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Encyclopedia > Space shuttle
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle Discovery launches at the start of STS-120.
Space Shuttle Discovery launches at the start of STS-120.
Fact sheet
Function Manned partially re-usable launch and reentry system
Manufacturer United Space Alliance:
Thiokol/Boeing (SRBs)
Lockheed Martin (Martin Marietta) - (ET)
Rockwell International (orbiter)
Country of origin United States of America
Size
Height 56.1 m (184 ft (56 m))
Diameter 8.7 m (28.5 ft (8.7 m))
Mass 2,029,203 kg (4,474,574 lb)
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to LEO 24,400 kg (53,600 lb)
Payload to
GTO
3,810 kg (8,390 lb)
Launch History
Status Active
Launch sites LC-39, Kennedy Space Center
SLC-6, Vandenberg AFB (unused)
Total launches 121
Successes 119
Failures 2
Maiden flight April 12, 1981
Notable payloads International Space Station components
Hubble Space Telescope
Galileo
Magellan
Chandra X-ray Observatory
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
Boosters (Stage 0) - Solid Rocket Boosters
No boosters 2
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 2,800,000 lbf each, sea level liftoff (12.5 MN)
Specific impulse 269 s
Burn time 124 s
Fuel solid
First Stage - External Tank
Engines (none)
(3 SSMEs located on Orbiter)
Thrust 53.4 kN (12,000 lbf) combined total, sea level liftoff (5.25 MN)
Specific impulse 455 s
Burn time 480 s
Fuel LOX/LH2
Second Stage - Orbiter
Engines 2 OME
Thrust 53.4 kN combined total vacuum thrust (12,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 316 s
Burn time 1250 s
Fuel MMH/N2O4
Space Shuttle program insignia
Space Shuttle program insignia

NASA's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System (STS), is the spacecraft currently used by the United States government for its human spaceflight missions. At launch, it consists of a rust-colored external tank (ET), two white, slender Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), and the orbiter, a winged spaceplane which is the space shuttle in the narrow sense. This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ... The Buran spacecraft, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational space shuttle from the Soviet Unions Buran program. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 1533 pixels, file size: 946 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions High resolution File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... STS-120 is the current Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS), that launched on October 23, 2007. ... Headquartered in Houston, Texas, United Space Alliance (USA) is one of the world’s leading space operations companies. ... A Trident C-4 FBM launches and fires its Thiokol solid rocket first stage Thiokol (variously Thiokol Chemical Company, Morton-Thiokol Inc. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... Martin Marietta Corporation was founded in 1961 through the merger of The Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. ... Boeing Integrated Defense Systems (Boeing IDS), based in St. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In military aircraft or space exploration, the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship, including as cargo, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or external fuel, although internal fuel is usually not included. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... A geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a low Earth orbit (LEO) and a geostationary orbit (GEO). ... Launch Complex 39 is a large site and a collection of facilities at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA, originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified to support Space Shuttle operations. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... First launch of a Boeing Delta IV Medium+ (4,2) from SLC-6 on June 27, 2006 (Official photo by Thom Baur for Boeing) Space Launch Complex-6 (SLC-6, nicknamed Slick Six) at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California was a launch pad and support area designed for the... Boeing Delta 4 Medium+ (4,2) lifts off from Space Launch Complex Six (SLC-6) at Vandenberg AFB, California (Official photo by Thom Baur for the Boeing Company) Vandenberg Air Force Base (IATA: VBG, ICAO: KVBG) is a United States military installation with a spaceport, in Santa Barbara County, California... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... ISS redirects here. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as the Hubble or just Hubble) is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... The Chandra X-ray Observatory is a satellite launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999. ... Illustration of CGRO The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory(CGRO) was the second of the NASA Great Observatories to be launched to space, following the Hubble Space Telescope. ... The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... A pound or pound-force (abbreviations: lb, lbf, or lbf) is a unit of force. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... In physics, the newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... The Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building. ... Space Shuttle Main Engine cluster The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are the three main engines on the Space Shuttle orbiter. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Liquid hydrogen is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An OMS pod detached from a Shuttle for maintenance. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine with the chemical formula CH3N2H3. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) is the chemical compound N2O4. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... A Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building. ... The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A spaceplane is a rocket plane designed to pass the edge of space. ...


The orbiter carries astronauts and payload such as satellites or space station parts into low earth orbit, into the Earth's upper atmosphere or thermosphere.[1] Usually, five to seven crew members ride in the orbiter. The payload capacity is 22,700 kg (50,000 lb). When the orbiter's mission is complete it fires its Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) thrusters to drop out of orbit and re-enters the lower atmosphere.[1] During the descent and landing, the shuttle orbiter acts as a glider, and makes a completely unpowered ("dead stick") landing. For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... The thermosphere is the layer of the earths atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. ... An OMS pod detached from a Shuttle for maintenance. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... A deadstick landing or forced landing occurs when an aircraft loses all of its propulsive power and is forced to land. ...

Contents

Description

The shuttle is the first orbital spacecraft designed for partial reusability. It carries payloads to low Earth orbit, provides crew rotation for the International Space Station (ISS), and performs servicing missions. The orbiter can also recover satellites and other payloads from orbit and return them to Earth, but this capacity has not been used often. However, it has been used to return large payloads from the ISS to Earth, as the Russian Soyuz spacecraft has limited capacity for return payloads. Each Shuttle was designed for a projected lifespan of 100 launches or 10 years operational life. The man responsible for the design of the STS was Maxime Faget, who had also overseen the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft designs. The crucial factor in the size and shape of the Shuttle Orbiter was the requirement that it be able to accommodate the largest planned spy satellites, and have the cross-range recovery range to meet classified USAF missions requirement for a one-around abort for a polar launch. Factors involved in opting for 'reusable' solid rockets and an expendable fuel tank included the desire of the Pentagon to obtain a high-capacity payload vehicle for satellite deployment, and the desire of the Nixon administration to reduce the costs of space exploration by developing a spacecraft with reusable components. The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... A reusable launch system (or RLV: reusable launch vehicle) is a launch vehicle which is capable of launching into space more than once. ... A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit in which objects such as satellites are below intermediate circular orbit (ICO) and far below geostationary orbit, but typically around 350 - 1400 km above the Earths surface. ... ISS redirects here. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... Max Faget Maxime Max A. Faget (August 26, 1921 – October 9, 2004) was an American engineer. ...


