Americans are residents of the United States of Salvadoran descent. ... ... Venezuelan Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the South American nation of Venezuela. ... // Latinos and Hispanics has a long history in the United States. ... The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. ... The struggle for independence after 1810 among the Latin American nations evoked a sense of unity, especially in South America where, under Simón Bolívar in the north and José de San Martín in the south, there were cooperative efforts. ... 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Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... A Zonian is a person who considers the Panama Canal Zone, a political entity viable between 1903 and 1999, his or her true home. ...

Spanglish is sometimes known by a regional name; for example, within Texas it may be called "Tex-Mex" (compare with the term"Tex-Mex cuisine"). Tex-Mex is a term for a type of American food which is used primarily in Texas and the Southwestern United States to describe a regional cuisine which blends food products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-Americans that are influenced by the cuisines of...

In Mexico, the term pochismo is also often applied to Spanglish words or expressions. Pocho is a slur used to describe an uncultured Mexican who is born and/or raised in the United States. ...

The term Spanglish was reportedly coined by Puerto Rican linguist Salvador Tió in the late 1940s. Tió also coined the term inglañol, a converse phenomenon in which English is affected by Spanish; the latter term did not become as popular as the former.

Spanglish has also been used for many years in the vernacular to denote a more jocular "mix-up" of Spanish and English where the speaker makes an English word "sound Spanish". Examples are not limited to but quite often are slightly on the jokingly (good natured) demeaning side: "Oh, here comes El Tubbo" (for an overweight person, and not always but generally would be someone the speaker knew and who would not be offended), expressing action or excitement "I want some snackolas!!", "Let's party-ola!" or "Here's the pizza-mundo", and innocuous such as "Take los kitties to the vet, okay?" The examples often do not gender match with the Spanish language but this is not considered an "error" or offensive. E.g. "No problem-o" (should be "problema"). Another use is in a pun/joke: "I speak Spanglish" which is followed by either "si?" or "see?", which are pronounced the same.

There is another dialect, known as Llanito, that arose in British-controlled Gibraltar and is not a part of the "Spanglish" phenomenon. Llanito (IPA: ) or Yanito is an Andalusian Spanish based vernacular spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. ...


Linguistic critique of the term "Spanglish"

The word Spanglish is a popular name for these phenomena, but not a technical one. Linguists refer to the various phenomena involved in Spanglish by a variety of terms: code mixing, code switching, loanwords, language contact, and more generally, bilingualism. Linguists do not find the term Spanglish to be useful in discussing these phenomena, because it groups together linguistic phenonema that do not necessarily belong together. Linguistically speaking, many things that get commonly labeled as "Spanglish" are very different from each other. The novel "Yo-Yo Boing!" by Puerto Rican writer Giannina Braschi is an example of a fully bilingual literary experience that incorporates code-switching, bilingualism and Spanish. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...

For example, the speech of a fully bilingual Spanish/English speaker in the USA, who switches between Spanish and English phrases spontaneously in the middle of a sentence, is linguistically something very different from the speech of a Spanish monolingual in Puerto Rico whose native vocabulary has many words and expressions that come from English.

Examples of Spanglish

Street comercial in Spain which shows baidefeis instead of the spanish word gratis (free).Baidefeis comes from "by the face", in spanish: por la cara, meaning "free".
Street comercial in Spain which shows baidefeis instead of the spanish word gratis (free).
Baidefeis comes from "by the face", in spanish: por la cara, meaning "free".

Spanish and English have interpenetrated in any number of ways. For example, a bilingual fluent speaker speaking to another bilingual speaker may indulge in code switching and utter a sentence such as: "I'm sorry I cannot attend next week's meeting porque tengo una obligación de negocios en Boston, pero espero que I'll be back for the meeting the week after." (Spanish translates as "…because I have a business obligation in Boston, but I hope that…") Often, Spanglish phrases will use shorter words from both languages as in, "yo me voy a get up" (as opposed to "yo me voy a levantar" or "I'm just about to get up."). A rather common code switch in Puerto Rican Spanglish is the use of the English word "so" (as in "therefore"): "Tengo clase, so me voy" ("I have (a) class, therefore, I'm leaving"). More common than that are word borrowings from English into Spanish, using false cognates with their English sense, or calquing idiomatic English expressions. Some examples: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 287 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (450 × 939 pixels, file size: 683 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 287 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (450 × 939 pixels, file size: 683 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The term false cognate is sometimes used incorrectly for false friend. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ...

