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Encyclopedia > Space station

A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. So far only low earth orbit (LEO) stations are implemented, also known as orbital stations. A space station is distinguished from other manned spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities — instead, other vehicles are used as transport to and from the station. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years. The only space station currently in use is the International Space Station. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2002 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2002 pixels, file size: 1. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites. ... MyTravel Airways Airbus A320 landing Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... For more details on each day of the week, see days of the week. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... “ISS” redirects here. ...


Space stations are currently (as of 2007) used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body as well as to provide platforms for greater number and length of scientific studies than available on other space vehicles. Since the ill-fated flight of Soyuz 11 to Salyut 1, all manned spaceflight duration records have been set aboard space stations. The duration record of 437.7 days was set by Valeriy Polyakov aboard Mir from 1994 to 1995. As of 2006, three astronauts have completed single missions of over a year, all aboard Mir. Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... Valeriy Vladimirovich Polyakov (Russian: , Valeriy Vladmirovič Poljakov) (born April 27, 1942) is the Russian cosmonaut holding the record for the longest spaceflight in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months during one trip. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Uses

Space stations have been used for both military and civilian purposes. The last military-use space station was Salyut 5, which was used by the Almaz program of the Soviet Union in 1976 and 1977.[1] Salyut 5 was launched on June 22, 1976 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Proton 8K82K rocket. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ...


Types of space station

"Monolithic"

Broadly speaking, the space stations so far launched have been of two types; the earlier stations, Salyut and Skylab, have been "monolithic", intended to be constructed and launched in one piece, and then manned by a crew later. As such, they generally contained all their supplies and experimental equipment when launched, and were considered "expended", and then abandoned, when these were used up. The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ...


Starting with Salyut 6 and Salyut 7, a change was seen; these were built with two docking ports, which allowed a second crew to visit, bringing a new spacecraft (for technical reasons, a Soyuz capsule cannot spend more than a few months in orbit, even powered down, safely) with them. This allowed for a crew to man the station continually. Skylab was also equipped with two docking ports, like second-generation stations, but the extra port was never utilized. The presence of a second port on the new stations allowed Progress supply vehicles to be docked to the station, meaning that fresh supplies could be brought to aid long-duration missions. This concept was expanded on Salyut 7, which "hard docked" with a TKS tug shortly before it was abandoned; this served as a proof-of-concept for the use of modular space stations. The later Salyuts may reasonably be seen as a transition between the two groups. Salyut 6 was a Soviet space station launched on September 29, 1977. ... Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ...


Modular

The second group, Mir and the ISS, have been modular; a core unit was launched, and additional modules, generally with a specific role, were later added to that. (On Mir they were usually launched independently, whereas on the ISS most are brought by the Shuttle). This method allows for greater flexibility in operation, as well as removing the need for a single immensely powerful launch vehicle. These stations are also designed from the outset to have their supplies provided by logistical support, which allows for a longer lifetime at the cost of requiring regular support launches. For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ...


Habitability issues

These stations have various issues that limit their long-term habitability, such as very low recycling rates, relatively high radiation levels and a lack of gravity. Some of these problems cause discomfort and long-term health effects. In the case of solar flares, all current habitats are protected by the Earth's magnetic field, and are below the Van Allen belts. Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ...


Future space habitats may attempt to address these issues, and are intended for long-term occupation. Some designs might even accommodate large numbers of people, essentially "cities in space" where people would make their homes. No such design has yet been constructed, because even for a small station, the extra equipment is too expensive to place in orbit at current (2007) launch costs. A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...


Possible ways to deal with these costs would be building lots of rockets (economies of scale), reusable rockets, In Situ Resource Utilisation or if space elevators are ever able to be constructed. ISRU Reverse Water Gas Shift Testbed (NASA KSC). ... A space elevator would consist of a cable anchored to the Earths surface, reaching into space. ...