Six air-worthy shuttles have been built; the first orbiter, Enterprise, was not built for space flight, and was used only for testing purposes. Five space-worthy orbiters were built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour. Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after launch in 1986, and Endeavour was built as a replacement. Columbia broke apart during re-entry in 2003. The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of space operations; its purpose was to perform test flights in the atmosphere. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ...


First launched in 1981, NASA has announced that the Space Shuttle would be retired in 2010, and from 2014 on, would be replaced by Orion, a new vehicle that is designed to take humans to the Moon and beyond along with its partner rockets, the Ares I and Ares V Rockets; however, since Orion is meant primarily for manned space flights, ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle, with its 7,667 kg payload, has been suggested as an alternative for tasks like supplying space stations. Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... ATV vs Apollo vs Progress The Automated Transfer Vehicle or ATV is an expendable, unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ... Look up payload in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ...


Each Space Shuttle is a partially reusable launch system that is composed of three main assemblies: the reusable Orbiter Vehicle (OV), the expendable external tank (ET), and the two partially-reusable solid rocket boosters (SRBs). The tank and boosters are jettisoned during ascent; only the orbiter goes into orbit. The vehicle is launched vertically like a conventional rocket, and the orbiter glides to a horizontal landing, after which it is refurbished for reuse. A reusable launch system (or RLV: reusable launch vehicle) is a launch vehicle which is capable of launching into space more than once. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building. ... The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. ...


At times, the orbiter itself is referred to as the space shuttle. Technically, this is a misnomer, as the actual "Space Transportation System" (space shuttle) is the combination of the orbiter, the external tank (ET), and the two partially-reusable solid rocket boosters. Combined, these are referred to as the "Stack". A Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building. ... The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. ...


Orbiter vehicle

Main article: Space Shuttle Orbiter

The orbiter resembles an aircraft with double-delta wings, swept 81° at the inner leading edge, and 45° at the outer leading edge. Its vertical stabilizer's leading edge is swept back at a 50° angle. The four elevons, mounted at the trailing edge of the wings, and the rudder/speed brake, attached at the trailing edge of the stabilizer, with the body flap, control the orbiter during descent and landing. The orbiter has a large payload bay measuring 15 feet (4.6 m) by 60 feet (18.3 m) comprising most of the fuselage. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle, named after the Greek uppercase delta (letter) which is a triangle (Δ). Its use in the so called tailless delta, i. ... Elevons at the wing trailing edge are used for pitch and roll control of the F-117A Nighthawk ( best seen by clicking on the picture). ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ...


Three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are mounted on the orbiter's aft fuselage in a triangular pattern. The three engines can swivel 10.5 degrees up and down, and 8.5 degrees from side to side during ascent to change the direction of their thrust and steer the shuttle as well as push. The orbiter structure is made primarily from aluminum alloy, although the engine thrust structure is made from titanium (alloy). Space Shuttle Main Engine block The Space Shuttle orbiter has three main engines. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ...


Solid Rocket Boosters

Two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) each provide 12.5 million Newtons (2.8 million lbf) of thrust at liftoff, which is 83% of the total thrust needed for liftoff. The SRBs are jettisoned two minutes after launch at a height of about 45.7 km (150,000 feet), and then deploy parachutes and land in the ocean to be recovered.[2] The SRB cases are made of steel about 1.3 cm (½ inch) thick.[3] The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. ...


Flight systems

Early shuttle missions took along the GRiD Compass, arguably one of the first laptop computers. The Compass sold poorly, as it cost at least US$8000, but offered unmatched performance for its weight and size.[4] NASA was one of its main customers.[5] A GRiD Compass on display at the U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama The GRiD Compass 1100 was arguably the first laptop computer, introduced in April 1982. ... An ultraportable IBM X31 with 12 screen on an IBM T43 Thin & Light laptop with a 14 screen A laptop computer, or simply laptop (also notebook computer, notebook and notepad) is a small mobile computer, typically weighing 3-12 pounds (around 1. ... USD redirects here. ...


The shuttle was one of the earliest craft to use a computerized fly-by-wire digital flight control system. This means no mechanical or hydraulic linkages connect the pilot's control stick to the control surfaces or reaction control system thrusters. A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight The basic fundamentals of aircraft controls has been explained in aeronautics. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight The fundamentals of aircraft controls has been explained in aeronautics. ... A reaction control system (abbreviated RCS) is a subsystem of a spacecraft. ...


A primary concern with digital fly-by-wire systems is reliability. Much research went into the shuttle computer system. The shuttle uses five identical redundant IBM 32-bit general purpose computers (GPCs), model AP-101, constituting a type of embedded system. Four computers run specialized software called the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS). A fifth backup computer runs separate software called the Backup Flight System (BFS). Collectively they are called the Data Processing System (DPS).[6][7] The IBM AP-101 is an avionics computer, used most notably in the U.S. Space Shuttle, but also in the B-52 and F-15, among others. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ...


The design goal of the shuttle's DPS is fail operational/fail safe reliability. After a single failure, the shuttle can still continue the mission. After two failures, it can still land safely.


The four general-purpose computers operate essentially in lockstep, checking each other. If one computer fails, the three functioning computers "vote" it out of the system. This isolates it from vehicle control. If a second computer of the three remaining fails, the two functioning computers vote it out. In the rare case of two out of four computers simultaneously failing (a two-two split), one group is picked at random.

Atlantis deploys landing gear before landing on a selected runway just like a common aircraft.
Atlantis deploys landing gear before landing on a selected runway just like a common aircraft.

