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Encyclopedia > Spain
Reino de España
Kingdom of Spain
Flag of Spain Coat of arms of Spain
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Plus Ultra"  (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
Marcha Real 1  (Spanish)
Royal March
Location of  Spain  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green) Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Escudo_de_España. ... Flag of Spain in Plaza de Colón, Madrid. ... Coat of Arms of Spain The current Coat of Arms of Spain was approved by law[1] in 1981, when the present established replaced the interim version which, in turn, replaced the official flag of Francoist Spain. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Coat of Arms of Spain Plus Ultra (Latin for further beyond, more beyond or yet beyond) is the national motto of Spain and a number of other institutions including Jurong Junior College in Singapore,Malden Catholic High School in Massachusetts, Newstead Girls College, the oldest existing public school in Sri... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... (The Royal March) is the national anthem of Spain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 179 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Madrid
40°26′N, 3°42′W
Official languages Spanish2
Demonym Spanish, Spaniard
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I
 -  President of
   the Government

José L. Rodríguez Zapatero
Formation 15th century 
 -  Dynastic union 1516 
 -  Unification 1469 
 -    de facto 1716 
 -    de jure 1812 
Accession to
the
 European Union
January 1, 1986
Area
 -  Total 504,030 km² (51st)
195,364 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.04
Population
 -  2007 estimate 45,116,894 (28th)
 -  Density 79 people per km2 /km² (106th)
220 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006[1] estimate
 -  Total $1.261 trillion (11th)
 -  Per capita $22,522 (2005) (27th)
GDP (nominal) 2006[2] estimate
 -  Total $1.224 trillion (9th)
 -  Per capita $27,767 (2006) (26th)
Gini? (2000) 34.7 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.938 (high) (19th)
Currency Euro ()3 (EUR)
Time zone CET4 (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .es5
Calling code +34
1 Also serves as the Royal anthem.
2 In some autonomous communities, Aranese (Occitan), Basque, Catalan and Galician are co-official languages.
3 Prior to 1999 (by law, 2002): Spanish Peseta.
4 Except in the Canary Islands, which are in the GMT time zone (UTC, UTC+1 in summer).
5 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Spain (Spanish: , IPA: [ɛs'paɲa]), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a country located in Southern Europe, with three exclaves in North Africa and adjacent archipelagos in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. The Spanish mainland is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south and east, by the Cantabric Sea that includes the Bay of Biscay to the north, and by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal to the west. Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands off the African coast. It shares land borders with Portugal, France, Andorra, the British colony of Gibraltar, and Morocco. It is the largest of the three sovereign states that make up the Iberian Peninsula — the others being Portugal and Andorra. With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe (behind France). This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Spains population density, at 87. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) was born on January 5, 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King (Rey de España) and head of state of Spain. ... The President of the Government (Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), or Prime Minister, of Spain is the Spanish head of government. ...   (IPA: []) (born August 4, 1960 in Valladolid) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Nueva Planta decrees (Spanish:Decretos de Nueva Planta, Catalan: Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated by the Cortes Generales (General Courts), the national legislative assembly of Spain. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Pale colours indicate countries without daylight saving Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .es is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Spain. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Aranese (Aranès or Aranais) is a dialect of Gascon (which is part of the Occitan language group of the Romance languages), spoken in Spain, where it is an official language. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... The peseta is the former currency of Spain and, (along with the French Franc), of Andorra. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Image File history File links ES-españa. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... ESA photo, phytoplankton bloom along the Bay of Biscay Not to be confused with the North American Biscayne Bay. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


Spain is a democracy organised as a parliamentary monarchy, and has been a member of the European Union since 1986. It is a developed country with the ninth largest economy in the world and fifth largest in the EU.[3] A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Spain

Spain has a very ancient and complex prehistory. Under the Roman empire Hispania flourished and became one of the empire's most important regions. During the early middle ages it came under Germanic rule. Later, nearly the entire peninsula came under Muslim rulers. Through a long process Christian kingdoms in the north gradually rolled back Muslim rule, which was finally extinguished in 1492. That year Columbus reached the Americas, the beginnings of the first global empire. Spain became the strongest kingdom in Europe in the sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth centuries but continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. In the middle decades of the twentieth century it came under a dictatorship, under which it went through many years of stagnation and then a spectacular economic revival. In 1986 it joined the European Union and has experienced an economic and cultural renaissance. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples in the Iberian Peninsula

Main article: Prehistoric Iberia
Main languages in Iberia circa 200 BC.

Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving in the Iberian Peninsula from the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago. The best known artifacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in northern Spain, which were created about 15,000 BC. New archeological research at Atapuerca indicates that the Iberian Peninsula was peopled more than a million years ago. This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC - 199 BC 198 BC... The Cro-Magnons (IPA: or anglicised IPA: ) form the earliest known European examples of Homo sapiens, from ca. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Cave painting of a Bison from Altamira Outline of cave paintings. ... BC or B.C. may stand for: Before Christ or B.C., designation applied to years prior to the current (AD) era Places British Columbia, a Canadian province Baja California, a state of Mexico Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania Colleges Boston College, a university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Barnard College, a women... Atapuerca, also known as Sierra de Atapuerca or Sierra Atapuerca, is an ancient karst topography region of Spain, containing several caves such as the Gran Dolina site, where fossils and stone tools of the one of the earliest known hominids in Europe have been found, dating to between 780,000...


The two main historical peoples of the peninsula were the Iberians and the Celts, the former inhabiting the Mediterranean side from the northeast to the southwest, the latter inhabiting the Atlantic side, in the north and northwest part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed, distinctive, culture was present, known as Celtiberian. Different names of places witness their geographical distribution. Celts founded cities such as Coimbra, Braga, and Segovia. The Iberians gave their name to Spain's longest river Ebro (or "Iberian river"). In addition, Basques, sometimes considered part of the Iberians occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountains although they must have extended southwards in light of some geographical names that attest their presence as far south as Aranjuez a name that originates in the Basque words aran zuri ("valley of thorns"). Other ethnic groups existed along the southern coastal areas of present day Andalusia. Among these southern groups there grew the earliest urban culture in the Iberian Peninsula, that of the semi-mythical southern city of Tartessos (perhaps pre-1100 BC) near the location of present-day Cádiz. The flourishing trade in gold and silver between the people of Tartessos and Phoenicians and Greeks is documented in the history of Strabo and in the biblical book of king Solomon. Between about 500 BC and 300 BC, the seafaring Phoenicians, and Greeks founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. These colonies include present-day cities like Ampurias (from the Greek word 'emporion'), Malaga (from the Greek word 'malaka'), and the city of Alicante, originally named in Greek Akra Leuka (ie, white bay). Phoenicians from the African city of Carthage known as Carthaginians, briefly took control of much of the Mediterranean coast in the course of the Punic Wars until they were eventually defeated and replaced by the Romans.[4] Cartaginians created important cities in the Mediterranean litoral, including 'Cartago nova' or 'New Carthage' (present-day Cartagena) and a city in the northeast named founded by Hannibal's father Hamilcar Barca. Hamilcar named the city Barcino, after his family; the city is present day Barcelona. The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... “Celts” redirects here. ... The Celtiberians dwelt in the Iberian Peninsula and spoke a Celtic language. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Cávado  - District or A.R. Braga Mayor Mesquita Machado  - Party PS Area 183. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... Aranjuez is a town in the southern part of the Autonomous Community of Madrid in central Spain and lies 48 km south of the city of Madrid. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir river. ... (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... Empúries is a town in the Mediterranean coast of the Catalan comarca of Empordà. It was founded by the ancient Greeks with the name of Emporion (that is market). ... Málaga, a port town in the province of Málaga in Andalusia, Southern Spain Malaga, a fortified wine originating in Málaga. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alacant (Catalan) Spanish name Alicante Administration Country Autonomous Community Valencian Community Province Alicante Comarca Alacantí Administrative Divisions 8 Neighborhoods 42 Mayor Luis Díaz Alperi (PP) Geography Land Area 201. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... Cartagena is the name of two cities: Cartagena, Spain Cartagena, Colombia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. ... Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (~270 – 228 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


Roman Empire and Germanic invasions

Main article: Hispania
Roman theater in Mérida
Roman theater in Mérida

During the Second Punic War, an expanding Roman Empire captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast (from roughly 210 BC to 205 BC), leading to eventual Roman control of nearly the entire Iberian Peninsula – a control which lasted over 500 years, bound together by law, language, and the Roman road.[5] The base Celt and Iberian population remained in various stages of romanisation,[6] and local leaders were admitted into the Roman aristocratic class.[4] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 932 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Roman theatre City: Merida, Country:Spain, Author:San Roman, Jorge E. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 932 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Roman theatre City: Merida, Country:Spain, Author:San Roman, Jorge E. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ...


The Romans improved existing cities, such as Lisbon (Olissis bona or 'good for Ulysses') and Tarragona (Tarraco), and established Zaragoza (Caesaraugusta), Mérida (Augusta Emerita), Valencia (Valentia), León ("Legio Septima"), Badajoz ("Pax Augusta").[7] The peninsula's economy expanded under Roman tutelage. Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbors exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius and Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania.[8] Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the first century CE and it became popular in the cities in the second century CE.[4] Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period.[5] Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Zaragoza (Spanish) Spanish name Zaragoza Founded 24 Postal code 50001 - 50018 Website http://www. ... Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... The city of León (Llión in the Leonese language), located at 42. ... Location Badajoz, Spain location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Badajoz (Spanish) Spanish name Badajoz Founded 875 Area code 34 (Spain) + 924 (Badajoz) Website http://www. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


The first Barbarians to invade Hispania arrived in the 5th century, as the Roman empire decayed.[5] The Visigoths, Suebi, Vandals and Alans arrived in Spain by crossing the Pyrenees mountain range.[9] The romanised Visigoths entered Hispania in 415, and, after the conversion of their monarchy to Roman Catholicism, the Visigothic Kingdom eventually encompassed the entire Iberian Peninsula after conquering the disordered Suebic territories in the northwest and Byzantium territories in the southeast.[4] Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Muslim Iberia

Main article: Al-Andalus

In the 8th century, nearly all the Iberian peninsula was quickly conquered (711718) by mainly Berber Muslims (see Moors) from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Islamic Umayyad Empire.[10] Only three small areas in the mountains of northern Spain managed to cling to their independence, Asturias, Navarra and Aragon. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of North and West Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the Umayyad caliph at Damascus, and led... See also: phone number 711. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Moors are the Muslim African and Arab inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including the Maghreb (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Navarra is the Spanish name for Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa), an ancient kingdom in the Pyrenees, and now a province and an autonomous community in Spain. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...

