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Encyclopedia > Spain under Franco

Francisco Franco became the undisputed dictator of Spain when he defeated the Republican government in the Spanish Civil War. Franco declared an official end of hostilities on 1 April 1939, and reworked the name of the republic into the “Spanish State,” a new moniker attempting to distinguish the new regime from both the monarchy and the republic. He ruled Spain until he died on November 20, 1975. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Motto Una Grande Libre Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Monarchy Head of State¹  - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco  - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I Legislature Cortes Generales Historical era Cold War  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Republic defeated April 4, 1939  - Death of... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Estado Español, officially Reino de España
Spanish State

1939 – 1978
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Una, Grande y Libre
Anthem
Marcha Granadera
Capital Madrid
Language(s) Spanish
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Dictatorship
Head of State¹
 - 1939-1975 Francisco Franco
 - 1975-1978 Juan Carlos I
Legislature Cortes Generales
Historical era Cold War
 - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
 - Republic defeated April 4, 1939
 - Death of Franco November 20, 1975
 - Constitutional monarchy December 27, 1978
Currency Spanish peseta
¹ Francisco Franco was effectively regent (in place of a monarch) during his tenure as the ruler of the Spanish State. He was however succeeded by Juan Carlos I, who ascended to the Spanish throne as king.

Contents

Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Second_Spanish_Republic. ... Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Demonym Spanish, Spaniard Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union 1516   -  Unification... Spanish Flag redirects here. ... Coat of Arms of Spain (Official model) The current Coat of arms of Spain was approved by law [1] in 1981, when the present established replaced the interim version which, in turn, replaced the official arms of Francoist Spain. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... (The Royal March) is the national anthem of Spain. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... The peseta is the former currency of Spain and, (along with the French Franc), of Andorra. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ...

Genesis of the government during the Civil War (1936-1939)

The Nationalist senior generals held an informal meeting in September 1936, where they elected Francisco Franco as leader of the Nationalists, with the rank of Generalísimo (sometimes written in English as Generalissimo, after the Fascist Italian fashion). He was originally supposed to be only commander-in-chief, but after the death of General Emilio Mola (the initial leader of the movement) became head of state as well with nearly unlimited and absolute powers. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. ... Emilio Mola Vidal (June 9, 1887 – June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). ...


This provisional government ruled over the territories controlled by the Nationalists during the Civil War. Its main political action during the war was the consolidation of the heterogeneous political forces that joined the rebellion into a single party, the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS. During and after the war, the Nationalist government repressed Republican militants and sympathizers, as retaliation for the repression of clergy and Nationalist militants on the opposite side. Killings were widespread on both sides during the whole war. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Yoke and Arrows. ...


The retaliation continued right after the war, in part to punish war crimes committed under the Republican government, under a trial called Causa General. Franco's government executed, jailed, or subjected to forced labor thousands of Republicans; thousands chose to go into exile, mostly in France and Mexico. Of those who fled to metropolitan France, many joined the French resistance. One of those who exiled themselves in metropolitan France was Lluís Companys, President of the Catalan Government; he was subsequently arrested and extradited to Spain in September 1940 by the Pétain regime, then executed after a military trial. The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... Lluís Companys i Jover (21 June 1882 – Spain, 15 October 1940) was a Catalan politician and leader of the Esquerra Party (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya). ... The Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia ) is the institution in which the self-government of Catalonia is politically organised. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval...