The Backup Flight System (BFS) is separately developed software running on the fifth computer, used only if the entire four-computer primary system fails. The BFS was created because although the four primary computers are hardware redundant, they all run the same software, so a generic software problem could crash all of them. Embedded system avionic software is developed under totally different conditions from public commercial software, the number of code lines is tiny compared to a public commercial software, changes are only made infrequently and with extensive testing, and many programming and test personnel work on the small amount of computer code. However in theory it can still fail, and the BFS exists for that contingency. And while BFS will run in parallel with PASS, to date, BFS has never been engaged to take over control from PASS during any shuttle mission. Main and nosewheel undercarriage of a Qatar Airways Airbus A330 The undercarriage or landing gear is equipment which supports an aircraft when it is not flying. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ...


The software for the shuttle computers is written in a high-level language called HAL/S, somewhat similar to PL/I. It is specifically designed for a real time embedded system environment. HAL/S is a real-time aerospace programming language, best known for its use in the Space Shuttle program. ... PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced pee el one) is an imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, and business applications. ... Realtime redirects here. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ...


The IBM AP-101 computers originally had about 424 kilobytes of magnetic core memory each. The CPU could process about 400,000 instructions per second. They have no hard disk drive, and load software from magnetic tape cartridges. A 16×16 cm area core memory plane of 128×128 bits, i. ...


In 1990, the original computers were replaced with an upgraded model AP-101S, which has about 2.5 times the memory capacity (about 1 megabyte) and three times the processor speed (about 1.2 million instructions per second). The memory was changed from magnetic core to semiconductor with battery backup.


Typography and graphic design

The typeface used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is Helvetica.[8] On the front lower corner of the cargo bay doors is the name of the orbiter, on the back lower corner of the cargo bay is the NASA 'Worm' logo. Below the NASA logo is the text 'United States' with a flag of the United States. Another United States flag appears on the right wing. “Font” redirects here. ... This article is about the typeface Helvetica. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three official designs, although one of them (the worm) has been retired from official use since 1992. ... Union Jack. ...


Upgrades

During STS-101, Atlantis was the first shuttle to fly with a glass cockpit.
During STS-101, Atlantis was the first shuttle to fly with a glass cockpit.

Internally, the shuttle remains largely similar to the original design, with the exception of the improved avionics computers. In addition to the computer upgrades, the original vector graphics monochrome cockpit displays were replaced with modern full-color, flat-panel display screens, similar to those of contemporary airliners like the Airbus A380 and Boeing 777. This is called a glass cockpit. In the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project traditional, programmable calculators are carried as well (originally the HP-41C). With the coming of the ISS, the orbiter's internal airlocks have been replaced with external docking systems to allow for a greater amount of cargo to be stored on the shuttle's mid-deck during station resupply missions. Image File history File links STSCPanel. ... Image File history File links STSCPanel. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew James D. Halsell, Jr. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... The HP-41 series are programmable, expandable, handheld RPN calculators made by Hewlett-Packard from 1979 to 1990. ...


The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) have had several improvements to enhance reliability and power. This explains phrases such as "Main engines throttling up to 104%." This does not mean the engines are being run over a safe limit. The 100% figure is the original specified power level. During the lengthy development program, Rocketdyne determined the engine was capable of safe reliable operation at 104% of the originally specified thrust. They could have rescaled the output number, saying in essence 104% is now 100%. To clarify this would have required revising much previous documentation and software, so the 104% number was retained. SSME upgrades are denoted as "block numbers", such as block I, block II, and block IIA. The upgrades have improved engine reliability, maintainability and performance. The 109% thrust level was finally reached in flight hardware with the Block II engines in 2001. The normal maximum throttle is 104%, with 106% and 109% available for abort emergencies. Space Shuttle Main Engine cluster The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are the three main engines on the Space Shuttle orbiter. ... F-1 rocket engine Rocketdyne is a United States company that designs and produces rocket engines that use liquid propellants. ... A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASAs Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent. ...


For the first two missions, STS-1 and STS-2, the external tank was painted white to protect the insulation that covers much of the tank, but improvements and testing showed that it was not required. The weight saved by not painting the tank results in an increase in payload capability to orbit.[9] Additional weight was saved by removing some of the internal "stringers" in the hydrogen tank that proved unnecessary. The resulting "light-weight external tank" has been used on the vast majority of shuttle missions. STS-91 saw the first flight of the "super light-weight external tank". This version of the tank is made of the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. It weighs 3.4 tonnes (7,500 lb) less than the last run of lightweight tanks. As the shuttle cannot fly unmanned, each of these improvements has been "tested" on operational flights. STS-1 is also an abbreviation for Synchronous Transport Signal (level)-1 in the SONET hierarchy. ... STS-2 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 12, 1981. ... A Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Charles J. Precourt (4), Commander Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie (1), Pilot Wendy B. Lawrence (3), Mission Specialist Franklin R. Chang-Diaz (6), Mission Specialist Janet L. Kavandi (1), Mission Specialist Valery Victorovitch Ryumin (4), Mission Specialist - Russia Landed and...


The SRBs (Solid Rocket Boosters) have undergone improvements as well. Design engineers added a third O-ring seal to the joints between the segments after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ...

The three nozzles of the Main Engine cluster with the two Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods, and the vertical stabilizer above.
The three nozzles of the Main Engine cluster with the two Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods, and the vertical stabilizer above.

Several other SRB improvements were planned in order to improve performance and safety, but never came to be. These culminated in the considerably simpler, lower cost, probably safer and better performing Advanced Solid Rocket Booster. These rockets entered production in the early to mid-1990s to support the Space Station, but were later canceled to save money after the expenditure of $2.2 billion.[10] The loss of the ASRB program resulted in the development of the Super LightWeight external Tank (SLWT), which provides some of the increased payload capability, while not providing any of the safety improvements. In addition, the Air Force developed their own much lighter single-piece SRB design using a filament-wound system, but this too was cancelled. Download high resolution version (1752x2617, 850 KB)Space shuttle main engine block This article contains material and/or images that originally came from a NASA website. ... Download high resolution version (1752x2617, 850 KB)Space shuttle main engine block This article contains material and/or images that originally came from a NASA website. ... Space Shuttle Main Engine cluster The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are the three main engines on the Space Shuttle orbiter. ... An OMS pod detached from a Shuttle for maintenance. ... The vertical stabilizer or fin of an aircraft is found on its tail, generally pointing straight upward. ...