Past and present space stations

(dates refer to periods when stations were inhabited by crews)

  • Salyut space stations (USSR, 1971-1986)
    • Salyut 1 (1971, 1 crew and 1 failed docking)
    • DOS-2 (1972, launch failure)
    • Salyut 2/Almaz (1973, failed shortly after launch)
    • Cosmos 557 (1973, re-entered eleven days after launch)
    • Salyut 3/Almaz (1974, 1 crew and 1 failed docking)
    • Salyut 4 (1975, 2 crews)
    • Salyut 5/Almaz (1976-1977, 2 crews and 1 failed docking)
    • Salyut 6 (1977-1981, 16 crews (5 long duration, 11 short duration and 1 failed docking)
    • Salyut 7 (1982-1986, 10 crews (6 long duration, 4 short duration and 1 failed docking)
  • Skylab space station (USA, 1973-1974, 3 crews)

Following the controlled deorbiting of Mir in 2001, the International Space Station is the only one of these currently in orbit; it has been continuously occupied since October 30, 2000. As of 9 September 2006, it was 44.5 metres (146 ft) in length along the core between the Destiny and Zvezda modules or 52 metres (171 ft) long when a Progress is attached, and has a mass of 183.3 metric tons (202.1 short tons). The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... Salyut 2 was launched April 4, 1973. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... The Salyut space station that Almaz had substituted for, designated DOS 3, was launched on May 11, 1973, three days before the launch of Skylab. ... Salyut 3 was launched on June 25, 1974. ... Salyut 4 (DOS 4) was a Salyut space station launched on December 26, 1974 into an orbit with an apogee of 355 km, a perigee of 343 km and an orbital inclination of 51. ... Salyut 5 was launched on June 22, 1976 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Proton 8K82K rocket. ... Salyut 6 was a Soviet space station launched on September 29, 1977. ... Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... Categories: Mir ... “ISS” redirects here. ... This is a list of a permanent crews assigned to the International Space Station. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


List of occupied space stations, with statistics

Space station Image Launched Reentered Days in use Total crew
and visitors
Visits Mass
(kg)
In orbit Occupied Manned Unmanned
Salyut 1 Apr 19, 1971
01:40:00 UTC
Oct 11, 1971 175 24 3 2 0 18,425
Skylab May 14, 1973
17:30:00 UTC
Jul 11, 1979
16:37:00 UTC
2,249 171 9 3 0 77,088
Salyut 3 Jun 25, 1974
22:38:00 UTC
Jan 24, 1975 213 15 2 1 0 18,500
Salyut 4 Dec 26, 1974
04:15:00 UTC
Feb 3, 1977 770 92 4 2 1 18,500
Salyut 5 Jun 22, 1976
18:04:00 UTC
Aug 8, 1977 412 67 4 2 0 19,000
Salyut 6 Sep 29, 1977
06:50:00 UTC
Jul 29, 1982 1,764 683 33 16 14 19,000
Salyut 7 Apr 19, 1982
19:45:00 UTC
Feb 7, 1991 3,216 816 26 12 15 19,000
Mir Feb 19, 1986
21:28:23 UTC
Mar 23, 2001
05:50:00 UTC
5,511 4,594 137 39 68 124,340
ISS Nov 20, 1998 Currently in orbit
Projected 2016
**2,898 **2,185 ***153 ***32 ***25 **206,040 (454,240 lb)

Crew and visitors counting is non-distinct. “Kg” redirects here. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (1500x1553, 2236 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Salyut 3 was launched on June 25, 1974. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1832x1472, 83 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Space station Salyut 3 ... Salyut 4 (DOS 4) was a Salyut space station launched on December 26, 1974 into an orbit with an apogee of 355 km, a perigee of 343 km and an orbital inclination of 51. ... Image File history File links Salyut-4_diagram. ... Salyut 5 was launched on June 22, 1976 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Proton 8K82K rocket. ... Image File history File links Almaz_station_with_Soyuz. ... Salyut 6 was a Soviet space station launched on September 29, 1977. ... Image File history File links Salyut6_with_two_docked_spacecrafts. ... Salyut 7 was launched on April 19, 1982, the last of the Salyut space station program. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 427 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (638 × 896 pixels, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 626 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 2010 pixel, file size: 3. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2002 pixels, file size: 1. ...