Interior of the Mezquita in Córdoba, a Muslim mosque until the Reconquest, after which it became a Christian cathedral
Interior of the Mezquita in Córdoba, a Muslim mosque until the Reconquest, after which it became a Christian cathedral

Under Islam, Christians and Jews were recognised as "peoples of the book", and were free to practice their religion, but faced some discriminations. Conversion to Islam proceeded at a steadily increasing pace, starting with the aristocracy, as it offered an escape from the limitations and humiliations of their dhimmi status. With mass conversions in the 10th and 11th centuries Muslims are believed to have come to outnumber Christians in Al-Andalus.[11] Image File history File links Mosque_of_Cordoba_Spain. ... Image File history File links Mosque_of_Cordoba_Spain. ... In mathematics, the interior of a set S consists of all points which are intuitively not on the edge of S. A point which is in the interior of S is an interior point of S. The notion of interior is in many ways dual to the notion of closure. ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), was at one time the second largest mosque in the world in Córdoba, Spain and is now a Roman Catholic cathedral. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


The Muslim community in Spain was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East.[12] Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada.[11] The Great Berber Revolt of 122—25/740—43 took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the caliphate. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Guadalquivir is one of the major rivers of Spain. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ...


Cordoba, Muslim Spain's capital, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city of medieval Europe.[13] Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Muslim and Jewish scholars played a great part in reviving and expanding classical Greek learning in Western Europe. Spain's romanised cultures interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, thus giving Spain a distinctive culture.[11] Outside the cities, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners, and new crops and techniques led to a remarkable expansion of agriculture. Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western civilisation and ancient Athens was considered to be its center. ... In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. ...


However, by the 11th century, Muslim holdings had fractured into rival Taifa kingdoms.[11] The arrival of the North African Muslim ruling empires of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, but ultimately, after some initial successes in invading the north, proved unable to resist the increasing military strength of the Christian states.[4] The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Spain (Arabic: Al-Andalus) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


Fall of Muslim rule and unification

Main article: Reconquista
See also: Medieval demography

The term Reconquista ("Reconquest") is used to describe the centuries-long period of expansion of Spain's Christian kingdoms; the Reconquista is viewed as beginning after the battle of Covadonga in 722. The Christian army victory over the Muslim forces lead to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees, but they were defeated at the battle of Poitiers in France. Subsequently, they retreated to more secure positions south of the Pyrenees with a frontier marked by the Ebro and Duero rivers in Spain. In the following years Christian armies moved to occupy and colonized the vacant areas. As early as 739, Muslim forces left Galicia, which was to host one of medieval Christianity's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela. A little later Frankish forces established Christian counties south of the Pyrenees; these areas were to grow into kingdoms, in the north-east and the western part of the Pyrenees. These territories included Navarre, Aragon and Catalonia. [14] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Image File history File links IsabellaofCastile05. ... Image File history File links IsabellaofCastile05. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Isabella of Castile (Spanish: Ysabel, Isabel or Isabela) (22 April 1451 - 26 November 1504) was queen of Castile. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Covadonga (Asturian: Cuadonga), from Latin Cova dominica, Cavern of the Lady, is a village in Asturias, northwestern Spain, among the Picos de Europa mountains where Spanish Christians won a battle over the Muslim Moors around 718 and 725. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... View of the river mouth from Portos Crystal Palace Gardens, facing West Douro (Latin Durius, Spanish Duero, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Portugal and Spain, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing Taifa kingdoms helped the expanding Christian kingdoms, namely Castille that will be the main driving force in the Reconquista. The capture of the central city of Toledo in 1085 largely completed the reconquest of the northern half of Spain.[15] Also in the 13th century, the kingdom of Aragón expanded its reach across the Mediterranean to Sicily.[16] For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Muslim Conquest of Iberia Timeline of Muslim Occupation Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragón were united by the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand. In 1478 began the final stage of the conquest of Canary Islands and in 1492, these united kingdoms captured Granada, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule on the Iberian Peninsula.[17] The year 1492 also marked the arrival in the New World of Christopher Columbus, during a voyage funded by Isabella. That same year, Spain's large Jewish community was expelled[18] during the Spanish Inquisition.[19] The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella of Castile (Spanish: Isabel, Ysabel or Isabela — only Isabel is used in modern Spanish; the equivalent English name is Elizabeth, but she has always been known as Isabella in English) (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen of Castile and Leon. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ...


As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralised royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España began to be used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms.[19] With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as a world great power. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... New Monarchs were the rulers of European nations during the 15th century who unified their nations, creating a stable and centralized government. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ...


From the Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century

The unification of the kingdoms of Aragón, Castile, León, and Navarre laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire. Spain became Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions. Spain reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs (Charles I (1516-1556) and Philip II (1556-1598)). Included in this period are the last Italian Wars, the Dutch revolt, clashes with the Ottomans, the Anglo-Spanish war and war with France.[20] During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Capital Pamplona Official language(s) Spanish and Basque Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 11th  10,391 km²  2. ... Capital Toledo (1492-1561) Madrid (since 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1902 Maria Christina of Austria, Regent during the minority of king Alphonse XIII History  - Discovery of the Americas 1492  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, or Eighty Years War (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ...

The galleon became synonymous with the riches of the Spanish Empire
The galleon became synonymous with the riches of the Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire expanded to include nearly all of South and Central America, Mexico, southern and western portions of today's United States, the Philippines, Guam and the Mariana Islands in Eastern Asia, the Iberian peninsula (including the Portuguese empire (from 1580)), southern Italy, Sicily, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of modern Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. It was the first empire about which it was said that the sun did not set. This was an age of discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginning of European colonialism. Along with the arrival of precious metals, spices, luxuries, and new agricultural plants, Spanish explorers and others brought back knowledge that transformed the European understanding of the world.[21] A Spanish Galleon. ... A Spanish Galleon. ... A Spanish galleon. ... Capital Toledo (1492-1561) Madrid (since 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1902 Maria Christina of Austria, Regent during the minority of king Alphonse XIII History  - Discovery of the Americas 1492  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... Maritime Southeast Asia is the name given to the island nations in Southeast Asia. ... Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... An anachronous map showing areas pertaining to the Spanish Empire at various times over a period exceeding 400 years. ... For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Of note was the cultural efflorescence now known as the Spanish Golden Age and the intellectual movement known as the School of Salamanca. The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. ...


In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain was confronted by unrelenting challenges from all sides. In the early 16th century Barbary pirates under the aegis of the rapidly growing Ottoman empire, disrupted life in many coastal areas through their slave raids and renewed the threat of an Islamic invasion.[22] This at a time when Spain was often at war with France in Italy and elsewhere. Later the Protestant Reformation schism from the Catholic Church dragged the kingdom ever more into the mire of religiously charged wars. The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


By the middle decades of a war-ridden mid-17th century Europe, the effects of the strain began to show. The Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in the continent wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the European economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to the majority of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the Imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the independence of Portugal - with its empire - and the Netherlands, and eventually began to surrender territories to France after the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years War.[23] Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ...


From the 1640s Spain went into a gradual but seemingly irreversible decline for the remainder of the century, however it was able to maintain and enlarge its vast overseas empire which remained intact until the 19th century.

An 18th century map of the Iberian Peninsula showing various topographical features of the land. Click image for full-scale viewing.

Controversy over succession to the throne consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714), a wide ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, cost Spain its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent (although it retained its overseas territories).[24] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 739 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2096 × 1700 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 739 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2096 × 1700 pixel, file size: 5. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ...


During this war, a new dynasty—the French Bourbons—was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king Philip V of Spain united Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the regional privileges (fueros).[25] Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ...


The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and some increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Towards the end of the century trade finally began growing strongly. Military assistance for the rebellious British colonies in the American War of Independence improved Spain's international standing.[26] Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Combatants United States (United Colonies prior to July 1776) France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Oneida Tuscarora Great Britain Loyalists Hessian mercenaries Iroquois Confederacy Duchy of Brunswick Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Ko...


Napoleonic rule and its consequences

In 1793, Spain went to war against the new French Republic, which had overthrown and executed its Bourbon king, Louis XVI. The war polarised the country in an apparent reaction against the gallicised elites. Defeated in the field, Spain made peace with France in 1795 and effectively became a client state of that country; the following year, it declared war against Britain and Portugal. A disastrous economic situation, along with other factors, led to the abdication of the Spanish king in favour of Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ...

This new foreign monarch was regarded with scorn. On May 2, 1808, the people of Madrid began a nationalist uprising against the French army, marking the beginning of what is known to the Spanish as the War of Independence, and to the English as the Peninsular War. Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating the Spanish army and Anglo-Portuguese forces. However, further military action by Spanish guerrillas and Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese army, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x900, 160 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peninsular War Mamluk Spanish Empire The Second of May 1808 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x900, 160 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peninsular War Mamluk Spanish Empire The Second of May 1808 ... The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes The Second of May 1808, also known as The Charge of the Mamelukes, was the first in two paintings painted by Spaniard Francisco Goya, the second being the Third of May 1808. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Combatants Spain French Empire Commanders Pedro Velarde y Santillán Luís Daoíz de Torres Joachim Murat Casualties 200[1]–450 dead[2] 31[1]–150 dead[2] On May 2, 1808 (Spanish: Dos de Mayo) the people of Madrid rebelled against the occupation of the city by French... Combatants Kingdom of Spain, United Kingdom, Kingdom of Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española) was a war in the Iberian Peninsula. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ...