STS-70 was delayed in 1995, when woodpeckers bored holes in the foam insulation of Discovery's external tank. Since then, NASA has installed commercial plastic owl decoys and inflatable owl balloons which must be removed prior to launch.[11] The delicate nature of the foam insulation has been the cause of damage to the Thermal Protection System, the tile heat shield and heat wrap of the orbiter, during recent launches. NASA remains confident that this damage, while linked to the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on February 1, 2003, will not jeopardize the objective of NASA to complete the International Space Station (ISS) in the projected time allotted. The STS-70 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ... The space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protects the space shuttle orbiter during the searing 1649 °C (3000 °F) heat of atmospheric reentry. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISS redirects here. ...


A cargo-only, unmanned variant of the shuttle has been variously proposed, and rejected since the 1980s. It was called the Shuttle-C, and would have traded re-usability for cargo capability, with large potential savings from reusing technology developed for the space shuttle. An artists conception of a Shuttle-C launching at night. ...


On the first four shuttle missions, astronauts wore modified U.S. Air Force high-altitude full-pressure suits, which included a full-pressure helmet during ascent and descent. From the fifth flight, STS-5, until the loss of Challenger, one-piece light blue nomex flight suits and partial-pressure helmets were worn. A less-bulky, partial-pressure version of the high-altitude pressure suits with a helmet was reinstated when shuttle flights resumed in 1988. The LES ended its service life in late 1995, and was replaced by the full-pressure Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), which resembles the Gemini space suit worn in the mid-1960s. STS-5 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 11, 1982. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... NASA portrait of Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Lonchakov, wearing an ACES suit. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


To extend the duration that orbiters can stay docked at the ISS, the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS) was installed. The SSPTS allows these orbiters to use power provided by the ISS to preserve their consumables. The SSPTS was first used successfully on STS-118. Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS pronounced spits) allows a docked Space Shuttle to make use of power provided by the International Space Stations solar arrays. ... STS-118 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. ...


Technical data

Space Shuttle Atlantis transported by a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), 1998 (NASA).
Space Shuttle Atlantis transported by a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), 1998 (NASA).
Space Shuttle Endeavour being transported by a Boeing 747.
Space Shuttle Endeavour being transported by a Boeing 747.
Space Shuttle Orbiter and Soyuz-TM (drawn to scale).
Space Shuttle Orbiter and Soyuz-TM (drawn to scale).
An overhead view of Atlantis as it sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) before STS-79. Two Tail Service Masts (TSMs) to either side of the orbiter's tail provide umbilical connections for propellant loading and electrical power.
An overhead view of Atlantis as it sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) before STS-79. Two Tail Service Masts (TSMs) to either side of the orbiter's tail provide umbilical connections for propellant loading and electrical power.
Water is released onto the mobile launcher platform on Launch Pad 39A at the start of a rare sound suppression system test in 2004. During launch, 300,000 US gallons (1,100 m³) are poured onto the pad in only 41 seconds.
Water is released onto the mobile launcher platform on Launch Pad 39A at the start of a rare sound suppression system test in 2004. During launch, 300,000 US gallons (1,100 m³) are poured onto the pad in only 41 seconds.

Orbiter specifications[12] (for Endeavour, OV-105) Download high resolution version (3030x2360, 4888 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3030x2360, 4888 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Discovery leaves Edwards AFB on the back of a Shuttle Carrier enroute to Kennedy Space Center in Florida Space Shuttle Columbia atop Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) N905NA, after the successful STS-32 mission, fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x750, 179 KB) Space Shuttle Transit Found on this website: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x750, 179 KB) Space Shuttle Transit Found on this website: http://www. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 679 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2783 × 2459 pixel, file size: 233 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 679 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2783 × 2459 pixel, file size: 233 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft approaching International Space Station Soyuz 19 spacecraft as seen from Apollo CM Soyuz spacecraft of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Early 7K-OK Soyuz at National Space Centre, Leicester, England Soyuz (Союз, union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolev for the Soviet Union... A Crawler-Transporter carries a MLP atop. ... STS-79 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Image File history File links MainSPStest. ... Image File history File links MainSPStest. ...

  • Length: 37.24 m (122.17 ft)
  • Wingspan: 23.79 m (78.06 ft)
  • Height: 58.58 ft (17.86 m)
  • Empty weight: 68,585 kg (151,205 lb)
  • Gross Liftoff Weight: 109,000 kg (240,000 lb)
  • Maximum Landing Weight: 104,000 kg (230,000 lb)
  • Main engines: Three Rocketdyne Block IIA SSMEs, each with a sea level thrust of 1.75 meganewtons (MN) (393,800 pounds-force (lbf))
  • Maximum payload: 25,061 kilograms (55,250 lb)
  • Payload bay dimensions: 4.6 m (15 ft) by 18 m (59 ft)
  • Operational altitude: 100 to 520 nmi (185 to 960 km)
  • Speed: 7,743 m/s (27,875 km/h, 25,404 ft/s, 17,321 mi/h)
  • Crossrange: 2,009 km (1,085 nmi)
  • Crew: Varies. The earliest shuttle flights had the minimum crew of two; many later missions a crew of five. Today, typically seven people fly (commander, pilot, several mission specialists, and rarely a flight engineer). On two occasions, eight astronauts have flown (STS-61-A, STS-71). Eleven people could be accommodated in an emergency mission (see STS-3xx).