Franco's regime


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Unlike other prominent rebels like José Antonio Primo de Rivera (who was executed by the Republicans during the course of the war) Franco lacked any consistent political ideology other than fierce anti-communism. He initially sought support from what he designated as National syndicalism (nacionalsindicalismo) and the Roman Catholic Church (nacionalcatolicismo). The Falange, a fringe fascist inspired party during the Republic, soon transformed itself into the frame of reference[clarify] in the Movimiento Nacional. In April 1937, the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista ("Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx of the Assemblies of National-Syndicalist Offensive", FET y de las JONS) was created from a merger of the Carlist traditionalists with the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista, which itself was issued of a merger of José Antonio Primo de Rivera's Falange Española with the national-syndicalist Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (JONS). The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Alhambra-petit. ... The Prehistory of the Iberian peninsula begins with the arrival of the first hominins c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 409, the history of Medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arian Visigoths (507 – 711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... The Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent under Justinian I. Justinians inherited empire in pink with his conquests, including Spania, in orange. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the... Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... Anthem Marcha Real Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Church Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1874-1885 Alfonso XII  - 1886-1931 Alfonso XIII  - 1885-1902 Maria Christina of Austria (Regent) Prime Minister¹  - 1874-1875 (first term) Antonio Cánovas del Castillo  - 1931 Juan Bautista Aznar Cabañas Legislature Congress... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Economic history of Spain covers the development of the Spanish economy over the course of its history. ... The military history of Spain includes the history of battles fought in the territory of modern Spain, as well as her former and current overseas possessions and territories, and the military history of the Spanish people regardless of geography. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement) was the name given to the fascist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which pretended to be the only cause of participation to Spanish public life. ... The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) was the official political party founded by Francisco Franco April 19, 1937 in the midst of the Spanish Civil War, bringing under one umbrella his Carlist and Falangist supporters. ... Carlism restored the cross of Burgundy assimilated by the Spanish Bourbons through the Spanish Habsburgs and used as flag of the Spanish empire. ... The Falange (or Phalange) is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... The Falange (or Phalange) is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original movement in Spain. ... Symbol of J.O.N.S. Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista was a far-right National Syndicalist movement in Spain. ...


After Franco's victory in 1939, the FET-JONS became the sole legal party in Spain, and then, in 1949, asserted itself as the main component of the Movimiento Nacional. The FET-JONS were however relatively heterogeneous, and not an ideological monolith like the Italian National Fascist Party, the German NSDAP or even the ruling block under Antonio Salazar of Portugal[citation needed]. A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Ant nio de Oliveira Salazar Ant nio de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, noted for the dictatorial nature of his government. ...


Although Franco's regime has often been characterized as fascist and it indeed had the consistent support of fascists in Spain and abroad, his lack of overt belligerency during World War II and—after the war ended—his departure from fascist rhetorics by the 1950s to an alignment with the United States during the Cold War, both facts suggest that he was merely a reactionary who initially sought shelter in fascism because he lacked a genuine core ideology with which to confront Communism, Socialism or Anarchism, three ideologies that were widespread in Spain and vigorously supported from abroad[citation needed]. His regime has also been described as a proponent of Clerical Fascism[who?]. Also Integralism may define it well[citation needed]. Some features in Francoism contrast it with totalitarian regimes[original research?], in particular the lack of will to create a "new man", even though the Movimiento Nacional did engrain the whole of the population in its various organizations. The emphasis was on order and stability, rather than a definite political vision like fascism. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Integralism is a perspective according to which society is an organic unity. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


In 1940, the "Vertical Trade Union" was created; it was inspired by the ideas of José Antonio Primo de Rivera[citation needed], who thought that class struggle would be ended by grouping together workers and owners according to corporative principles. It was the only legal trade union, and was under government control. Other trade unions were forbidden and strongly repressed along political parties outside the Movimiento Nacional. The Sindicato vertical (literally, vertical trade union) was the only legal trade union during the reign of Francisco Franco in Spain. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... The concept of the corporate state developed under the context of Fascism in Mussolinis Italy as a means of regulating industrial relations. ...


All cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many were plainly forbidden on various, many times spurious, grounds (political or moral). In accordance with Franco's nationalist principles, only Spanish was recognized as an official language of the country, although millions of the country's citizens also had other native languages, such as Catalan, Basque or Galician. The use of these languages was discouraged, and most public uses were forbidden. This cultural policy was initially very strict, but relaxed with time, most notably after 1960. Still, even after 1960, all government, notarial, legal and commercial documents were drawn up exclusively in Spanish and any written in other languages were deemed null and void. For other uses, see Censor. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ...


