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Encyclopedia > Space warfare
War

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

Military History

War Portal   v  d  e 

Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. Technically as a distinct classification, it refers to battles where the targets themselves are in space. Space warfare therefore includes ground-to-space warfare, such as attacking satellites from the Earth, as well as space-to-space warfare, such as satellites attacking satellites. It does not include space-to-ground warfare, where orbital objects attack ground, sea or air targets directly, or the use of satellites for espionage, surveillance, or military communications. A film was produced by the U.S. Military in the early 1960s called Space and National Security which depicted space warfare. [1] Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... Military communications are links between battlefield units, including connections to a higher command or home country. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ...


From 1985 to 2002 there was a United States Space Command, which in 2002 merged with the United States Strategic Command. There is a Russian Space Force, which was established on August 10, 1992, and which became an independent section of the Russian military on June 1, 2001. The United States Air Force Space Command (USAFSPC or AFSPC) is a major command of the U.S. Air Force with headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. ... United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) is one of the nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Military of Russia | Russia-related stubs ...


Only a few incidents of space warfare have occurred in world history, and all were training missions, as opposed to actions against real opposing forces. In the mid-1980s a USAF pilot in an F-15 successfully shot down a retired communications satellite in a 345 mile (555 km) orbit. In 2007 the People's Republic of China used a missile system to destroy one of its obsolete satellites (see 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test), and in 2008 the United States similarly destroyed its malfunctioning satellite USA 193. Seal of the Air Force. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... Wikinews has related news: China shoots down weather satellite with ballistic missile The 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test was conducted by China on January 11, 2007. ...


International treaties governing space limit or regulate conflicts in space and limit the installation of weapon systems, especially nuclear weapons. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...

Contents

History

An ASAT (anti-satellite) missile being launched in 1985.
An ASAT (anti-satellite) missile being launched in 1985.

Early efforts to conduct space warfare were directed at space-to-space warfare, as ground-to-space systems were considered to be too slow and too isolated by Earth's atmosphere to be effective. The history of active space warfare development goes back to the 1960s when the Soviet Union began the Almaz project, a project designed to give them the ability to do on-orbit inspections of satellites and destroy them if needed. Similar planning in the United States took the form of the Blue Gemini project, which consisted of modified Gemini capsules that would be able to deploy weapons and perform surveillance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (793x1050, 591 KB) U.S. ASAT (Anti-satellite) missile launch on Sep. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (793x1050, 591 KB) U.S. ASAT (Anti-satellite) missile launch on Sep. ... --69. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... Gemini B spacecraft intended for the MOL program. ...


One early test of electronic space warfare took place in 1963 when the United States exploded a ground-launched nuclear weapon in space to test the effects of an electromagnetic pulse. The result was a deactivation of many then-orbiting satellites, both American and Soviet. The deleterious and unfocused effects of the EMP test led to the banning of nuclear weapons in space in the Outer Space Treaty of 1968. (See High altitude nuclear explosion.) The term electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has the following meanings: electromagnetic radiation from an explosion (especially a nuclear explosion) or an intensely fluctuating magnetic field caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in the materials of the electronic or explosive device or in a surrounding medium. ... // The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies also known as the Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three... Bluegill Triple Prime shot, 1962, altitude 31 miles High altitude nuclear explosions have historically been nuclear explosions which take place outside the Earths atmosphere. ...


Through the 1970s, the Soviet Union continued their project and test-fired a cannon to test space station defense. This was considered too dangerous to do with a crew on board, however, so the test was conducted after the crew had returned to Earth.


Space warfare strongly influenced the final design of the United States Space Shuttle. The distinctive delta wing shape was needed if the shuttle were to launch a military payload towards the Soviet Union and perform an immediate de-orbit after one rotation to avoid being shot down.[2][verification needed] This article is about the space vehicle. ... The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. ...