The French invasion proved disastrous for Spain's economy, and left a deeply divided country that was prone to political instability for more than a century. The power struggles of the early 19th century led to the loss of all of Spain's colonies in Latin America, with the exception of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Further information: Mid-nineteenth century Spain

History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the...

Spanish-American War

Main article: Spanish–American War

Amid the instability and economic crisis that afflicted Spain in the 19th century there arose nationalist movements in the Philippines and Cuba. Wars of independence ensued in those colonies and eventually the United States became involved. Although Spanish military units quickly won respect from American soldiers for their bravery and skill, the Spanish-American war of 1898 was so badly mismanaged by the highest levels of command and government that it was soon over. "El Desastre", as the war became known in Spain, helped give impetus to the Generation of 98 who conducted much critical analysis concerning Spain. It also weakened the stability that had been established during Alfonso XII's reign. Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish–American... Also called Generation of 1898 (Spanish: Generación del 98 or In Spain, the novelists, poets, essayists, and thinkers active at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898), who reinvigorated Spanish letters and restored Spain to a position of intellectual and literary prominence that it had not held for...


The Twentieth Century

Picasso's "Guernica" decries the city's bombing
Picasso's "Guernica" decries the city's bombing

The 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea. The heavy losses suffered during the Rif war in Morocco helped to undermine the monarchy. A period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923–1931) ended with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic. The Republic offered political autonomy to the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia and gave voting rights to women. Image File history File links PicassoGuernica. ... Image File history File links PicassoGuernica. ... Guernica is one of the most famous paintings by Pablo Picasso, depicting the consequences of the bombing of Guernica. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Combatants Spain France Republic of the Rif Commanders Manuel Silvestre Dámaso Berenguer José Millán Astray Miguel Primo de Rivera Philippe Pétain Abd el-Krim Strength 465,000 regulars 15,000 irregulars Casualties 31,000 dead or wounded 54,000 dead or wounded The Rif War of 1920... Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Marqués de Estella (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President¹  - 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1937-1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta ¹ Formal... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The bitterly fought Spanish Civil War (1936-39) ensued. Three years later the Nationalist forces, led by General Francisco Franco, emerged victorious with the support of Germany and Italy. The Republican side was supported by the Soviet Union and Mexico, but it was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of Non-Intervention. The Spanish Civil War has been called the first battle of the Second World War; under Franco, Spain was neutral in the Second World War though sympathetic to the Axis.[27] It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Non-intervention is the norm in international relations that one state cannot interfere in the internal politics of another state, based upon the principles of state sovereignty and self-determination // Overview The concept of non-intervention can be seen to have emerged from the system of sovereign nation states established... The European Civil War is a debated period in history between the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War on July 19, 1870 and end of the European portion of World War II on May 8, 1945. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... While officially neutral during the Second World War, General Francos Spanish State gave considerable material, economic, and military assistance to the Axis Powers. ...


The only legal party under Franco's regime was the Falange española tradicionalista y de las JONS, formed in 1937; the party emphasised anti-Communism, Catholicism and nationalism. The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


After World War II, Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations until 1955, when it became strategically important for the U.S. to foment a military presence on the Iberian peninsula, next to the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. In the 1960s, Spain registered an unprecedented economic growth in what was called the Spanish miracle, which gradually transformed it into a modern industrial economy with a thriving tourism sector and a high degree of human development. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... A white SEAT 600, an icon of the Spanish Miracle The 1957 built, 142m high, Torre de Madrid somehow heralded the advent of the Spanish Miracle The Spanish miracle (Spanish: Desarrollo económico de España) was the name given to the Spanish economic boom between 1959 and 1973. ...


Upon the death of General Franco in November 1975, Prince Juan Carlos assumed the position of king and head of state. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the arrival of democracy, political autonomy were established. In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexisted with a radical nationalism supportive of the terrorist group ETA. Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) was born on January 5, 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King (Rey de España) and head of state of Spain. ... Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is defined as a terrorist organization by the European Union,[1] the United States, and the United Nations but considered by itself as a paramilitary Basque nationalist group. ...


On February 23, 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes and tried to impose a military-backed government. However, the great majority of the military forces remained loyal to King Juan Carlos, who used his personal authority and addressed the usupers via national TV as commander in chief to put down the bloodless coup attempt.



In 1982, the Spanish Socialist Worker's Party (PSOE) came to power, which represented the return to power of a leftist party after 43 years. In 1986, Spain joined the European Community (which was to become the European Union). The PSOE was replaced by the PP after the latter won the 1996 General Elections; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Twenty First Century

On January 1, 2002, Spain terminated its historic peseta currency and replaced it with the euro, which has become its national currency shared with 13 other countries from the Eurozone. This culminated a fast process of growth and economic consolidation.. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The peseta is the former currency of Spain and, (along with the French Franc), of Andorra. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ...


On March 11, 2004, a series of bombs exploded in commuter trains in Madrid, Spain. This act of terror killed 191 people and wounded 1,460 more, besides possibly affecting national elections scheduled for March 14, three days after the attack. The Madrid train bombings had an adverse effect on the image of the then-ruling conservative party Partido Popular (PP) which polls had indicated were likely to win the elections, thus helping the election of Zapatero's Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE). There were two nights of incidents around the PP headquarters, with the PSOE and other political parties accusing the PP of hiding the truth by saying that the incidents were caused by ETA even though new evidence that pointed to an Islamic attack started appearing. These incidents are still a cause of discussion, since some factions of the PP suggest that the elections were "stolen" by means of the turmoil which followed the terrorist bombing, which was, according to this point of view, backed by the PSOE. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 3/11 and -in Spanish- as 11-M [1]) consisted of a series of coordinated bombings against the Cercanías (commuter train) system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004 (three days before Spains general elections), killing 191... or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is defined as a terrorist organization by the European Union,[1] the United States, and the United Nations but considered by itself as a paramilitary Basque nationalist group. ...


March 14, 2004, three days after the bombings, saw the PSOE party elected into government, with Rodríguez Zapatero becoming the new Presidente del Gobierno or prime minister of Spain thus replacing the former PP administration. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, PP) is the largest right-wing political party in Spain. ...


Politics

Spanish Government

Main article: Politics of Spain

Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales. The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the President of Government (comparable to a prime minister), proposed by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly following legislative elections. Politics of Spain takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File links Juan_Carlos_2004. ... Image File history File links Juan_Carlos_2004. ... Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) was born on January 5, 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King (Rey de España) and head of state of Spain. ... Sofía, Queen of Spain (Spanish:Su Majestad la Reina Sofía de España, Greek: ; born Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark on November 2, 1938; full name Sophía Margaríta Viktoría Frederíki), is the Queen Consort of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... President of the Government José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero First Vice President (2004 - ): María Teresa Fernández de la Vega Second Vice President (2004 - ): Pedro Solbes Minister of Agriculture and Fishing (2004 - ): Elena Espinosa Minister of Culture (2004 - ): Carmen Calvo Minister of Defence (2004 - ): José Bono Minister of Economy... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate or Senado with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms. The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, President of the Government

Spain is, at present, what is called a State of Autonomies, formally unitary but, in fact, functioning as a highly decentralised Federation of Autonomous Communities; it is regarded by many as the most decentralised nation in Europe; for example, all territories manage their own health and education systems, and other territories (the Basque Country and Navarre) manage their own public finances. In Catalonia and the Basque Country, an autonomous police corps widely replaces the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra and Ertzaintza). Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) was born on January 5, 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King (Rey de España) and head of state of Spain. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of the Government of Spain (Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno), sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the Spanish head of government. ...   (IPA: []) (born August 4, 1960 in Valladolid) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... poo ... María Teresa Fernández de la Vega in her office María Teresa Fernández de la Vega, Doctor of Law (born June 15, 1949) is a socialist Spanish politician, since April 18, 2004 the First Vice President and Minister of Presidency in the government of José Luis Rodr... List of Second Vice Presidents of Spain 1st Legislature (1977 - 1979) No data 2nd Legislature (1979 - 1982) No data 3rd Legislature (1982 - 1986) No data 4th Legislature (1986 - 1989) No data 5th Legislature (1989 - 1993) No data 6th Legislature (1993 - 1996) No data 7th Legislature (1996 - 2000) No data 8th... The Minister of Economy and Finance (Spanish: Ministro de Economía y Hacienda) is the political post given to the Second Vice President of the Spanish government. ... Pedro Solbes. ... President of the Government José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero First Vice President (2004 - ): María Teresa Fernández de la Vega Second Vice President (2004 - ): Pedro Solbes Minister of Agriculture and Fishing (2004 - ): Elena Espinosa Minister of Culture (2004 - ): Carmen Calvo Minister of Defence (2004 - ): José Bono Minister of Economy... FOTOZP es un servicio especialmente pensado para l@s profesionales de los medios de comunicación. ... FOTOZP es un servicio especialmente pensado para l@s profesionales de los medios de comunicación. ...   (IPA: []) (born August 4, 1960 in Valladolid) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... Mosso dEsquadra in dress uniform Mossos dEsquadra (lit. ... Ertzaintza is the police force of the Basque Country, one of the autonomous communities of Spain. ...


The Government of Spain has been involved in a long-running campaign against Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA), a terrorist organisation founded in 1959 in opposition to Franco and dedicated to promoting Basque independence through violent means. They consider themselves a guerrilla organisation while they are listed as a terrorist organisation by both the European Union and the United States on their respective watchlists. The current nationalist-led Basque Autonomous government does not endorse ETA's nationalist violence, which has caused over 800 deaths. or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is defined as a terrorist organization by the European Union,[1] the United States, and the United Nations but considered by itself as a paramilitary Basque nationalist group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

See also: List of Spanish monarchs and Monarchs of Spain family tree

It has been suggested that Regents: Iberian States be merged into this article or section. ... This is a collection of the family trees of the kingdom of Spain. ...