Although a self-proclaimed monarchist, Franco had no particular desire for a king[citation needed], due to his strained relations with the legitimate heir of the Crown, Don Juan de Borbón. Therefore, he left the throne vacant, with himself as de facto regent. In 1947 Franco proclaimed Spain a monarchy, through the Ley de Sucesión en la Jefatura del Estado act, but did not designate a monarch. Instead, he set the basis for his succession. This gesture was largely done to appease monarchist factions within the Movimiento. He wore the uniform of a captain general (a rank traditionally reserved for the King), resided in the royal Pardo Palace, appropriated the kingly privilege of walking beneath a canopy, and his portrait appeared on most Spanish coins. Indeed, although his formal titles were Jefe del Estado (Head of State) and Generalísimo de los Ejércitos Españoles (Generalissimo of the Spanish Armed Forces), he was referred to as Caudillo de España por la gracia de Dios, (by the grace of God, the Leader of Spain). Por la Gracia de Dios is a technical, legal formulation which states sovereign dignity in absolute monarchies, and had only been used by monarchs before Franco used it himself. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes under a canopy of estate, on a dais: there is a cushion under his feet Margaret Beaufort, Queen Mother, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Engraving of the Gnadenaltar in the Vierzehnheiligen Basilica, Bad Staffelstein, Bavaria. ... Generalissimo Francisco de Miranda Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ...


World War II years (1939-1945)

Main article: Spain in World War II

In September 1939, World War II broke out in Europe. After the collapse of France in June 1940, Spain adopted a pro-Axis non-belligerency stance (for example, he offered Spanish naval facilities to German ships). Adolf Hitler met Franco in Hendaye, France (October 23, 1940), to discuss the Spanish entry in the war joining the Axis. Franco's demands (food, military equipment, Gibraltar, French North Africa, etc.) proved too much and no agreement was reached. Contributing to the disagreement was an ongoing dispute over German mining rights in Spain. Some historians argue that Franco made demands that he knew Hitler would not accede to in order to stay out of the war. Other historians argue that he simply had nothing to offer the Germans. Franco did send volunteer troops to fight communism joining the Axis armies on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union. The unit name was the División Azul, or Blue Division, after the Falange's party color, whose members were known as 'blueshirts'. At the same time, Spanish diplomats in the Axis countries actively protected Jews and Spain itself became a safe haven for Jewish refugees, as Franco refused to implement anti-Semitic laws, as demanded by the Axis. Franco returned to complete neutrality in 1943, when the tide of the war had turned decisively against Germany. While officially neutral during the Second World War, General Francos Spanish State gave considerable material, economic, and military assistance to the Axis Powers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hitler redirects here. ... Hendaye (Basque Hendaia) is the most southwesterly town in France. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul), also known as , was a unit of Spanish volunteers that served on the German side of the Second World War, mainly on the Eastern Front. ... Yoke and Arrows. ...


Isolation (1945-1953)

After the war, the Allies used Spain's ties to the Axis powers to keep it from joining the United Nations. Franco's government was seen, especially by Soviet countries but also by the Western allies, to be a remnant of the central European fascist regimes. Under these circumstances, a UN resolution condemning Franco's government followed. The resolution encouraged countries to remove their ambassadors in Spain, and established the basis for measures against Spain if the government remained authoritarian. Only Portugal and a few Latin-American countries, like Juan Perón's Argentina, refused to comply with this advice. UN redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine colonel and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina, serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ...


The consequence of all of this was the establishment of an embargo against the Francoist regime in 1946 — including the closure of the French border — with very little success, as it boosted support for the regime. The isolation was represented by Franco's regime as a modern version of the Black Legend, with the most fanatical partisans claiming it was a machination of Jews and Freemasons against Catholic Spain. This helped to rally massive popular support for the regime such as the massive 1946 demonstration held in Madrid. For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Freemasons redirects here. ...


In 1947, the president of Argentina, Juan Perón, ignored the UN embargo and sent his wife Eva Duarte de Perón with much needed food supplies. The Spaniards, and Franco himself, heartily welcomed Evita. Evitas image appeared on a wide variety of products, including stamps, coins, postcards and calendars. ...


After World War II, the Spanish economy was still in disarray. Rationing cards were still used as late as 1952. War and economic isolation prompted the regime to move towards autarky, a movement warmly welcomed by Falangists. The tenets of the economy were: reduction of imports, self-sufficiency, state-controlled production and commercialization of first order goods, state-funded industry and construction of infrastructure - heavily damaged during the Civil War- through the use of precarious means. An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ...