Both the Soviets and the United States developed anti-satellite weaponry designed to shoot down satellites. While early efforts paralleled other space-to-space warfare concepts, the United States was able in the 1980s to develop ground-to-space laser anti-satellite weapons. None of these systems is known to be active today; however, a less powerful civilian version of the ground-to-space laser system is commonly used in the astronomical technique of adaptive optics. China successfully tested a ballistic missile-launched anti-satellite weapon on January 11, 2007 (see: 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test). This resulted in harsh criticism from the United States of America, Britain, and Japan. --69. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... Wikinews has related news: China shoots down weather satellite with ballistic missile The 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test was conducted by China on January 11, 2007. ...


Theoretical space weaponry

In the late 1970s and through the 1980s the Soviet Union and the United States theorized, designed and in some cases even tested an astonishing variety of bizarre and exotic weaponry designed for warfare in outer space. Space warfare was seen primarily as an extension of nuclear warfare, and so theoretical systems were based around the destruction or defense of ground and sea-based missiles. Space-based missiles were not a target due to the Outer Space Treaty, which banned the use, testing of or storage of nuclear weapons outside the Earth's atmosphere. Systems proposed ranged from measures as simple as ground and space-based anti-missiles to railguns, space based lasers, orbital mines and other such futuristic weaponry. Deployment of these systems was seriously considered in the mid-1980s under the banner of the Strategic Defense Initiative (popularly known as Star Wars). If the Cold War had continued, then many of these systems could have seen deployment: the United States got as far as developing working railguns, and a laser that could destroy missiles at range, though the power requirements of both were phenomenal, and the ranges and firing cycles utterly impractical. The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Missile. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For railroad artillery, see railway gun. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Currently, military operations in space primarily concern the vast tactical advantages of surveillance, communications, and GPS satellites. Accordingly, most proposed space borne weapons are designed to jam, sabotage, and outright destroy enemy satellites, and conversely to protect friendly satellites against such attacks. To this end, the US (and presumably other countries) are researching groups of small, highly mobile satellites called "microsats" (about the size of a refrigerator) and "picosats" (approximately 1 cubic foot (≈900 cm^3) in volume) nimble enough to maneuver around and interact with other orbiting objects (for repairs/sabotage, or simply to crash into them). For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ...


Kinetic bombardment entails a pair of satellites- a 'spotter' targets an enemy 'hard target' (such as a bunker) from orbit with high-power sensors, then directs a nearby 'magazine' to de-orbit a long, needle-like tungsten dart onto it with a small rocket motor. Despite the lack of an explosive payload, the kinetic energy of such a collision would obliterate just about anything far more effectively than any other armor-piercing munition. A kinetic bombardment is the act of attacking a planetary surface with an inert projectile, where the destructive force comes from the kinetic energy of the projectile impacting at very high velocities. ...


Practical considerations

Space warfare that involves humans being deployed in space to fight each other is not currently practical because of the difficulty and cost of sustaining human life in space, especially over long periods of time, since human adaptation to space is difficult. Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... Human physiological adaptation to the conditions of space is a challenge faced in the development of human spaceflight. ...


Possible warfare over satellites

Most of the world communications systems rely heavily on the presence of satellites in orbit around Earth. Warfare in space might become a serious consideration to protect these assets, especially in conflicts involving advanced countries with access to space.


Possible future resource conflicts in space

No infrastructure or economic interests exist at the moment to warrant the occupation of terrain on other terrestrial bodies within the Solar system, or to occupy orbital trajectories in outer space. Some futurists, however, have predicted that when fusion power is perfected, there will be a race between the major powers of Earth that are space-faring nations to control the Helium 3 resources in the south polar region of the Moon. Russia has already stated its intention of developing this resource, and the Chinese lunar mission is scheduled to land in that area in 2024. The inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their sizes to scale. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other meanings of this term, see Futurists (disambiguation). ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... A major power is a country or political entity that cannot be regarded as a superpower, but nevertheless plays an important role in the world. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space. ... This article is about the elemental isotope. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The space program of the Peoples Republic of China was initiated at the behest of the Central Military Commission for fulfilling national needs. ...