Spanish Constitution

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ...


The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812. After the death of Francisco Franco in 1975, a general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution. For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Won by a Mr Martin J Hollerwatch of 34 Clackton Road, Cumberbatch-On-Sea (El Partido Malvado - The Evil Party) through a sliding majority poll of fifty to something. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Constituent Cortes (Cortes constituyentes) is the description of the Cortes (Spanish parliament) when convened as a constituent assembly. ...


As a result, Spain is now composed entirely of 17 Autonomous Communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy, to the extent that, even though the Constitution does not formally state that Spain is a federation (nor a unitarian state), Spain has a decentralized system in practice.


Foreign relations of Spain

After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West. After the return of democracy following the death of General Franco in 1975, Spains foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Look up isolation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Motto (Latin) United in diversity Anthem Ode to Joy(orchestral) Commission seat Brussels Official languages 23 Bulgarian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hungarian Irish Italian Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Polish Portuguese Romanian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Member states 27 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia...


As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a major participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...


With the normalization of diplomatic relations with North Korea in 2001, Spain completed the process of universalizing its diplomatic relations. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Spain has maintained its special identification with Latin America. Its policy emphasizes the concept of an Iberoamerican community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of hispanoamericanismo (or hispanism as it is often referred to in English), which has sought to link the Iberian peninsula with Latin America through language, commerce, history and culture. Spain has been an effective example of transition from dictatorship to democracy, as shown in the many trips that Spain's King and Prime Ministers have made to the region. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Politics of Spain takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...


Territorial disputes

Territory claimed by Spain

Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar, a small but strategic British overseas territory or colony near the Strait of Gibraltar. In referendums held in this regard to date, the majority of Gibraltarians have rejected the union with Spain. UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain both EU members to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar of a sovereignty of both countries. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Spanish territories claimed by other countries

Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and some isles plazas de soberanía off the northern coast of Africa. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivença / Olivenza. Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... In addition to its autonomous communities, Spain has five plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty) near Morocco administrated directly by Madrids Government. ... Coordinates 38° 45 N, 5° 07 W Mayor Ramón Rocha Maqueda Area 750 km² Population  - Density 8,274 11. ... Coordinates 38° 45 N, 5° 07 W Mayor Ramón Rocha Maqueda Area 750 km² Population  - Density 8,274 11. ...


Administrative divisions

Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas) and 2 autonomous cities (ciudades autónomas) - Ceuta and Melilla. These autonomous communities are subdivided into 50 provinces (provincias). Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Navarra is the Spanish name for Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa), an ancient kingdom in the Pyrenees, and now a province and an autonomous community in Spain. ... Capital Madrid Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 12th  8,030. ... Capital Logroño Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 16th  5 045 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 17th   301 084  0,7%  59,68/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  riojano/a Statute of Autonomy June 9, 1982 Parliament  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate seats  4  1 President Pedro Sanz... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Capital Valencia Official language(s) Valencian and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Capital Toledo Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 3rd  79,463 km²  15. ... Capital Mérida Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41 634 km²  8,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 12th  1 083 879  2,5%  26,03/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  extremeño/a, castúo Statute of Autonomy February 26, 1983 ISO 3166-2 EX Parliamentary representation... Anthem A Portuguesa Capital (and largest city) Lisbon Official languages Portuguese1 Government Parliamentary democracy  -  President Aníbal Cavaco Silva  -  Prime Minister José Sócrates Formation June 24, 1128   -  Founding of the first County of Portugal 868   -  Battle of São Mamede June 24, 1128   -  Kingdom 25 July 1139   -  Recognized 5... Capital Valladolid Official language(s) Spanish/Castilian Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  94,223 km²  18. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Anthem: Himno de Cantabria Capital Santander Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 15th  5,321 km²  1. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Capital Murcia Official language(s) Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 9th  11,313 km²  2. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise Metropolitan France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Government Unitary republic  -  President Jacques Chirac  -  Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin Formation  -  Celtic Gaul 1200 BC   -  Franks 11 BC   -  Kingdom of France... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... Motto (Latin) Strength United is Stronger Anthem (Catalan) The Great Charlemagne, my Father Andorra(circled in inset) on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Andorra la Vella Official languages Catalan1 Government Parliamentary co-principality  -  French Co-Prince Jacques Chirac  -  Episcopal Co-Prince Joan Enric Vives Sicília  -  Albert Pintat... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Balearic_Islands. ... Image File history File links Bandera_de_Andalucía. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Castilla_y_León. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Bandera_Castilla-La_Mancha. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aragon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Community_of_Madrid. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_La_Rioja_(with_coat_of_arms). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Melilla. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Catalonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ceuta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cantabria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Basque_Country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Galicia. ... Image File history File links Flag of Extremadura File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Navarre. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Asturias. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Canary_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Region_of_Murcia. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... In addition to its seventeen autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... Plazas de soberanía (literally meaning places of sovereignty) is the term that has been historically given to the Spanish possesions in North Africa (as the opposite to what was a protectorate over the North of Morocco). ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... In addition to its seventeen autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ...


Historically, some provinces are also divided into comarcas (roughly equivalent to a US "county" or an English district). The lowest administrative division of Spain is the municipality (municipio). This is a list of the comarques (singular comarca) of Catalonia. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... This is a list of municipalities in Spain by province: Municipalities of Spain. ...

See also: Comarcas of Spain and List of municipalities of Spain

Officially, Spain is subdivided into: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas) and two autonomous cities (ciudades autónomas: Ceuta and Melilla). ... This is a list of municipalities in Spain by province: Municipalities of Spain. ...

Geography

Main article: Geography of Spain

At 194,884 mi² (504,782 km²), Spain is the world's 51st-largest country. It is comparable in size to Turkmenistan, and is somewhat larger than the U.S. state of California. Spain is located in southwestern Europe and comprises about 84 percent of the Iberian Peninsula. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


On the west, Spain borders Portugal, on the south, it borders Gibraltar (a British overseas territory) and Morocco, through its cities in North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla). On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it borders France and the tiny principality of Andorra. Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the strait of Gibraltar, known as Plazas de soberanía, such as the Chafarine islands, the isle of Alborán, the "rocks" (peñones) of Vélez and Alhucemas, and the tiny Isla Perejil. In the northeast along the Pyrenees, a small exclave town called Llívia in Catalonia is surrounded by French territory. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... In addition to its autonomous communities, Spain has five plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty) near Morocco administrated directly by Madrids Government. ... 19th-century Spanish map showing the Chafarinas. Islas Chafarinas are a group of three small islands located in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Morocco, 45 km to the east of Melilla and 3. ... Alborán Island The Isla de Alborán is a small island in the Alborán Sea, part of the western Mediterranean, about 50 kilometres north of the Moroccan coast and 90 kilometres south of the province of Almería, Spain. ... 19th-century Spanish map showing the Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera is one of the Spanish territories on North Africa off the Moroccan coast (Plazas de soberanía), along with the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, the island... 19th-century Spanish map showing the Peñón de Alhucemas Peñón de Alhucemas, or Lavender Rock, is one of the Spanish territories in North Africa off the Moroccan coast, along with the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, the island of Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera... A satellite NASA World Wind caption of Isla Perejil seen as a tiny island (top middle) The Isla Perejil (Parsley Island in English; Arabic: Leila, night , local, i. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Llívia is a town of Cerdagne, located in the Catalan comarca of Baixa Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain, that forms a Spanish exclave surrounded by French territory (Pyrénées-Orientales département). ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ...


Mainland Spain is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada. Running from these heights are several major rivers such as the Tajo, the Ebro, the Duero, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir. Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia. For alternate uses of the term, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Situation of Sierra Nevada in the Iberian Peninsula. ... View over Tejo River from São Jorge Castle in Lisbon (June 2002). ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... View of the river mouth from Portos Crystal Palace Gardens, facing West Douro (Latin Durius, Spanish Duero, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Portugal and Spain, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... Guadiana (Latin Anas, Spanish Guadiana, Portuguese Guadiana) - one of the major rivers of Spain, part of it is the border with Portugal, ends in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Guadalquivir is the second longest river in Spain (after the Tagus). ... An alluvial plain is a relatively flat and gently sloping landform found at the base of a range of hills. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ...


Due to Spain's geographical situation and orographic conditions, the climate is extremely diverse; it can be roughly divided in three areas:

  • The moderate Continental climate takes place in the inland areas of the Peninsula (largest city, Madrid).
  • The Mediterranean climate region, which roughly extends from the Andalusian plain along the southern and eastern coasts up to the Pyrenees, on the seaward side of the mountain ranges that run near the coast (largest city, Barcelona).
  • An Oceanic climate takes place in Galicia and the coastal strip by the Bay of Biscay (largest city, Bilbao). This area is often called Green Spain.

Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... Green Spain is the name given to the strip of land between the Cantabrian Sea and the Cantabrian and Basque mountains in northern Spain. ...

Military of Spain

Main article: Spanish Armed Forces

The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Españolas). Their Commander-in-Chief is the King of Spain, Juan Carlos I. The Spanish Armed Forces consists of the Army, Navy and Air Force. ... US 1979 and 2002 Reissue Cover Also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) was born on January 5, 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King (Rey de España) and head of state of Spain. ...


The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into four branches: The Spanish Armed Forces consists of the Army, Navy and Air Force. ...