The end of isolation (1953-1959)

Eisenhower and Franco in Spain in 1959
Eisenhower and Franco in Spain in 1959

The increased tensions between the U.S. and the USSR in the 1950s, led the American government to search for new allies in Europe. Franco was a proclaimed anti-Communist, which made him a potential ally in the Cold War. Image File history File links Franco_eisenhower_1959_madrid. ... Image File history File links Franco_eisenhower_1959_madrid. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Spain's international ostracism was finally broken in 1953 when Spain and the United States signed the Pact of Madrid in a series of agreements under which Spain received economic assistance in the form of grants and loans in return for hosting American military bases (such as Naval Station Rota, opened in 1955). The same year, the Spanish government signed the Concordat with the Vatican. The Pact of Madrid, signed in 1953 by Spain and the United States, ended a period of virtual isolation for Spain, although the other victorious allies of World War II and much of the rest of the world remained hostile to what they regarded as a fascist regime sympathetic to... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Concordat of 1953 was the last classic concordat of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


In 1955 Spanish wealth approached the pre-Civil War levels of 1935, leaving behind the disasters of the war and the struggle of isolation[citation needed]. Spain was admitted to the UN in 1955 and to the World Bank in 1958[1]. Other Western European countries, including Italy, were from that point eager to restore good contacts with Francoist Spain. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


Spain's gradual readmission to the international fold was given visible form with the visit of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in December 1959.[2] Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


The Desarrollo, the Spanish Miracle (1959-1973)

A SEAT 600.
A SEAT 600.
Main article: Spanish Miracle

The Spanish Miracle (Desarrollo) was the name given to the Spanish economic boom between 1959 and 1973. It is seen by some as the most remarkable positive legacy of the regime. During this period, Spain largely surpassed the per capita income that differentiates developed from underdeveloped countries and induced the development of a dominant middle class which was instrumental to the future establishment of democracy. A white SEAT 600, an icon of the Spanish Miracle The 1957 built, 142m high, Torre de Madrid somehow heralded the advent of the Spanish Miracle The Spanish miracle (Spanish: Desarrollo económico de España) was the name given to the Spanish economic boom between 1959 and 1973. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2003). ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ...


The boom was bolstered by economic reforms promoted by the so-called "technocrats", appointed by Franco, who put in place neo-liberal development policies from the International Monetary Fund. The technocrats were a new breed of economists who replaced the old, prone to isolationism, Falangist guard. This article pertains to technocracy as a bureaucratic structure. ... IMF redirects here. ... Falange was a totalitarian clerical fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish Republic. ...


The implementation of these policies took the form of development plans (planes de Desarrollo) and it was largely a success: Spain enjoyed the second highest growth rate in the world, just after Japan, and became the ninth largest economy in the world, just after Canada. Spain joined the industrialized world, leaving behind the poverty and endemic underdevelopment it had experienced since the loss of the Spanish Empire in the 19th century. An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...


Although the economic growth produced noticeable improvements in Spanish living standards and the development of a middle class, Spain remained less economically advanced relative to the rest of Western Europe (with the exception of Portugal, Greece and Ireland). At the heyday of the Miracle, 1974, Spanish income per capita peaked at 79 percent of the Western European average, only to be reached again 25 years later, in 1999. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


The 14 years of recovery led to an increase in (often unplanned) building on the periphery of the main Spanish cities to accommodate the new class of industrial workers brought by rural exodus, similar to the French banlieue. Rural exodus is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of agriculture. ... Banlieue is the French word for outskirts. ...


The icon of the Desarrollo was the SEAT 600, the first car for many Spanish working class families, produced by the Spanish factory SEAT or Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo. SEAT 600 E. Note the normal doors opposed to the suicide doors from the precedent 600 D series SEAT 800 four door derivation from the 600 D. Note frontal suicide doors 1973 SEAT 600 L Especial. ... SEAT, S.A. (English pronunciation: , seh-at; Spanish pronunciation: ) is a Spanish automobile manufacturer founded in 1950 by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI) with Fiat assistance, and now subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group. ...