  1. The word carpeta exists in the Spanish language, meaning "folder". In some Spanglish its meaning has changed from "folder" to "carpet" (which was replaced by a heavily Hispanicized pronunciation of "folder").
  2. The word rentar meaning to rent, is used in Spanglish and also in Mexico and some parts of Central America as well. Alquilar would be the proper Spanish way of saying, to rent.
  3. The word clutch (pronounced: clawch) is used in Spanglish and indeed in most of Mexico and in other parts of Latin America. The proper word in Spanish for the clutch of an automobile is embrague.
  4. In Spanglish yonque is used for junkyard not the correct Spanish term desguace.
  5. Trailer is used to describe a lorry (U.K.) or semi-trailer truck (U.S.). Trailer is used to describe the whole vehicle not just the trailer like in English. The correct term in Spanish for a lorry or semi-truck is camión and the trailer in Spanish is known as a remolque. Therefore truck or lorry drivers are known in Spanglish as traileros but the correct Spanish term is camioneros. These Spanglish terms are also frequently used in Mexico as well as by Spanglish speakers in the United States.
  6. In Spanglish the word boiler is used for a water heater or boiler. In Spanish the correct word for a boiler is caldera.
  7. In the same way, in Spanish the verb "atender" means to arrange (in the sense of an unmade bed) or to service (in a restaurant, for example); however, many second-generation Spanish speakers in the Anglosphere use the verb as "to attend," instead of "asistir".
  8. Similarly, the verb asistir is used to mean "to assist" rather than its correct meaning, "to attend".
  9. Rin is used to refer to the rim of a wheel (i.e. an automobile wheel) in Spanglish and also in some Latin American countries. The correct Spanish word is llanta. But in Spanglish and Latin-American Spanish, llanta refers to the tyre.
  10. Chequear comes from the English verb "to check" and replaces the Spanish verbs "verificar" or "comprobar". Chequear is now an accepted Spanish word. It should be mentioned that this word, while retaining its meaning, has been reworked, in some areas, as checar.
  11. Closet is used to refer to a closet for putting away clothes instead of the word ropero (ropa=clothes).
  12. In Spanish aplicación means "application" in the sense of usage; the word has been used for a job or a school application, where instead the word solicitud ("request") would be used in standard Spanish. By extension, the verb aplicar has also been used in this way. The Spanish word aplicación and English "application" are false friends. Importing the meaning of a false friend is another form of Spanglish. Suceso ("event") has been used to mean "success", leading to expressions such as "fue todo un suceso", meaning that something succeeded thoroughly. However, Spanish is a very rich language and "suceso" also means "happening", so the phrase "fue todo un suceso" can be also translated as "it was a great happening" not necessarily related to a successful situation. The English word for éxito is "success" (which is itself often confused with "exit", which translates to salida).
  13. Accesar is derived from "access" and is used (mostly in relation to computer systems) instead of acceder, which is the accepted form. This redundant anglicism is often denounced.
  14. Lonchera is used in Spanglish for lunch box instead of the correct Spanish word fiambrera.
  15. "Push" and empujar are true cognates. In Spanglish, "puchar" is sometimes used to the same effect.
  16. The expression llamar para atrás is calqued literally from English "call back"; compare standard Spanish devolver la llamada ("return the call"). This is an example of calquing an idiomatic English phrase into Spanish and somewhat common in people from Puerto Rico.
  17. Van (la Van) is used in Spanglish which is exactly the same as the American English word for the vehicle Van, instead of the correct Spanish term la Furgoneta.
  18. The English word "footing" (as in hacer footing) is used to mean "jogging" in Spain.
  19. Bye Bye (pronounced bu bye) or just bye is used in Spanglish and in fact in almost all of Mexico, as opposed to the Spanish word adiós (lit. go to God or go with God).
  20. The verbs bulear, janguear, parisear and vacunar come from the English verbs to bully, "to hang out", "to party" and "to vacuum", respectively. However, vacunar is also Spanish for vaccinate.
  21. The verbs platicar and charlar mean "to chat", to make small-talk. However, to have an on-line conversation by means of IRC is chatear.
  22. For an automobile, "un car" has become common, instead of the formally correct "un coche." Likewise, for a truck, "un troca" is common, in place of "un camion."
  23. Another example that has been somehow accepted in Spanish through time is the term "computadora" that comes after "computer" in English. In Spanish the term was originally "ordenador".

Some other examples of borrowings include emailiar (to email),nerdio (nerd), and laptopa (laptop computer) Calques from Spanish to English also occur. The following examples are from northern New Mexico: False friends are pairs of words in two languages or letters in two alphabets that look or sound similar but differ in meaning. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of instant communication over the Internet. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ...

  1. Many verbs are given indirect objects that do not have them in standard English. A notable example is "put": "She puts him breakfast on the couch!" or "Put it the juice" (turn on the power). This corresponds to the use of Spanish poner and meter with the indirect object pronoun le(s), indicating the action was done on another person's behalf.
  2. One can "get down" from a car instead of "getting out" of it. This translates in Spanish to bajarse, to descend, to dismount, to get out of a vehicle.
  3. In Mexico and the southwestern U.S., people who speak Spanglish are called pochos (rotten). "Broken" Spanish, heavily influenced by English, is called mocho, which literally means "mutilated" or "amputated". It is to note that many people in America and Spanish speaking countries say the verb fiestar, meaning to party, which corresponds with fiesta, which is a party. "Festejarse" is a real Spanish verb, but it means "to have fun", rather than "to party", although it is occasionally used to mean "to party," opting to use "divertirse" to mean "to have fun."

The following is a code switching dialogue from the Spanglish novel Yo-Yo Boing! by Giannina Braschi: The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ...