The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... The Spanish Air Force (Spanish: Ejército del Aire; literally, Army of the Air) is the air force of Spain. ... Río Nervión patrol boat, in Bilbao. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Spain

According to the World Bank, Spain's economy is the ninth largest worldwide and the fifth largest in Europe. As of 2006, the absolute GDP was valued at $1.084 trillion according to the CIA Factbook, (see List of countries by GDP (nominal)). The per capita PPP is estimated at $27,400 (2006), behind the major industrialized nations of the G7. // What is now the 8th largest economy[1] in the world inherited a regulated economy from Francoism as this started to fade out in 1975. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Torre Agbar in Barcelona. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... ... The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... G7 or G-7 or Group of Seven may be: Group of Seven (G7), a group of seven industrialized nations of the world, formed in 1976 when Canada joined the Group of Six (United States of America, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom); now known as G8 (with Russia) Group...


The centre-right government of former prime minister Aznar worked successfully to admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 7.6% in October 2006, a rate that compares favorably to many other European countries, and which is a marked improvement over rates that exceeded 20% in the early 1990s. Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include high inflation,[28] a large underground economy[29], and an education system, slated in OECD reports, together with the United States and UK, among the poorest for developed countries.[30] Nevertheless, it is expected that the Spanish economy will continue growing based on a bigger strength of the industry, the growth of the global economy and the biggest trade with Latin America and Asia. José María Aznar López (born February 25, 1953) was President of the Government (styled Presidente del Gobierno, i. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This box:      The underground economy or shadow economy consists of all commerce that is not taxed. ...


On the brighter side, the Spanish economy is credited for having avoided the virtual zero growth rate of some of its largest partners in the EU.[31] In fact, the country's economy has created more than half of all the new jobs in the European Union over the five years ending 2005.[32] The Spanish economy has thus been regarded lately as one of the most dynamic within the EU, attracting significant amounts of foreign investment.[33] During the last four decades the Spanish tourism industry has grown to become the second biggest in the world[34] worth approximately 40 billion Euros in 2006[35] More recently, the Spanish economy has benefited greatly from the global real estate boom, with construction representing 16% of GDP and 12% of employment.[34] According to calculations by the German newspaper Die Welt, Spain is on pace to overtake countries like Germany in per capita income by 2011.[36] However, the downside of this has been a corresponding rise in the levels of personal debt; as prospective homeowners struggle to meet asking prices, so the average level of household debt has tripled in less than a decade. Among lower income groups, the median ratio of indebtedness to income was 125% in 2005.[37] The current US property bubble is the United States economic bubble in real estate following the stock market bubble in the 1990s called, among other things, the dot-com bubble. ... Die Welt is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer company. ...


Demography

Main article: Demography of Spain
Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2005
Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2005

In 2007 Spain officially reached 45 million people[38][39] registered at the Padrón municipal, an official record analogous to the British Register office. Spain's population density, at 87.8/km² (220/sq. mile), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution along the country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most populated areas lie around the coast. Spains population density, at 87. ... Image File history File links Population_densities_in_Spain_(2005). ... Image File history File links Population_densities_in_Spain_(2005). ... In England and Wales, The Register Office is primarily the local office for the registration of births, deaths and marriages (BD&M), and for the conducting of civil marriages. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


The population of Spain doubled during the twentieth century, due to the spectacular demographic boom by the 60's and early 70's. The pattern of growth was extremely uneven due to large-scale internal migration from the rural interior to the industrial cities during the 60's and 70's. No fewer than eleven of Spain's fifty provinces saw an absolute decline in population over the century. Then, after the birth rate plunged in the 80's and Spain's population became stalled, a new population increase started based initially in the return of many Spanish who emigrated to other European countries during the 70's and, more recently, it has been boosted by the large figures of foreign immigrants, mostly from Latin America (38.75%), Eastern Europe (16.33%), North Africa (14.99%) and Sub-Saharan Africa (4.08%).[40] In 2005, Spain instituted a 3-month amnesty program through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency. Also some important pockets of population coming from other countries in the European Union are found (20.77% of the foreign residents), specially along the Mediterranean costas and Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or even telework. These are mostly English, French, German, and Dutch from fellow EU countries and, from outside the EU, Norwegian. Telecommuting, telework, or Working From Home (WFH) is a work arrangement in which employees enjoy flexibility in working location and hours (within limits). ...


Immigration in Spain

Main article: Immigration to Spain

According to the Spanish government there were 3.7 million foreign residents in Spain in 2005; independent estimates put the figure at 4.8 million people, or 11% of the total population (Red Cross, World Disasters Report 2006). According to residence permit data for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another 500,000 were Ecuadorian, more than 200,000 were Romanian, and 260,000 were Colombian. Other important foreign communities are British (8.09%), French (8.03%), Argentine (6.10%), German (5.58%) and Bolivian (2.63%). In 2005, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving clandestinely by sea, has caused noticeable social tension. The population of Spain doubled during the twentieth century, due to the spectacular demographic boom by the 60s and early 70s. ...


Based on 2004 figures [41] Within the EU Spain has the second highest immigration rate in percentage terms (after Cyprus), but by a great margin the highest in actual numbers of immigrants.


There are a number of reasons to explain this, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its submerged economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce. Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain has been Europe's largest absorber of migrants for the past six years, with its immigrant population increasing fourfold as 2.8 million people have arrived. According to the Financial Times, Spain is the most favoured destination for West Europeans considering to move from their own country and seek jobs elsewhere in the EU.[1] (see Immigration to Spain). Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The population of Spain doubled during the twentieth century, due to the spectacular demographic boom by the 60s and early 70s. ...


Minority groups

In the 16th century, a famous minority group, the Gitanos (Gypsies), a Roma people group, began to arrive in Spain. Languages Spanish languageCatalan language Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Church Related ethnic groups Spanish people The Roma People (also called Romany or Gypsies) are a diverse ethnic group who until recently lived primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and the Middle East. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies (especially Equatorial Guinea) and immigrants from several Sub-Saharan and Caribbean countries have been recently settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Chinese, Filipino, Middle Eastern, Pakistani and Indian origins; Spaniards of Latin American descent are sizeable as well and a fast growing segment. Other growing groups are Britons (761,000 in 2006), Germans and other immigrants from western and Eastern Europe.[42] Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


After the 19th century, some Jews established themselves in Spain as a result of migration from former Spanish Morocco, escape from Nazi repression, and immigration from Argentina. Spanish law allows Sephardi Jews to claim Spanish citizenship. Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... A right of return is a right, held by members of an ethnic or national group, to assurance of immigration and naturalization into the nation of their homeland. ...


Most populous Urban Regions

  1. Madrid 5,943,041
  2. Barcelona 5,327,872
  3. Valencia 1,623,724
  4. Sevilla 1,317,098
  5. Málaga 1,074,074
  6. Bilbao 946,829
See also: List of cities in Spain

Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Urban Region Situation in Catalonia The population of the Urban Region of Barcelona is 5. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... This article is about the city in Spain. ... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area    - City 385. ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : 43,15° n. ... These are some cities of Spain: La Coruña/A Coruña Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) Alcalá de Los Gazules (Cádiz) Alcobendas (Madrid) Alcorcón (Madrid) Albacete Algeciras (Cádiz) Alicante Almería Almuñécar (Granada) Altea (Alicante) Aranjuez (Madrid) Ávila Avilés (Asturias) Ayamonte (Huelva) Badajoz Badalona (Barcelona...

Identities

The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises historic entities ("nationalities“, a carefully chosen word in order to avoid the more politically loaded "nations") and regions, inside the unity of the Spanish nation. Spain's identity is for some people more an overlap of different regional identities than a sole Spanish identity. Indeed, some of the regional identities may be even in conflict with the Spanish one. Languages Castilian, other Spanish languages and dialects. ... Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian realms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ...


It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or Autonomous Community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.


Languages

Main article: Languages of Spain
The languages of Spain (simplified)      Spanish, official, spoken in all the territory      Catalan and Valencian, co-official, except in La Franja and Carxe      Basque, co-official, in Basque Country and Navarre      Galician, co-official, except in Asturies and Castile and Leon      Asturian, unofficial, but adopted as co-official in some municipalities of Asturies      Aragonese, unofficial      Aranese, co-official (dialect of Occitan)
The languages of Spain (simplified)
     Spanish, official, spoken in all the territory      Catalan and Valencian, co-official, except in La Franja and Carxe      Basque, co-official, in Basque Country and Navarre      Galician, co-official, except in Asturies and Castile and Leon      Asturian, unofficial, but adopted as co-official in some municipalities of Asturies[43]      Aragonese, unofficial      Aranese, co-official (dialect of Occitan)

The Spanish Constitution, although affirming the sovereignty of the Spanish Nation, recognises historical nationalities. The Languages of Spain are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Spain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (814x631, 91 KB) // English Map of the languages of Spain (made from Image:Provinces of Spain (Blank map). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (814x631, 91 KB) // English Map of the languages of Spain (made from Image:Provinces of Spain (Blank map). ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Astur-Leonese is a Romance language group of the West Iberian group, spoken in the Spanish provinces of Asturias (Asturian Language, asturianu, or Bable), León, Zamora and Salamanca (Leonese language, Llïonés). ... Aragonese, IPA: (), is a Romance language now spoken by some 10,000 people over the valleys of the Aragón River, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. ... Aranese (aranés in Occitan/Gascon/Aranese) is a variety of Pyrenean Gascon (a dialect of the Occitan language), spoken in Val dAran, in northwestern Catalonia (Spain), where it is one of the three official languages besides Catalan and Spanish. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ...


Spanish (called both español and castellano in the language itself) is the official language throughout Spain, but other regional languages are also spoken, and are the primary languages in some of their respective geographies. The following languages are, in the territories where they are spoken, co-official with Spanish according to the respective Autonomy Statutes. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws). ...

  • Aranese (aranés)
  • Asturian (asturianu), which has more unofficial dialects as Astur-Leonese in León and Zamora provinces.