External tank specifications (for SLWT) Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... A Mission Specialist (MS) is a position held by certain NASA astronauts for the Space Shuttle program. ... In aviation, a flight engineer (also referred to as systems operator ) is a member of the aircrew of an aircraft who is responsible for checking the aircraft before and after each flight, and for monitoring aircraft systems during flight. ... STS-61-A was the 22nd Space Shuttle mission. ... STS-71 was a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Space shuttle missions designated STS-3xx (officially called Launch On Need missions) are rescue missions which would be mounted to rescue the crew of a Space Shuttle if their vehicle was damaged and deemed unable to make a successful reentry. ...

  • Length: 46.9 m (153.8 ft)
  • Diameter: 8.4 m (27.6 ft)
  • Propellant volume: 2,025 (535,000 US gal)
  • Empty Weight: 26,535 kg (58,500 lb)
  • Gross Liftoff Weight: 756,000 kg (1,667,000 lb)

Solid Rocket Booster Specifications The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...

  • Length: 45.6 m (149.6 ft)
  • Diameter: 3.7 m (12.14 ft)
  • Empty Weight (per booster): 63,272 kg (139,491 lb)
  • Gross Liftoff Weight (per booster): 590,000 kg (1.3 million lb)
  • Thrust (sea level, liftoff): 12.5 MN (2.8 million lbf)

System Stack Specifications

  • Height: 56 m (183.7 ft)
  • Gross Liftoff Weight: 2 million kg (4.5 million lb)
  • Total Liftoff Thrust: 30.16 MN (6.781 million lbf)

Mission profile

Launch

All Space Shuttle missions are launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The shuttle will not be launched under conditions where it could be struck by lightning. Aircraft are often struck by lightning with no adverse effects because the electricity of the strike is dissipated through its conductive structure and the aircraft is not electrically grounded. Like most jet airliners, the shuttle is mainly constructed of conductive aluminum, which would normally shield and protect the internal systems. However, upon takeoff the shuttle sends out a long exhaust plume as it ascends, and this plume can trigger lightning by providing a current path to ground. The NASA Anvil Rule for a shuttle launch states an anvil cloud cannot appear within a distance of 10 nautical miles.[13] The Shuttle Launch Weather Officer will monitor conditions until the final decision to scrub a launch is announced. In addition, the weather conditions must be acceptable at one of the Transatlantic Abort Landing sites (One of several Space Shuttle abort modes) to launch. [14] While the shuttle might safely endure a lightning strike, a similar strike caused problems on Apollo 12, so for safety NASA chooses not to launch the shuttle if lightning is possible (NPR8715.5). Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... It has been suggested that Ground conductor be merged into this article or section. ... A nautical mile is a unit of distance, or, as physical scientists like to call it, length. ... A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASAs Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


The Shuttle has not been launched if its flight will take it from one year to the next (December to January), a year-end rollover (YERO). Its flight software, designed in the 1970s, was not designed for this, and would require the orbiter's computers be reset through a change of year, which could cause a glitch while in orbit. In 2007, NASA engineers devised a solution to this, allowing Shuttle flights to cross the year-end boundary.[15]


On the day of a launch, after the final hold in the countdown at T minus 9 minutes, the Shuttle goes through its final preparations for launch, and the countdown is automatically controlled by a special computer program at the Launch Control Center. This is known as the Ground Launch Sequencer (GLS), which stops the count if it senses a critical problem with any of the Shuttle's on-board systems. The GLS hands off the count to the Shuttle's on-board computers at T minus 31 seconds, in a process called auto sequence start.


At T minus 16 seconds, the massive sound suppression system (SPS) begins to drench the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) and SRB trenches with 300,000 U.S. gallons (1,100 m³) of water to protect the Orbiter from damage by acoustical energy and rocket exhaust reflected from the flame trench and MLP during liftoff. [16] A Crawler-Transporter carries a MLP atop. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound, mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids. ...


At T-minus 10 seconds, hydrogen igniters are activated under each engine bell to quell the stagnant gas inside the cones before ignition. Failure to burn these gases can trip the onboard sensors and create the possibility of an overpressure and explosion of the vehicle during the firing phase. The main engine turbopumps are also commanded to begin charging the combustion chambers with liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen at this time. The computers reciprocate this action by allowing the redundant computer systems to begin the firing phase.


The three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) start at T minus 6.6 seconds. The main engines ignite sequentially via the shuttle's general purpose computers (GPCs) at 120 millisecond intervals. The GPCs require that the engines reach 90% of their rated performance to complete the final gimbal of the main engine nozzles to liftoff configuration.[17] When the SSMEs start, the water from the sound suppression system flashes into a large volume of steam that shoots southward. All three SSMEs must reach the required 100% thrust within three seconds, otherwise the onboard computers will initiate an RSLS abort. If the onboard computers verify normal thrust buildup, at T minus 0 seconds, the SRBs are ignited. At this point the vehicle is committed to takeoff, as the SRBs cannot be turned off once ignited. After the SRBs reach a stable thrust ratio, pyrotechnic nuts are detonated by radio controlled signals from the shuttle's GPC's to release the vehicle [18]. The plume from the solid rockets exits the flame trench in a northward direction at near the speed of sound, often causing a rippling of shockwaves along the actual flame and smoke contrails. At ignition, the GPC's mandate the firing sequences via the Master Events Controller, a computer program integrated with the shuttle's four redundant computer systems. There are extensive emergency procedures (abort modes) to handle various failure scenarios during ascent. Many of these concern SSME failures, since that is the most complex and highly stressed component. After the Challenger disaster, there were extensive upgrades to the abort modes. Space Shuttle Main Engine cluster The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are the three main engines on the Space Shuttle orbiter. ... A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASAs Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent. ... The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. ... A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASAs Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ...

Shuttle launch of Atlantis at sunset in 2001. The sun is behind the camera, and the plume's shadow intersects the moon across the sky.
Shuttle launch of Atlantis at sunset in 2001. The sun is behind the camera, and the plume's shadow intersects the moon across the sky.
STS mission profile
STS mission profile
SSLV at Mach 2.46 and 66,000 feet (20,000 m). The surface of the vehicle is colored by the pressure coefficient, and the gray contours represent the density of the surrounding air, as calculated using the OVERFLOW codes.
SSLV at Mach 2.46 and 66,000 feet (20,000 m). The surface of the vehicle is colored by the pressure coefficient, and the gray contours represent the density of the surrounding air, as calculated using the OVERFLOW codes.