Space warfare in fiction

Space Warfare is a topic often touched upon in science fiction, with a wide range of realism and plausibility, from stories based on anticipated future technology and tactics, to fantasy or historically based scenarios that happen to take place in a science-fiction background. Some science fiction scenarios depict a future Space Force with military ranks like the Air Force, whereas other science fiction scenarios, depict a Space Navy with military ranks like the Navy (an example is the Starfleet of the United Federation of Planets). This does not cite its references or sources. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... Naval redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The United Federation of Planets, (also known as the UFP or The Federation) is a fictional interplanetary state depicted in the Star Trek television series and motion pictures. ...


Both kinetic energy and directed energy weapons are often portrayed, along with various military space vessels. The Lensman series by E. E. Smith is an early example, which also inspired the term Space Opera due to the grandiose scales of the stories. The Ender's Game series by Orson Scott Card is a notable example in that it makes conjecture as to what sort of tactics and training would be required for war in outer space. Other science fiction authors have also delved into the tactics of space combat, such as David Weber and his Honorverse series of novels and short stories. The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... Directed Energy Weapons fire a beam transferring energy to a target for a desired effect. ... The Lensman series is a serial science fiction space opera by E. E. Smith. ... This article is about the author. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... Book one in the Enders Game series The Enders Game Series (or simply Ender Series) is a series of science fiction books by Orson Scott Card, started with the short story Enders Game, which was later expanded into the novel Enders Game. ... Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951)[1] is a bestselling American author, as well as being a critic, political writer, and speaker. ... Honor Harrington from Honor Among Enemies cover, by David Mattingly. ... Map of the Honorverse. ...


Moonraker also contains space warfare, when the United States is able to deploy a contingent of Space Marines against Drax's space station. The marines are armed with lasers that melt their targets, and are particularly ineffective. For the James Bond film and other uses of the term, see, see Moonraker (disambiguation). ...


In Star Trek, for example, there are many planets and races fighting against each other, using "phaser" weapons and both large and small spacecraft. This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ...


Other popular examples come from movies like Star Wars, television series such as Babylon 5, Firefly, or Battlestar Galactica, and anime such as the Gundam and Macross series. Also, there are many video games involving space combat, like Homeworld or Sins of a Solar Empire. This article is about the series. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Firefly is an American science fiction television series created by writer/director Joss Whedon, creator of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel, under his Mutant Enemy Productions. ... This article is about all the media that use the name Battlestar Galactica. ... Animé redirects here. ... This article is about the anime series. ... The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (Japanese: 超時空要塞マクロス, Chou Jikuu Yousai Macross) is an anime television series. ... This article is about the computer game named Homeworld. ... Sins of a Solar Empire is a science fiction real-time strategy computer game developed by Ironclad Games for Windows XP and Vista and published by Stardock Entertainment in February 2008. ...


References

  1. ^ PBS Nova Program “Astrospies” , Broadcast February 12, 2008:
  2. ^ Draper, Alfred C.; Buck, Melvin L.; and Goesch, William H. "A Delta Shuttle Orbiter." Astronautics & Aeronautics. 9 (January 1971): 26-35.

Further reading

  • Hobbes, D (1986) "An Illustrated Guide to Space Warfare" Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 0-86101-204-6
  • Macvey, John W. Space Weapons, Space War New York:1979 Stein and Day (written by a professional astronomer)

Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ...

See also

Joint Functional Component Command for Space and Global Strike (JFCC SGS) is a component of the United States Strategic Command. ... ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orbital weaponry is any weapon that is in orbit around a large body such as a planet or moon. ... Space weapons are weapons that (1) can attack and negate the capability of space systems in orbit (anti-satellite weapon); (2) can attack targets on the earth (ex. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Space warfare - Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki (2697 words)
Space warfare was the use of military starships and other spacecraft for the purposes of warfare across star systems and the galaxy.
Evolving from water navy engagements and in turn the earliest orbital battles, space warfare became a high technology affair that often defined the outcome of the galaxy's most important conflicts.
Space warfare was inspired by and heavily based on aquatic and aerial engagements using surface and sub-surface warships, and atmospheric fighters, respectively.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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