Note: Asturian is not co-official in Asturies but the Statute of Autonomy of the Principality of Asturias promote its use[44], and some municipalities of Asturies has declared themselves as co-official places, like the city of Gijón, which changed its name to Gijón/Xixón.[45][46] Aranese (aranés in Occitan/Gascon/Aranese) is a variety of Pyrenean Gascon (a dialect of the Occitan language), spoken in Val dAran, in northwestern Catalonia (Spain), where it is one of the three official languages besides Catalan and Spanish. ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... The Kingdom of Asturias was the first Christian nation to be established in the Iberian peninsula after it was conquered by the Islamic Moors in 711. ... Capital Oviedo Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 10th  10 604 km²  2,1% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 12th  1 056 789  2,5%  99,65/km² Demonym  – English  – Spanish  Asturian  asturiano/a, astur Statute of Autonomy January 11, 1982 ISO... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Asturias Capital Gijón Area  - total  - % of Asturias Ranked 22nd 181. ...

Spain's legacy: a map of the Hispanophone world
Spain's legacy: a map of the Hispanophone world

There are also some other surviving Romance minority languages such as Astur-Leonese, Leonese, Extremaduran, Cantabrian, Aragonese, and others. Unlike Aranese, Basque, Catalan, Valencian and Galician, these do not have any official status because of their very small number of speakers or because of lack of political will in the regions they are spoken[47]. Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 24 KB) Summary Map of Hispanophone world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 24 KB) Summary Map of Hispanophone world. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... Astur-Leonese is a Romance language group of the West Iberian group, spoken in the Spanish provinces of Asturias (Asturian Language, asturianu, or Bable), León, Zamora and Salamanca (Leonese language, Llïonés). ... Leonese (Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain. ... Extremaduran is a Romance language spoken by some thousands in Spain, most of them in the autonomous community of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca. ... Cantabrian language or Mountain language is the name received the language used in the West of Cantabria and some zones of the Valley of Pas and the Valley of Soba, in its Eastern zone. ... Aragonese, IPA: (), is a Romance language now spoken by some 10,000 people over the valleys of the Aragón River, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. ...


In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.


Religion

Main article: Religion in Spain

Although Chapter 2 of the Constitution states that no religion shall have a state character, Roman Catholicism is the main religion in the country. About 76% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, about 2% with another religious faith, and about 19% identify as non-believers or atheists. A study conducted in October 2006 by the Spanish Centre of Sociological Investigations[48] shows that from the 76% of Spaniards who identify as Catholics or other religious faith, 54% hardly ever or never go to church, 15% go to church some times a year, 10% some time per month and 19% every Sunday or multiple times per week. About 22% of the whole Spanish population attend religious services at least once a month. Motto: Plus Ultra (Latin: Further Beyond) Anthem: Marcha Real Capital Madrid Largest city Madrid Official language(s) Spanish1 Government King Pres. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

Evidence of the secular nature of contemporary Spain can be seen in the widespread support for the legalisation of same-sex marriage in Spain — over 66% of Spaniards support gay marriage according to a 2004 study by the Centre of Sociological Investigations.[49] Indeed, in June 2005 a bill was passed by 187 votes to 147 to allow gay marriage, making Spain the third country in the European Union to allow same-sex couples to marry after Belgium and the Netherlands. Cathedral of Santa Eulalia, Barcelona. ... Cathedral of Santa Eulalia, Barcelona. ... Façade of Santa Eulàlia The Cathedral of Santa Eulàlia (also called La Seu) is the Gothic cathedral seat of the catholic Archbishop of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Same-sex marriage in Spain was legalized in 2005. ...


Protestant denominations are also present, all of them with less than 50,000 members. Evangelism has been better received among Gypsies than among the general population; pastors have integrated flamenco music in their liturgy. Taken together, all self-described "Evangelicals" slightly surpass Jehovah's Witnesses (105,000) in number. While not Protestants, about 35,000 residents of Spain are members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ...


The recent waves of immigration have led to an increasing number of Muslims, who have about 1 million members. Muslims had not lived in Spain for centuries; however, colonial expansion in Northern and Western Africa gave some number of residents in the Spanish Morocco and the Sahara Occidental full citizenship. Nowadays, Islam is the second largest religion in Spain, accounting for approximately 3% of the total population. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Official language Arabic - (Spanish is widely spoken) Largest city Al `Uyūn (العيون) - Arabic original El Aaiún - Spanish transliteration Laâyoune - French transliteration Area - Total - % water 266,000 km² Negligible Population - Total - Density 341,000 (July 2005 est. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Along with these waves of immigration, an important number of Latin American people, who are usually strong Catholic practitioners, have helped the Catholic Church to recover.


Judaism was practically non-existent until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 50,000 Jews in Spain, all arrivals in the past century and accounting less than 1% of the total number of inhabitants. Spain is believed to have been about 8% Jewish on the eve of the Spanish Inquisition. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ...

Further information: History of the Jews in Spain

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Culture

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències, Valencia
The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències, Valencia

Spain is a largely mountainous country in the southwest of Europe, consisting of various geographically diverse regions and known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. The Spanish culture has roots in Celtiberian, Latin, Visigothic, Roman Catholicism, in minority way, Islam, and an ongoing tension between the centralized state (dominated in recent centuries by Castile) and numerous regions and minority peoples. In addition, the history of the nation and its Mediterranean and Atlantic environment have played strong roles in shaping its culture. Download high resolution version (1259x785, 815 KB)The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències, Valencia, Spain. ... Download high resolution version (1259x785, 815 KB)The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències, Valencia, Spain. ... LHemisfèric LUmbracle El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe The Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències (Valencian), Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (Spanish) or City of Arts & Sciences is an ensemble of five areas in the dry river bed of the... Spain is a mountainous country in the southwest of Europe, consisting of various geographically diverse regions and known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. ... Pyrénées: Mont Perdu (1997, 1999) — transboundary property, shared with  France Category: ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Spain is, after Italy, the country with the second highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, with a total of 40. Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Education in Spain

Main article: Education in Spain

The framework of Education in Spain is described in this article. State Education in Spain is free and compulsory from 6 to 16 years. The current education system is called LOGSE (Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Spanish Academy

The Real Academia Española (Spanish for "Royal Spanish Academy"; RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in 21 Spanish-speaking nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies. Its emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is Limpia, fija y da esplendor ("It cleans, sets, and gives splendor"). The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...  Countries where Spanish has official status. ... The Association of Spanish Language Academies (Spanish: ) was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish speaking world. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ...


Spanish art

"Las Meninas" by Diego Velázquez, 1656–57
"Las Meninas" by Diego Velázquez, 1656–57
Main article: Spanish art

Spanish art is an important and influential type of art in Europe. Spanish art is the name given to the artistic disciplines and works developed in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish authors world-wide. Due to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. The Moorish heritage in Spain, especially in Andalusia is still evident today in cities like Córdoba, Seville, and Granada. European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods. Download high resolution version (865x985, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (865x985, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Las Meninas (also known as The Maids of Honour), painted in 1656, is a work by the Spanish painter Diego Velázquez. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... Spanish art is an important and influential type of art in Europe. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ...


Spanish literature

Main article: Spanish literature
The Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta
The Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta

Spanish literature is the name given to the literary works written in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish authors world-wide. Due to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and it is very diverse. Some major movements can be identified within it. The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A page from the original codex, starting from line 1922 El Cantar del Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. ... A cantar de gesta is the Spanish version of the Old French chanson de geste. ...


Spanish architecture

Main article: Spanish architecture
The Alhambra. View of the Court of the Lions
The Alhambra. View of the Court of the Lions

Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out during any era in what is now modern-day Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide. The term includes buildings within the current geographical limits of Spain before this name was given to those territories (whether they were called Hispania, Al-Andalus, or were formed of several Christian kingdoms). Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. The Great Mosque of Córdoba Sagrada Familia church, by Gaudí Spanish architecture is the name given to the constructions made in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish architects world-wide. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... General view of the court The Court of the Lions (Spanish: - Arabic: ‎) is the main court of the Nasrid Palace of the Lions. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


For example, Cordoba was established as the cultural Capital of its time under the Umayyad dynasty. Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles, at first mostly isolated from European architectural influences, and later integrated into Romanesque and Gothic streams, they reached an extraordinary peak with numerous samples along the whole territory. The Mudéjar style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was characterised by the blending of cultural European and Arabic influences. Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Teruel: Tower of the Cathedral, one of ten Mudéjar monuments of Aragón that comprise the World Heritage Site The Courtyard of the Dolls in the Alcázar of Seville Tower of the Santa maría church in Calatayud Las Ventas, Madrids Neo-Mudéjar bullfighting ring Mud...


The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced figures such as Gaudí and much of the architecture of the twentieth century. The International style was leaded by groups like GATEPAC. Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Antoni Gaudi Antoni Gaudí i Cornet, in Spanish Antonio Gaudí (25 June 1852–10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect famous for his unique designs expressing sculptural and individualistic qualities. ... The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural trend of the 1920s and 1930s. ... GATEPAC (Grupo de Artistas y Técnicos Españoles Para la Arquitectura Contemporánea) was a group of architects assembled during the Second Spanish Republic. ... Contemporary architecture is the architecture being made at the present time. ... The extension to Atocha Railway Station José Rafael Moneo Vallés (born May 9, 1937) is a Spanish architect. ... Santiago Calatrava Valls (born July 28, 1951) is an internationally recognized and award-winning Spanish architect and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zurich, Switzerland. ... Ricardo Bofill (born December 5, 1939) is a Catalan architect. ...


Music of Spain

Main article: Music of Spain

Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, an Andalusian musical genre, which, contrarily to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music abound in Aragon, Catalonia and Castile. Pop, rock, hip hop and Heavy Metal are also popular. For many people, Spanish music is virtually synonymous with flamenco, an Andalusian genre of music, but is not representative of all country. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ...