After the main engines start, but while the solid rocket boosters are still clamped to the pad, the offset thrust from the Shuttle's three main engines causes the entire launch stack (boosters, tank and shuttle) to pitch down about 2 m at cockpit level. This motion is called the "nod", or "twang" in NASA jargon. As the boosters flex back into their original shape, the launch stack pitches slowly back upright. This takes approximately six seconds. At the point when it is perfectly vertical, the boosters ignite and the launch commences. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1539x2200, 222 KB) Summary Space Shuttle Atlantis launches at sunset. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1539x2200, 222 KB) Summary Space Shuttle Atlantis launches at sunset. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x648, 105 KB) Summary Space shuttle mission profile description Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x648, 105 KB) Summary Space shuttle mission profile description Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Shortly after clearing the tower the Shuttle begins a roll and pitch program to set its orbital inclination and so that the vehicle is below the external tank and SRBs, with wings level. The vehicle climbs in a progressively flattening arc, accelerating as the weight of the SRBs and main tank decrease. To achieve low orbit requires much more horizontal than vertical acceleration. This is not visually obvious, since the vehicle rises vertically and is out of sight for most of the horizontal acceleration. The near circular orbital velocity at the 380 km (236 statute miles) altitude of the International Space Station is 7.68 kilometers per second (27,650 km/h, 17,180 mph), roughly equivalent to Mach 23 at sea level. As the International Space Station orbits at an inclination of 51.6 degrees, the Shuttle has to set its inclination to the same value to rendezvous with the station. “Miles” redirects here. ... ISS redirects here. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


Around a point called Max Q, where the aerodynamic forces are at their maximum, the main engines are temporarily throttled back to avoid overspeeding and hence overstressing the Shuttle, particularly in vulnerable areas such as the wings. At this point, a phenomenon known as the Prandtl-Glauert singularity occurs, where condensation clouds form during the vehicle's transition to supersonic speed. A visible shock wave formed as the Apollo 11 Saturn V encountered Maximum Dynamic Pressure (Max Q) at about 1 minute 20 seconds into the flight (altitude 12. ... An aircraft can fly too fast but this is not usually termed overspeed which is a term more usually used in relation to engines. ... F/A-18 demonstrating singularity effect The Prandtl-Glauert singularity, at which point a sudden drop in air pressure occurs, is generally accepted as the cause of the visible condensation cloud that often surrounds an airplane traveling at transonic speeds, though there remains some debate. ...


126 seconds after launch, explosive bolts release the SRBs and small separation rockets push them laterally away from the vehicle. The SRBs parachute back to the ocean to be reused. The Shuttle then begins accelerating to orbit on the Space Shuttle main engines. The vehicle at that point in the flight has a thrust-to-weight ratio of less than one — the main engines actually have insufficient thrust to exceed the force of gravity, and the vertical speed given to it by the SRBs temporarily decreases. However, as the burn continues, the weight of the propellant decreases and the thrust-to-weight ratio exceeds 1 again and the ever-lighter vehicle then continues to accelerate toward orbit. An explosive bolt is a fastener that incorporates a pyrotechnic charge that can be initiated by an electrical command. ... Space Shuttle Main Engine cluster The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are the three main engines on the Space Shuttle orbiter. ...


The vehicle continues to climb and takes on a somewhat nose-up angle to the horizon — it uses the main engines to gain and then maintain altitude while it accelerates horizontally towards orbit. At about five and three-quarter minutes into ascent, the orbiter rolls heads up to switch communication links from ground stations to Tracking and Data Relay Satellites. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is a network of communications satellites (each called a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite or TDRS) used by NASA and other United States government agencies. ...


Finally, in the last tens of seconds of the main engine burn, the mass of the vehicle is low enough that the engines must be throttled back to limit vehicle acceleration to 3g (30 m/s²), largely for astronaut comfort.


Before complete depletion of propellant, as running dry would destroy the engines, the main engines are shut down. The oxygen supply is terminated before the hydrogen supply, as the SSMEs react unfavorably to other shutdown modes. Liquid oxygen has a tendency to react violently, and supports combustion when it encounters hot engine metal. The external tank is released by firing explosive bolts and falls, largely burning up in the atmosphere, though some fragments fall into the Indian Ocean. The sealing action of the tank plumbing and lack of pressure relief systems on the external tank helps it break up in the lower atmosphere. After the foam burns away during reentry, the heat causes a pressure buildup in the remaining liquid oxygen and hydrogen until the tank explodes. This ensures that any pieces that fall back to Earth are small.


To prevent the shuttle from following the external tank back into the lower atmosphere, the Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engines are fired to raise the perigee higher into the upper atmosphere. On some missions (e.g., missions to the ISS), the OMS engines are also used while the main engines are still firing. The reason for putting the orbiter on a path that brings it back to Earth is not just for external tank disposal. It is one of safety; if the OMS malfunctions, or the cargo bay doors cannot open for some reason, the shuttle is already on a path to return to earth for an emergency abort landing. An OMS pod detached from a Shuttle for maintenance. ...


Since it flies in the upper atmosphere, the craft's orbit slowly decays due to air friction. The orbiter must periodically boost its velocity with the OMS to prevent re-entry into the lower atmosphere.


Re-entry and landing

Simulation of the outside of the Shuttle as it heats up to over 1,500°C during re-entry.
Simulation of the outside of the Shuttle as it heats up to over 1,500°C during re-entry.

Almost the entire space shuttle re-entry, except for lowering the landing gear and deploying the air data probes, is normally performed under computer control. However, the re-entry can be flown entirely manually if an emergency arises. The approach and landing phase can be controlled by the autopilot, but is usually hand flown. Image File history File links Stsheat. ... Image File history File links Stsheat. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ...