  • **ISS stats as of October 27, 2006.
  • ***ISS stats as of October 27, 2006.19 shuttles, 13 Soyuz, 1 Soyuz - Assembly, 22 Progress, 2 Proton and Pirs

is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Canceled space stations

Gemini B reentry module separates from the MOL. 1967 conceptual drawing using Gemini reentry spacecraft. (USAF)
Gemini B reentry module separates from the MOL. 1967 conceptual drawing using Gemini reentry spacecraft. (USAF)
Space Station Freedom Concept (1984)
Space Station Freedom Concept (1984)
  • A second Skylab unit (Skylab B) was manufactured, as a backup article; due to the high costs of providing launch vehicles, and a desire by NASA to cease Saturn and Apollo operations in time to prepare for the Space Shuttle coming into service, it was never flown. The hull can now be seen in the National Air and Space Museum, in Washington DC, where it is a popular tourist attraction.
  • A number of additional Salyuts were produced, as backups or as flight articles that were later canceled.
  • The U.S. Space Station Freedom program, which - despite being under development for ten years - was never launched, evolved into the International Space Station
  • The Soviet/Russian Mir-2 station, which was never constructed, had some of its elements incorporated into the International Space Station.
  • The Industrial Space Facility was a station proposed in the 1980s that was to be privately funded. The project was canceled when the company created to build it, Space Industries Incorporated, was unable to secure funding from the United States government.[2]
  • United States Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory project, canceled in 1969 about a year before the first planned test flight; this was unusual in being an explicitly military project, as opposed to the Soviet Almaz program, which was heavily intertwined with - and concealed by - the contemporaneous Salyut program.
  • The European Columbus project planned to create a small space station serviced by the Hermes shuttle. It evolved into the ISS Columbus module.

USAF MOL Diagram. ... USAF MOL Diagram. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixels Full resolution (576 × 733 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is an artists conception of the proposed Power Tower space station configuration, shown with the Japanese Experiment Module attached. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixels Full resolution (576 × 733 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is an artists conception of the proposed Power Tower space station configuration, shown with the Japanese Experiment Module attached. ... The original Skylab space station. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... National Air and Space Museum exterior The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the Smithsonian Institution is a museum in Washington, D.C., United States, and is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Space Industries Incorporated was a company formed in the 1980s for the purpose of building a privately owned space station, which was to be called the Industrial Space Facility (ISF). ... Space Industries Incorporated was a company formed in the 1980s for the purpose of building a privately owned space station, which was to be called the Industrial Space Facility (ISF). ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... Artists impression of the Hermes Shuttle A cutaway view of the Hermes Shuttle Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the European Space Agency which was superficially similar to the US X-20. ... Computer generated model of Columbus on the station Columbus at Kennedy Space Center Columbus is a science laboratory designed to be a part of the International Space Station (ISS). ...

Future developments

  • Currently, Bigelow Aerospace is developing commercial inflatable habitat modules, derived from the earlier NASA Transhab concept, intended to be used for space station construction and for a space prize they are funding and operating, America's Space Prize. Genesis I and Genesis II are ⅓-scale unmanned prototype modules orbited to test the feasibility of inflatable structures and other systems in space. Future modules include the Galaxy, Sundancer and BA 330, each being progressively larger and more complicated, with the BA 330 intended as the full-scale manned production model for Bigelow's expandable space habitation module program.
  • Project 921-2 is the working name given by the People's Republic of China for plans to create a manned space station by 2012.