Cinema of Spain

Main article: Cinema of Spain

In recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition as a result of its creative and technical excellence. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s. Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Saura, Julio Medem and Alejandro Amenábar. The art of motion-picture making within the nation of Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish Cinema. ... Luis Buñuel Portolés (February 22, 1900 – July 29, 1983) was a Spanish-born filmmaker who worked mainly in Mexico and France, but also in his native country and the United States. ... Perico Almodovar Pedro Almodóvar Caballero (pronounced ) (born September 24, 1949 in Calzada de Calatrava, Spain) is a Spanish film director, screenwriter and producer. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... La casa hechizada (1906) Satán se divierte (1907) El Hotel eléctrico (1908) Segundo Víctor Aurelio Chomón y Ruiz (October 17, 1871 in Teruel - May 2, 1929) was one of the pioneering Spanish film directors of who produced many short films in France. ... Florián Rey (real name Antonio Martínez del Castillo), born at La Almunia de Doña Godina, (Zaragoza), January 25, 1894 - death at Benidorm (Alicante), April 11, 1962 was the most successful Spanish film director in the 20s and 30s. ... Luis García Berlanga (b. ... Carlos Saura (born 4 January 1932, Atarés, Huesca) is a Spanish film director. ... Julio Medem (born 21 October 1958) is a Spanish writer and film director. ... Alejandro Fernando Amenábar Cantos (born March 31, 1972 in Santiago, Chile) is a Spanish film director, widely considered one of the most important Spanish directors working today even though he has directed only four films. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Calamares_tapas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Calamares_tapas. ... Suborders Myopsina Oegopsina Squid are a large, diverse group of marine cephalopods. ...

Spanish cuisine

Main article: Spanish cuisine

Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine with literally thousands of recipes and flavors. Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Sports in Spain

Main article: Sports in Spain

Sport in Spain has been traditionally dominated by football (soccer) (since the early 20th century), cycling and bullfighting (since the 17th century). Today, Spain is a major world sports power, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona and promoted a great variety of sports in the country. The great touristic attraction of the country has caused an improvement of the sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a recreation, a sport and a means of transport across land. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The 92 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Water sport most commonly refers to a sport which is played in the water. ... This article is about the sport. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ...


Public holidays in Spain

Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), national and regional observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), national and regional observances. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The word holiday has related but different meanings in English-speaking countries, with the exception of the United States where usage differs greatly. ...


International rankings

Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ...

Gallery of images

See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This is a list of topics related to Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 409, the history of Medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arian Visigoths (507 – 711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the... Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... The Restoration was the name given to the period that began in December 29, 1874 after the First Spanish Republic ended with the restoration of Alfonso XII to the throne after a coup detat by Martinez Campos, and ended on April 14, 1931 with the proclamation of the Second... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President¹  - 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1937-1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta ¹ Formal... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Politics of Spain takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy, whereby the Monarch is the Head of State and the President of the Government is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Coat of Arms of the King of Spain King of Spain redirects here. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... Political parties in Spain lists political parties in Spain. ... Elections in Spain gives information on election and election results in Spain. ... An ombudsman (English plural: ombudsmans or ombudsmen) is an official, usually (but not always) appointed by the government or by parliament, who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints reported by individual citizens. ... Spain is a democracy with a Constitutional monarch. ... After the return of democracy following the death of General Franco in 1975, Spains foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... In addition to its autonomous communities, Spain has five plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty) near Morocco administrated directly by Madrids Government. ... In addition to its seventeen autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ... Officially, Spain is subdivided into: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas) and two autonomous cities (ciudades autónomas: Ceuta and Melilla). ... This is a list of municipalities in Spain by provinces: Municipalities of Spain. ... This is a list of the extreme points of Spain — the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location. ... The Economic history of Spain covers the development of the Spanish economy over the course of its history. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... Spanish euro coins feature three different designs for each of the three series of coins. ... The Banco de España (Bank of Spain) is the national central bank of Spain. ... Spains population density, at 87. ... Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed by the accretion of several independent Iberian realms through dynastic inheritance, conquest and the will of the local elites. ... Spain is a mountainous country in the southwest of Europe, consisting of various geographically diverse regions and known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. ... The Great Mosque of Córdoba Sagrada Familia church, by Gaudí Spanish architecture is the name given to the constructions made in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish architects world-wide. ... Spanish art is an important and influential type of art in Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spanish cuisine is made of very different kinds of dishes due to the differences in geography, culture and climate. ... Holy Week (Latin: ) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... Falleres in their dresses Traditional Saragüells costume for the men. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre. ... The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. ... Spanish mythology would encompass all the sacred myths of the cultures in the region of Spain. ... Parade of a Christian filà of Moros i Cristians festival in Alcoi (Alacant). ... For many people, Spanish music is virtually synonymous with flamenco, an Andalusian genre of music, but is not representative of all country. ... Bulls running on July 7, 2005, Consistorial Square, Pamplona The festival of San Fermín in the city of Pamplona (Navarre, Basque Country), is a deeply-rooted celebration held annually from noon 6 July, when the opening of the fiesta is marked by setting off the pyrotechnic chupinazo accompanied by... Telephones - main lines in use: 17. ...