The vehicle begins re-entry by firing the Orbital maneuvering system engines, while flying upside down, backside first, in the opposite direction to orbital motion for approximately three minutes, giving roughly 200 mph (90 m/s) of delta-v. The resultant slowing of the Shuttle lowers its orbital perigee down into the upper atmosphere. The shuttle then flips over, by pulling its nose up (which is actually "down" because it's flying upside down). This OMS firing is done roughly halfway around the globe from the landing site. Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ...


The vehicle starts encountering more significant air density in the lower thermosphere at about 400,000 ft (120 km), at around Mach 25 (8.2 km/s). The vehicle is controlled by a combination of RCS thrusters and control surfaces, to fly at a 40 degree nose-up attitude, producing high drag, not only to slow it down to landing speed, but also to reduce reentry heating. In addition, the vehicle needs to bleed off extra speed before reaching the landing site. This is achieved by performing s-curves at up to a 70 degree roll angle. An F/A-18 Hornet at transonic speed and displaying the Prandtl-Glauert singularity just before reaching the speed of sound Mach number (Ma) (generally pronounced , sometimes or ) is the speed of an object moving through air, or any fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound through that substance...


The orbiter's maximum glide ratio/lift to drag ratio varies considerably with speed, ranging from 1:1 at hypersonic speeds, 2:1 at supersonic speeds and reaching 4.5:1 at subsonic speeds during approach and landing.[19] Glide ratio is an aviation term that refers to the distance an aircraft will move forward for any given amount of lost altitude (the cotangent of the downward angle). ... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ...


In the lower atmosphere, the orbiter flies much like a conventional glider, except for a much higher descent rate, over 10,000 feet per minute (50 m/s).


At approximately Mach 3, two air data probes, located on the left and right sides of the orbiter's forward lower fuselage, are deployed to sense air pressure related to the vehicle's movement in the atmosphere.

Columbia touches down at Kennedy Space Center at the end of STS-73.
Columbia touches down at Kennedy Space Center at the end of STS-73.

When the approach and landing phase begins, the orbiter is at a 3,000 m (10,000 ft) altitude, 12 km (7.5 miles) from the runway. The pilots apply aerodynamic braking to help slow down the vehicle. The orbiter's speed is reduced from 682 km/h (424 mph) to approximately 346 km/h (215 mph), (compared to 260 km/h (160 mph) for a jet airliner), at touch-down. The landing gear is deployed while the Orbiter is flying at 430 km/h (267 mph). To assist the speed brakes, a 12 m (40 ft) drag chute is deployed either after main gear or nose gear touchdown (depending on selected chute deploy mode) at about 343 km/h (213 mph). The chute is jettisoned as the orbiter slows through 110 km/h (69 mph). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2500x1560, 282 KB) The Space Shuttle Columbia makes its 18th landing. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2500x1560, 282 KB) The Space Shuttle Columbia makes its 18th landing. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... STS-73 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ...


After landing, the vehicle stands on the runway for several minutes to permit the fumes from poisonous hydrazine, used as a propellant for attitude control, to dissipate, and for the shuttle fuselage to cool before the astronauts disembark. Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Aircraft attitude is used to mean two closely related aspects of the situation of an aircraft in flight. ... A reaction control system (abbreviated RCS) is a subsystem of a spacecraft. ...


Landing sites

Conditions permitting, the space shuttle will always land at Kennedy Space Center; however, if the conditions make landing there unfavorable, the shuttle can touch down at Edwards Air Force Base in California or at other sites around the world. A landing at Edwards means that the shuttle must be mated to the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, and returned to Cape Canaveral, costing NASA an additional 1.7 million dollars. Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-3) also landed once at the White Sands Space Harbor in New Mexico, but this is often a last resort, as NASA scientists believe that the sand could cause damage to the shuttle's exterior. Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Edwards Air Force Base (IATA: EDW, ICAO: KEDW) is a United States Air Force airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due east of Rosamond. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... Discovery leaves Edwards AFB on the back of a Shuttle Carrier enroute to Kennedy Space Center in Florida Space Shuttle Columbia atop Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) N905NA, after the successful STS-32 mission, fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). ... This article is about the area of Florida. ... STS-3 was the third space shuttle mission, and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ...

A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the space shuttle during re-entry.
A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the space shuttle during re-entry.

A list of other landing sites:[20] Image File history File linksMetadata CFD_Shuttle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata CFD_Shuttle. ... This article is about the machine. ...

A list of launch abort sites: White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern... STS-3 was the third space shuttle mission, and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... The MCAS Yuma is located 2 miles (3 km) from the city of Yuma, Arizona. ... Yuma International Airport (IATA: YUM, ICAO: KYUM, FAA LID: YUM) is a shared-use airport together with the Marine Corps Air Station Yuma and located three miles (5 km) south of the central business district (CBD) of Yuma, a city in Yuma County, Arizona, USA. It is mostly used for... KC-135 Fuselage Departs Plattsburgh AFB Plattsburgh AFB is a now-defunct United States Air Force base covering 3,447 acres (13. ... Ben Guerir Air Base was a United States Air Force base in Morocco, later operated by the Royal Moroccan Air Force, located about 36 miles north of Marrakech. ... Morón Air Base is located at 37°10′N 5°36′W in southern Spain, approximately 35 miles southeast of the city of Sevilla and 75 miles northeast of Rota Naval Station. ... Banjul International Airport Banjul International Airport is the international airport of Banjul, capital of The Gambia. ... Zaragoza Air Base is a Spanish Air Force Base in Spain. ... Diosdado Macapagal International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Diosdado Macapagal) (DMIA), also called Clark International Airport and Manila-Clark International Airport (IATA: CRK, ICAO: RPLC), is the main airport serving the immediate vicinity of the Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) and the general area of Angeles City in the Philippines. ... For other uses, see Kuala Lumpur International Airport (disambiguation). ... RAAF Base Amberley is a Royal Australian Air Force base that is located 8 km southwest of Ipswich, Queensland and 50 km southwest of Brisbane, Queensland and currently home to No. ... A B-1B at Andersen This B-2 Spirit was photographed in 2004 at Andersen Andersen Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. ... Amilcar Cabral International Airport (IATA: SID, ICAO: GVAC), also known as Sal International Airport or Amilcar Cabral Airport, is the principal international airport of Cape Verde. ... Hickam Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base located in the City & County of Honolulu on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. ... Stockholm-Arlanda Airport (IATA: ARN, ICAO: ESSA), is an international airport located in Sigtuna Municipality near to the town of Märsta, about 42km north of Stockholm and nearly 40km, by road, south-east of Uppsala. ... Istres Air Base (Base aérienne dIstres, Base aérienne 125, BA 125) is a large base of the French Air Force, located near Istres, north of Marseille, in Bouches-du-Rhône, France. ... Bangor International Airport (IATA: BGR, ICAO: KBGR) is a public airport located 3 miles (5 km) west in the city of Bangor, in Penobscot County, Maine, United States. ... Salina Municipal Airport (IATA: SLN, ICAO: KSLN) is a public airport located just southwest of Salina, Kansas. ... Westover Air Reserve Base/Metropolitan Airport (IATA: CEF, ICAO: KCEF) is a joint use military and general aviation airport located in Chicopee, Massachusetts, near the city of Springfield. ... Gander International Airport (IATA: YQX, ICAO: CYQX) is located in Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, and is currently run by the Gander Airport Authority. ... Shannon Airport (IATA Airport Code; SNN, ICAO Airport Code; EINN) is Irelands main transatlantic airport. ...