Bigelow Aerospace is a North Las Vegas, Nevada space technology startup company that is pioneering work on expandable space station modules. ... A cut away view of a Transhab concept. ... The Americas Space Prize Logo Americas Space Prize is a US$50 million orbital spaceflight competition established and funded by hotel entrepreneur Robert Bigelow. ... Genesis I is an experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace and launched in 2006. ... Genesis II is the second experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace. ... Galaxy is the second phase of a technology demonstration program currently underway by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace as a follow on to the Genesis-class vehicles. ... A revolutionary yacht designed and built by Len Last in Exeter in 1971. ... A photograph of a full-size mock up of the expanded BA 330 module on the ground at Bigelow Aerospaces North Las Vegas plant, to give an impression of its size. ... The first model of a planned Chinese space station, unveiled in 2000 Project 921-2 is the working name given by the Peoples Republic of China in 1992 for plans to create a manned space station. ...

References

  1. ^ Russian Space Stations (wikisource)
  2. ^ Kaplan, David. "Space station idea was far-out at the time", Houston Chronicle, August 25, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. 

The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

A lunar space elevator (also called a moonstalk) is a proposed cable running from the surface of the Moon into space. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... Space stations are an important element in popular culture. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ... A list of private companies offering or planning manned spaceflights for space tourism. ... Bigelow Aerospace is a North Las Vegas, Nevada space technology startup company that is pioneering work on expandable space station modules. ... Blue Origin is a privately-funded aerospace company initially focused on sub-orbital spaceflight founded in 2000. ... Mock-up of the vehicle at Paris Air Show 2007 The EADS Astrium Space Tourism Project, also called EADS Astrium TBN according to some sources[1], has been officially unveiled in Paris by EADS Astrium, the space subsidiary of the French-German consortium EADS, on June 13, 2007. ... Rocketplane Limited, Inc. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled), formerly the Rutan Aircraft Factory, is located at the Mojave Spaceport, Mojave, California, United States and is headed by aircraft designer Burt Rutan. ... The Spaceship Company is a spacecraft manufacturing company formed by Burt Rutan and Richard Branson, jointly owned by Virgin Group and Scaled Composites, which will own the techology created by Scaled for Virgin Galctics Virgin SpaceShip program. ... Virgin Galactic is a company within Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Group, which plans to offer sub-orbital spaceflights and later orbital spaceflights to the paying public. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x993, 1709 KB) Summary Uploaded by Johntex NASA Center: Johnson Space Center Image # : 51A-104-049 Date : 11/14/1984 Title Satellites For Sale Full Description Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity... ARCA logo Asociatia Romana pentru Cosmonautica si Aeronautica (ARCA) or Cosmonautics and Aeronautics Romanian Association is a non-governmental organization that promotes aerospace projects as well as other space-related activities. ... LiftPort Group is a privately-held Washington State corporation with headquarters in Bremerton, Washington. ... The Personal Spaceflight Federation is a private spaceflight industry group. ... The Space Tourism Society (STS) is a new not-for-profit society specifically focused on space tourism based in USA. STS have chapters in Japan, Norway, and the United Kingdom. ... AAA logo The Association of Autonomous Astronauts is a world-wide network of community based groups dedicated to building their own spaceships. ... Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOnes patch The Scaled Composites Model 316 SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched suborbital spaceplane that uses a hybrid rocket motor. ... Genesis I is an experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace and launched in 2006. ... Genesis II is the second experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... Commercialization of space is the use of outer space for the purpose of generating a profit, either by a corporation or state. ... A suborbital spaceplane is a spaceplane designed specifically for sub-orbital spaceflight. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction. ... For other uses, see X Prize (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Space Stations
  • Space Station Newsgroup - sci.space.station
  • List of Science Fiction Space Stations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: State space (controls) (2320 words)
In control engineering, a state space representation is a mathematical model of a physical system as a set of input, output and state variables related by first-order differential equations.
To abstract from the number of inputs, outputs and states, the variables are expressed as vectors and the differential and algebraic equations are written in matrix form.
In electronic systems, the number of state variables is the same as the number of energy storage elements in the circuit (capacitors and inductors).
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