Ábrela tú.
¿Por qué yo? Tú tienes las keys. Yo te las entregué a ti. Además, I left mine adentro.
¿Por qué las dejaste adentro?
Porque I knew you had yours.
¿Por qué dependes de mí?
Just open it, and make it fast.

[1]. Additional Spanglish words can be found at http://www.courtinterpreter.net/node/29

See also

This article is about the Chicano idiom. ... Mexican Americans are citizens of the United States of Mexican ancestry. ... Argot (French for slang) is primarily slang used by various groups, including but not limited to thieves and other criminals, to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations. ... Chicano English is a dialect of American English used by Chicanos (persons of Mexican descent in America). ... The phrase Dog Latin refers to the creation of a phrase or jargon in imitation of Latin, often by directly translating English words (or those of other European languages) into Latin without conjugation or declension. ... Globish is a portmanteau neologism of the words Global and English. ... Greeklish, a portmanteau of the words Greek and English, also known as Grenglish or Latinoellinika/Λατινοελληνικά or Frankolevantinika/Φραγκολεβαντίνικα or ASCII Greek, is Greek language written with the Latin alphabet. ... Hinglish, a portmanteau of the words Hindi and English, is the arbitrary usage of Hindi and English, combining both, in one sentence. ... Inglés de escalerilla (literally gangplank English) was a Spanish-English pidgin in use in Spanish Mediterranean seaports. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... Llanito (IPA: ) or Yanito is an Andalusian Spanish based vernacular spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... Namlish, a portmanteau of the words Namibian and English, is a form of English spoken in Namibia. ... Norwenglish is a pidgin language formed by mixing Norwegian with English. ... Singlish is an English-based creole language native to Singapore. ... Taglish, a portmanteau of the words Tagalog and English, is an informal dialect of Tagalog in the Philippines that infuses English terms. ... Germán Valdés (September 19, 1915 - June 29, 1973), better known as Tin-Tan, was a Mexican actor, singer and comedian who was born in Mexico City, but grew up in Ciudad Júarez, Chihuahua. ... Germán Valdés (September 19, 1915 - June 29, 1973), better known as Tin-Tan, was a Mexican actor, singer and comedian. ... This article is about the Mexican American subculture. ... Guillermo Gómez-Peña (born 1955) is a Mexican-born, United States-based writer and performance artist, most of his works have to do with the interface between Mexican and U.S. culture. ... Cutting-edge poet and novelist Giannina Braschi (b. ... Molotov is a Mexican rock and hip hop band formed in Mexico City on September 23, 1995. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... The Mars Volta is an American progressive rock group founded by Cedric Bixler-Zavala, Omar Rodriguez-Lopez, Isaiah Ikey Owens and Jeremy Michael Ward. ...

External links

  • Ilán Stavans Don Quixote de La Mancha, First Parte, Chapter Uno (Spanglish translation)
  • Real Academia Española
  • El Dictionario de Spanglish de Nestor Gonzalez
  • Computer Spanglish, including terms like "hacer un backup" and "loopear".
  • iSpeakSpanglish.com, creative and funny Spanglish gifts including apparel, stickers and more.
  • [2], play in three scenes by Carlos von Son.
  • "The Joys of Spanglish" por Marc Alan Coen

Ilan Stavans Ilan Stavans (born Ilan Stavchansky on April 7, 1961, in Mexico City) is an American intellectual, essayist, lexicographer, cultural commentator, translator, short-story author, TV personality, teacher, and man of letters known for his insights into American, Hispanic, and Jewish cultures. ...


  • Spanglish: The Making of a New American Language, Ilán Stavans, ISBN 0-06-008776-5
  • The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish/El Diccionario del Español Chicano: The Most Practical Guide to Chicano Spanish. Roberto A. Galván. 1995. ISBN 0-8442-7967-6.
  • Anglicismos hispánicos. Emilio lorenzo. 1996. Editorial Gredos, ISBN 84-249-1809-6.

  Results from FactBites:
Spanglish - p. 1 (4291 words)
While Spanglish could be used to replace the current spelling system, the current proposal is simply to use it as an initial teaching alphabet, a pronunciation guide, a parallel notation, and as a means of understanding the traditional orthography (TO).
Spanglish is proposed as a parallel notation and as a new initial teaching alphabet.
Spanglish is an interesting ITA because it is based on Latin, one of the three major spelling patterns found in the traditional orthography.
Online NewsHour: Spanglish -- October 23, 2003 (941 words)
ILAN STAVANS: Spanglish is the encounter, perhaps the word is marriage or divorce of English and Spanish, but also of Anglo and Hispanic civilizations not only in the United States, but in the entire continent and perhaps also in Spain.
There's Spanglish spoken by Cuban Americans in Miami called cubonics is different from Mexican American Spanglish, but thanks to the Internet, thanks to radio and television, thanks to what is happening in the classrooms, in the streets in the restaurants, we are finding a middle ground.
And in that sense, Spanglish is similar to previous patterns of linguist assimilation but very different in that Spanish remains alive and strong and is creating this mixture that is unique and is defining the way Latinos describe themselves, feel, think.
  More results at FactBites »



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