Franco's last years (1973-1975)

The 1973 oil crisis severely affected Spain, and brought the economic growth to a halt. This caused a new wave of strikes (nominally illegal at the time). The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations...


Franco's declining health gave more power to Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, but he was assassinated by ETA in 1973. Carlos Arias Navarro took over as President of the Spanish Government, and tried to introduce some reforms to the decaying regime, but he struggled between the two factions of the regime, the búnker (far-right) and the aperturists who promoted transition to Democracy. Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Carlos Arias Navarro (Madrid 11 December 1908 - 27 November 1989) was one of the best known Spanish politicians during the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. ... ... The term búnker refers to a far-right faction during the Spanish transition to democracy. ...


But there was no way back to the old regime: Spain was not the same as in post-Civil War times and the model for the now wealthy Spaniards was the prosperous Western Europe, not the impoverished post-war Falangist Spain. Wealthy West Germany became a role model with which Spaniards identified themselves, as West Germans increasingly went on vacations to the Spanish beaches. Besides this, a considerable number of Spanish men had worked in Western Europe in the previous years as cheap labour forces, thereby encountering the economic growth and wealth of western Europeans. A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


The size of the Spanish army and police was significantly smaller than pre-war times and the important Roman Catholic clergy were at the time deeply transformed, and sometimes deeply worried, by the reforms of the Vatican Council II. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


In 1974 Franco fell ill, and Juan Carlos took over as Head of State. Franco soon recovered, but one year later fell ill once again, and after a long illness, Franco died on November 20, 1975, at the age of 82—the same date as the death of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange. It is suspected that the doctors were ordered to keep him barely alive by artificial means until this symbolic date of the far-right.[citation needed] The historian Ricardo de la Cierva says that on the 19th around 6 p.m. he was told that Franco had already died. King Juan Carlos I His Majesty King Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón), styled HM The King (born January 5, 1938), is the reigning King of Spain. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people called Jose Rivera, see Jose Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Marqués de Estella (April 24, 1903–November 20, 1936) was the son of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was dictator of Spain from 1923 until 1930. ... Yoke and Arrows. ...


After Franco's death, the interim government decided to bury him at Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos, a colossal memorial to all the casualties of the Spanish Civil War, although it was conceived by Franco and has a distinctly nationalist tone. Valle de los Caidos, rear view of the Cross and the monastery The Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos (Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen) constitutes the most colossal architecture work built in Europe in the 20th century. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


Legacy

In Spain and abroad, the legacy of Franco remains controversial. In Germany a squadron named after Werner Mölders has been renamed, because as a pilot he led the escorting units in the bombing of Guernica. As recently as 2006, the BBC reported that Maciej Giertych, a MEP of the far-right League of Polish Families, had expressed admiration for Franco's stature who allegedly "guaranteed the maintenance of traditional values in Europe."[3] Werner Mölders (March 18, 1913 - November 22, 1941) was a German Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... Maciej Marian Giertych (born March 24, 1936 in Warsaw) is a Polish politician with extreme conservative social views and in favor of state intervention in the economy. ... The Media embedded Processor (MeP) is a configurable 32-bit processor design from Toshiba Semiconductor for embedded media processing applications. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a national conservative political party in Poland. ...