References

  1. ^ World Bank World Development Indicators 2007
  2. ^ World Bank World Development Indicators 2007
  3. ^ Rank by nominal GDP: 9 (2006); Rank by GDP per capita: 26 (2006); Rank by GDP at purchasing power parity per capita: 26 (2005).
  4. ^ a b c d e Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). A Country Study: Spain - Hispania. Library of Congress Country Series. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  5. ^ a b c Payne, Stanley G. (1973). A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 1 Ancient Hispania. The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  6. ^ The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system.
  7. ^ The Roman provinces of Hispania included Provincia Hispania Ulterior Baetica (Hispania Baetica), whose capital was Corduba, presently Córdoba, Provincia Hispania Ulterior Lusitania (Hispania Lusitania), whose capital was Emerita Augusta (now Mérida), Provincia Hispania Citerior, whose capital was Tarraco (Tarragona), Provincia Hispania Nova, whose capital was Tingis (Tánger in present Morocco), Provincia Hispania Nova Citerior and Asturiae-Calleciae (these latter two provinces were created and then dissolved in the third century CE).
  8. ^ The poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were also born in Hispania.
  9. ^ This led to the establishment of the Suebi Kingdom in Gallaecia, in the northwest, the Vandal kingdom of Vandalucia (Andalusia) and the Visigothic Kingdom in Toledo.
  10. ^ The Moorish armies continued northwards until they were defeated in central France at the Battle of Tours in 732.
  11. ^ a b c d Payne, Stanley G. (1973). A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 2 Al-Andalus. The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  12. ^ The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the Meseta Central handed to them by the Arab rulers.
  13. ^ It was not until the 12th century that western medieval Christendom began reaching comparable levels of sophistication, and this was due in to a great extent to the stimulus coming from Muslim Spain. [citation needed]
  14. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). A Country Study: Spain - Castile and Aragon. Library of Congress Country Series. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  15. ^ Initially, as the Reconquista advanced south, different religions were respected and several Castilian kings in subsequent years (Ferdinand III, Alfphonse X the Sage, Peter I) named themselves 'king of the three peoples' or 'king of the three religions'. Only rarely mosques and synagogues were converted into churches before 1492, and some areas of Christian Spain had large Muslim and Jewish populations that were a substantial component in the economic activity. However, famed preachers like Vincent Ferrer and Thomas of Villanova illustrate the zeal with which the new dominant Christian religion attempted mass convertions in the occupied teritories. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th centuryCórdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south.<ref>{{cite web | last = Payne | first = Stanley G. | title = A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 4 Castile-León in the Era of the Great Reconquest | publisher = The Library of Iberian Resources Online | date = 1973 | url = http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm | accessdate = 2007-03-11}}</li> <li id="_note-11">'''[[#_ref-11|^]]''' {{cite web | last = Payne | first = Stanley G. | title = A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 5 The Rise of Aragón-Catalonia | publisher = The Library of Iberian Resources Online | date = 1973 | url = http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm | accessdate = 2007-03-11}}</li> <li id="_note-12">'''[[#_ref-12|^]]''' The [[Treaty of Granada]] (''see'' [http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/treaty1492.html The Treaty of Granada, 1492]) guaranteed religious tolerance toward [[Muslim]]s.</li> <li id="_note-13">'''[[#_ref-13|^]]''' [[Moriscos|Muslims were expelled]] in a lengthier process beginning in 1502, and ending as late as 1609-1614.</li> <li id="_note-cong">^ [[#_ref-cong_0|<sup>'''''a'''''</sup>]]&#32;[[#_ref-cong_1|<sup>'''''b'''''</sup>]] {{cite web | last = Rinehart | first = Robert | coauthors = Seeley, Jo Ann Browning | title = A Country Study: Spain - The Golden Age | publisher = Library of Congress Country Series | date = 1998 | url = http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html | accessdate = 2007-03-11}}</li> <li id="_note-14">'''[[#_ref-14|^]]''' {{cite web | last = Payne | first = Stanley G. | title = A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 13 The [[Spanish Empire]] | publisher = The Library of Iberian Resources Online | date = 1973 | url = http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm | accessdate = 2007-03-12}}</li> <li id="_note-15">'''[[#_ref-15|^]]''' {{cite book | last = Thomas | first = Hugh | authorlink = Hugh Thomas | title = Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire | publisher = George Weidenfeld & Nicholson | date = 2003 | location = London | pages = ''passim'' }} </li> <li id="_note-16">'''[[#_ref-16|^]]''' The coastal villages and towns of Spain and [[List of islands in the Mediterranean|Mediterranean islands]] were frequently attacked by [[Barbary pirates]] from North Africa, the [[Formentera]] was even temporarily left by its population and long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants. In [[1514]], [[1515]] and [[1521]] coasts of the [[Balearic Islands]] and the Spanish mainland were raided by infamous [[Turkish people|Turkish]] [[privateer]] and [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] admiral [[Hayreddin Barbarossa]]. According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by [[North African]] pirates and sold as slaves between the 16th and 17th century. These [[Arab slave trade|slaves]] were captured mainly from seaside villages in Spain, [[Italy]] and [[Portugal]].</li> <li id="_note-17">'''[[#_ref-17|^]]''' {{cite web | last = Payne | first = Stanley G. | title = A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 14 Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age | publisher = The Library of Iberian Resources Online | date = 1973 | url = http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm | accessdate = 2007-03-12}}</li> <li id="_note-18">'''[[#_ref-18|^]]''' {{cite web | last = Rinehart | first = Robert | coauthors = Seeley, Jo Ann Browning | title = A Country Study: Spain - Spain in Decline | publisher = Library of Congress Country Series | date = 1998 | url = http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html | accessdate = 2007-03-12}}</li> <li id="_note-19">'''[[#_ref-19|^]]''' {{cite web | last = Rinehart | first = Robert | coauthors = Seeley, Jo Ann Browning | title = A Country Study: Spain - Bourbon Spain | publisher = Library of Congress Country Series | date = 1998 | url = http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html | accessdate = 2007-03-12}}</li> <li id="_note-20">'''[[#_ref-20|^]]''' {{cite web | last = Gascoigne | first = Bamber | title = History of Spain: Bourbon dynasty: from AD 1700 | publisher = Library of Congress Country Series | date = 1998 | url = http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?HistoryID=ab50&ParagraphID=iss#iss | accessdate = 2007-03-12}} </li> <li id="_note-21">'''[[#_ref-21|^]]''' Over a hundred thousand highly motivated Spanish Civil War veterans were to give both sides the benefit of their experience throughout the Second World War in Europe, the Eastern Front and North Africa. Many in the [[French Resistance]] and [[French Foreign Legion]] were Spanish as was the [[French 9th Armoured Company (World War II)|9th Armoured Company]] that spearheaded [[Général Leclerc|Général Leclerc's]] [[French 2nd Division (World War II)|2nd Armoured Division's]] liberation of Paris. On the other side, some 47,000 Spaniards fought against the [[Soviet Union]] in the [[Wehrmacht]]'s ''División Azul'' ([[Blue Division]]).</li> <li id="_note-22">'''[[#_ref-22|^]]''' "[http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/1592/Spain%92s_economy_.html Spain's Economy: Closing the Gap]," in the ''[[OECD]] Observer,'' May 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2007.</li> <li id="_note-23">'''[[#_ref-23|^]]''' [http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=16532 Going Underground: America's Shadow Economy], FrontPage magazine, January 2005</li> <li id="_note-24">'''[[#_ref-24|^]]''' [http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/51/21/37392840.pdf OECD report for 2006]</li> <li id="_note-25">'''[[#_ref-25|^]]''' [http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/ViewHTML.aspx?QueryName=198&QueryType=View&Lang=en OECD figures]</li> <li id="_note-26">'''[[#_ref-26|^]]''' [http://www.guardian.co.uk/spain/article/0,,1830838,00.html Economic statistics]</li> <li id="_note-27">'''[[#_ref-27|^]]''' [http://www.la-moncloa.es/NR/rdonlyres/2E85E75E-E2D9-4148-B1DF-950B06696A6C/74823/Chapter_2.PDF Official report on Spanish recent Macroeconomics, including tables and graphics]</li> <li id="_note-guru">^ [[#_ref-guru_0|<sup>'''''a'''''</sup>]]&#32;[[#_ref-guru_1|<sup>'''''b'''''</sup>]] [http://www.theglobalguru.com/article.php?id=60&offer=GURU001 "Global Guru" analysis]</li> <li id="_note-28">'''[[#_ref-28|^]]''' [http://www.bde.es/informes/be/boleco/coye.pdf Bank of Spain economic report].</li> <li id="_note-29">'''[[#_ref-29|^]]''' [http://www.europeanfoundation.org/docs/id210.pdf]</li> <li id="_note-30">'''[[#_ref-30|^]]''' [http://www.bde.es/informes/be/boleco/2005/be0507e.pdf Bank of Spain Economic Bulletin 07/2005]</li> <li id="_note-31">'''[[#_ref-31|^]]''' http://www.ine.es/prensa/np457.pdf</li> <li id="_note-32">'''[[#_ref-32|^]]''' [http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/poblacion/empadronada/Espana/supera/45/millones/elpepuesp/20070611elpepunac_9/Tes Elpais.com]</li> <li id="_note-33">'''[[#_ref-33|^]]''' [http://www.ine.es/inebase/cgi/axi?AXIS_PATH=/inebase/temas/t20/e245/p04/a2005/l0/&FILE_AXIS=00000010.px&CGI_DEFAULT=/inebase/temas/cgi.opt&COMANDO=SELECCION&CGI_URL=/inebase/cgi/ Instituto Nacional de Estadística]</li> <li id="_note-34">'''[[#_ref-34|^]]''' [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-NK-06-001/EN/KS-NK-06-001-EN.PDF Eurostat - Population in Europe in 2005]</li> <li id="_note-35">'''[[#_ref-35|^]]''' [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6161705.stm Immigration statistics].</li> <li id="_note-36">'''[[#_ref-36|^]]''' http://www.etsimo.uniovi.es/bopa/2006/10/19022_02.htm#</li> <li id="_note-37">'''[[#_ref-37|^]]''' http://www.jgpa.es/portal.do?TR=C&IDR=45</li> <li id="_note-38">'''[[#_ref-38|^]]''' [http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toponimia_asturiana#Ejemplos_de_nuevos_top.C3.B3nimos_oficiales New place names of some Asturian municipalities. They come from Asturian language traditional names]</li> <li id="_note-39">'''[[#_ref-39|^]]''' http://www.gijon.es/Contenido.aspx?area=110&leng=es&id=32326</li> <li id="_note-40">'''[[#_ref-40|^]]''' [http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_country.asp?name=Spain Ethnologue report of Spain] and [http://www.proel.org/lenguas2.html map from Proel.org]</li> <li id="_note-41">'''[[#_ref-41|^]]''' [http://mas.lne.es/documentos/archivos/20-11-06-cis.pdf Centre of Sociological Investigations, questions 32 and 32a]</li> <li id="_note-42">'''[[#_ref-42|^]]''' [http://www.cis.es/ Centre of Sociological Investigations]</li> <li id="_note-43">'''[[#_ref-43|^]]''' [http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=17496&Valider=OK/ Reporters Without Borders points out problems with free press in Spain due to ETA's threats and violence, 2006]</li> <li id="_note-44">'''[[#_ref-44|^]]''' [http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf Worldwide Quality-of-Life Index, 2005] ''The Economist''.</li> <li id="_note-45">'''[[#_ref-45|^]]''' [http://www.nationmaster.com/graph-T/eco_eco_imp Nation Master's country ranking by economic importance].</li> <li id="_note-46">'''[[#_ref-46|^]]''' [http://www.nationmaster.com/graph-T/eco_tec_ach Nation Master's country ranking by technological achievement].</li></ol></ref>

Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Latifundia are pieces of landed property covering tremendous areas. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Roman province of Lusitania, 120 AD Lusitania, an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal and part of western current Spain (specifically the present autonomous community Extremadura), named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people. ... Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ... Tarraco was the ancient name of the city of Tarragone, in Spain, on the Mediterranean. ... ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Unknown, possibly 20,000 to 30,000 [1] Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[2] mention a figure of 80,000. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spain is located in southwestern Europe and comprises about 84 percent of the Iberian Peninsula. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ferdinand III can refer: Ferdinand III of Castile, the Saint (1199-1252, king from 1217) Ferdinand III of Naples (1452-1516, king from 1504) (= Ferdinand V of Castile 1474-1504) (= Ferdinand II of Aragon from 1479 and of Sicily from 1468) Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1608-1657, emperor from... Peter I may mean: Peter I of Russia Peter I of Bulgaria Peter I of Serbia Peter I (the Cruel) of Castile Peter I of Cyprus Peter I of Portugal Peter I of Brazil (after, crowned as Pedro IV of Portugal) Peter I, Duke of Bourbon Peter I, Duke of... Saint Vincent Ferrer Saint Vincent Ferrer, (In Valencian Sant Vicent Ferrer) (January 23, 1350 – April 5, 1419) was a Valencian Dominican missionary and logician; born in Valencia, Kingdom of Valencia (modern day Land of Valencia, Spain). ... St. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ...

Further reading

  • Thomas, Hugh (2003). Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 978-0297645634. 
  • John Hickman and Chris Little, "Seat/Vote Proportionality in Romanian and Spanish Parliamentary Elections", Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans Volume 2, Number 2, November 2000.
  • Harold Raley, "The Spirit of Spain", Houston: Halcyon Press 2001. (ISBN 0-9706054-9-8)
  • George Orwell's Homage to Catalonia.

Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (born October 21, 1931 in Windsor), is a British historian. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Homage to Catalonia book cover Homage to Catalonia is George Orwells personal account of the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ...

External links

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Government

  • La Constitucion — Spanish Constitution
  • Casa Real.es – Official site of the Spanish Royal Family
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  • El Senado – Official site of the Senate
  • Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • (Spanish) INEBase — National Institute of Statistics
  • Agencia Estatal de Administración Tributaria — State Tax Administration Agency

Tourism

Other

  • History of Spain: Primary Documents
  • Chronology Spain
  • Proel.org — Languages of Spain
Geographic locale
International membership

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spain tourism: Spain tourist info for your travel to Spain. (266 words)
Spain tourism: Spain tourist info for your travel to Spain.
From the colourful façades of the buildings on the Onyar River, to the streets of the old Jewish quarter, to the Moorish baths and the monumental steps of the Cathedral, this destination in north-eastern Spain is brimming with nooks and crannies for you to discover.
This is the route planned by the Romans centuries ago to join northern and southern Spain.
Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7993 words)
Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales.
Spain is bound to the east by Mediterranean Sea (containing the Balearic Islands), to the north by the Bay of Biscay and to its west by the Atlantic Ocean, where the Canary Islands off the African coast are found.
Spain became a unified crown with the union of Castile and Aragon and the conquest of Granada in January 1492, and the annexation of Navarre in 1515.
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