This, however, is not the most shared opinion. Several statues of Franco and other public Francoist symbols have been removed, with the last statue in Madrid coming down in 2005.[4] Additionally, the Permanent Commission of the European Parliament "firmly" condemned in a resolution unanimously adopted in March 2006 the "multiple and serious violations" of human rights committed in Spain under the Francoist regime from 1939 to 1975.[5][6] The resolution was at the initiative of the MEP Leo Brincat and of the historian Luis María de Puig, and is the first international official condemnation of the repression enacted by Franco's regime.[5] The resolution also urged to provide public access to historians (professional and amateurs) to the various archives of the Francoist regime, including those of the Fundación Francisco Franco which, as well as other Francoist archives, remain as of 2006 inaccessible to the public.[5] Furthermore, it urged the Spanish authorities to set up an underground exhibition in the Valle de los Caidos monument, in order to explain the "terrible" conditions in which it was built.[5] Finally, it proposes the construction of monuments to commemorate Franco's victims in Madrid and other important cities.[5] Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Archive of the AMVC An archive refers to a collection of historical records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Exhibition may refer to: Exhibition (scholarship), a small grant Worlds Fair Exhibition game, a friendly match Art exhibition Exhibition (equestrian), a sport involving horse and riders Science fair State fair Funfair Trade fair Xzibit See also Look up exhibition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Spain, a commission to repair the dignity and restitute the memory of the victims of Francoism (Comisión para reparar la dignidad y restituir la memoria de las víctimas del franquismo) was approved in the summer of 2004, and is directed by the vice-president María Teresa Fernández de la Vega.[5] María Teresa Fernández de la Vega in her office María Teresa Fernández de la Vega, Doctor of Law (born June 15, 1949) is a socialist Spanish politician, since April 18, 2004 the First Vice President and Minister of Presidency in the government of José Luis Rodr...


Recently the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (ARHM) initiated a systematic search for mass graves of people executed during Franco's regime, which has been supported since the PSOE's victory during the 2004 elections by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's government. A Ley de la memoria histórica de España (Law on the Historical Memory of Spain) has been discussed in the Spanish Parliament and is supposed to be passed by early 2008. Among other things, the draft law is supposed to enforce an official recognition of the crimes committed against civilians during the Francoist rule and organize under state supervision the search for mass graves. Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica or ARMH in Spanish) is a Spanish organization that collects the oral and written testimonies about the victims of the regime of Francisco Franco and excavates and identifies their bodies that were... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... Map of Spains electoral circumscriptions, and the parties leading in each circumscription in the election for the Congress of Deputies Legislative elections were held in Spain on March 14, 2004. ...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ...


References

  1. ^ The World Bank. Spain. History
  2. ^ Dwight D. Eisenhower
  3. ^ Europe diary: Franco and Finland, BBC News, 6 July 2006 (English)
  4. ^ Madrid removes last Franco statue, BBC News, 17 March 2005 (English)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Primera condena al régimen de Franco en un recinto internacional, EFE, El Mundo, 17 March 2006 (Spanish)
  6. ^ Von Martyna Czarnowska, Almunia, Joaquin: EU-Kommission (4): Ein halbes Jahr Vorsprung, Weiner Zeitung, 17 February 2005 (article in German language). Accessed 26 August 2006.

This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... EFE is a Spanish news agency created in 1939 by Ramón Serrano Súñer and Manuel Aznar Zubigaray while the former was Spains minister of the press and propaganda. ... El Mundo is the second largest newspaper in Spain, with a circulation of 350,297 copies (2003). ...

Further reading

  • Payne, S. (1987). The Franco regime. 1st ed. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Luis Suárez Fernández. Franco. Editorial Ariel.

See also

Yves Guerin Serac was a French anti-Communist Catholic activist, former officer of the French army and veteran of the First Indochina War (1945-54), the Korean War (1950-53) and the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ...

External links

  • Text of Franco's Fundamental Laws, the Spanish Constitution under Franco. (Spanish)
Video
  • Documentary 52': When Franco died we were 30


  Results from FactBites:
 
Spain. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (5831 words)
The W Pyrenees and the northern coast, paralleled by the Cantabrian Mts., are occupied by Navarre, with the city of Pamplona; the Basque Country, with the ports of Bilbao and San Sebastián; Santander; and Asturias, with Oviedo and the port of Gijón.
Spain’s bicameral legislature, the Cortes, consists of the chamber of deputies and the senate, both of whose representatives are elected every four years in provincial elections.
It was thus under Castilian leadership that the reconquest was completed, and it was the Castilian nobility that formed the nucleus of the class of feudal magnates—the grandees—who were the ruling class of Spain for centuries after the reconquest.
Spain under Franco - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1836 words)
Franco is often characterized as a fascist, and certainly had the consistent support of fascists in Spain and abroad.
Under the circumstances, a resolution condemning the Franco government was inevitable.
Spain joined the industrialized world, leaving behind the poverty and endemic underdevelopment it had experienced since the loss of the Spanish Empire at the beginning of the 19th century.
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