RAAF Base Darwin shares it runway with Darwin International Airport. ... Port Darwin redirects here. ... Myrtle Beach International Airport (IATA: MYR, ICAO: KMYR) is a public airport located 3 miles (5 km) southwest of the city of Myrtle Beach in Horry County, South Carolina, USA. Myrtle Beach International Airport is located on the former Myrtle Beach Air Force Base. ... Dyess Air Force Base is located in Texas, on the western outskirts of the city of Abilene. ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point is an airfield located in Havelock, North Carolina, USA, in the eastern part of the state at . ... Ellsworth Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base near Rapid City, South Dakota and is home to the B-1B Lancer. ... Naval Air Station Oceana IATA: NTU, ICAO: KNTU), also known as NAS Oceana, is a military airport located in Virginia Beach, Virginia, and is a United States Navy Master Jet Base (a base that offers 24 hour service and fuel). ... EsenboÄŸa International Airport EsenboÄŸa International Airport (IATA: ESB, ICAO: LTAC), Turkish Ankara EsenboÄŸa Havalimanı or EsenboÄŸa Uluslarası Havalimanı, is an airport in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. ... Dover Air Force Base or Dover AFB (IATA: DOV, ICAO: KDOV, FAA LID: DOV) is a base of the United States Air Force in the state of Delaware. ... Fort Wayne International Airport (IATA: FWA, ICAO: KFWA) is a public airport located 7 miles (11 km) southwest of Fort Wayne, in Allen County, Indiana, USA. The airport was originally constructed as a military base during World War II. It opened in 1941 as Baer Field at a cost of... Gran Canaria International Airport (IATA: LPA, ICAO: GCLP), (in Spanish, Aeropuerto de Gran Canaria) is an airport located on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, in the Canary Islands off the west coast of Africa. ... Gran Canaria, rarely Grand Canary (archaic), is the third largest island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 210 km from the northwest coast of Africa and belonging to Spain. ... Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is a Spanish city, the capital city of Gran Canaria one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean, 210 kilometers located off the northwestern coast of Africa. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Otis Air National Guard Base (ANGB) (ICAO is KFMH) is an Air National Guard station located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), a military training facility, located on the upper western portion of Cape Cod. ... Air Force Base Hoedspruit is an airbase of the South African Air Force. ... Bermuda International Airport (IATA: BDA, ICAO: TXKF) is an airport in Ferry Reach, Bermuda, at the other end of the island from the capital, Hamilton, Bermuda. ... King Khalid International Airport (IATA: RUH, ICAO: OERK) (Arabic: مطار الملك خالد الدولي) is located 35 kilometers north of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, designed by the architectural firm of Hellmuth, Obata, and Kassabaum. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Cologne/Bonn Airport (German: Flughafen Köln/Bonn, also called Konrad-Adenauer-Flughafen or Flughafen Köln-Wahn) (IATA: CGN, ICAO: EDDK) is an international airport located in the Wahner Heide nature reserve, 15 km southeast of Cologne and 16 km northeast of Bonn. ... Lajes Air Base Diagram Lajes Field (or Air Base No. ... Motto:  (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem:  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Ethnic groups  Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,346 km² (n/a... Mountain Home Air Force Base (Mountain Home AFB) is a U.S. Air Force base located west of Mountain Home, Idaho in Elmore County, and fifty miles (80 km) southeast of Boise. ... Souda Bay is a bay and natural harbour on the northwest coast of the Greek island of Crete. ... For other uses, see Diego Garcia (disambiguation). ... // The Chagos Archipelago. ... MCO and KMCO redirect here. ... RAF Fairford is a Royal Air Force station in Gloucestershire, England, near to Fairford. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For alternate meanings, see Monrovia (disambiguation). ... Lehigh Valley International Airport (IATA: ABE, ICAO: KABE), formerly Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton International Airport, is a public airport in Hanover Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. ... Allentown is a city located in Lehigh County in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. After Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Allentown is Pennsylvanias third most populous city. ... Mataveri International Airport (IATA airport code: IPC) located on Easter Island, is one of the worlds most remote airports, served only by the Chilean carrier LAN Airlines (formerly LanChile). ... (This is about the main town on Easter Island and not the Hangaroa river located in New Zealand). ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Halifax Robert L. Stanfield International Airport[5], or Halifax International Airport (IATA: YHZ, ICAO: CYHZ) is an airport in Enfield, Nova Scotia, Canada that serves the Halifax Regional Municipality and central Nova Scotia as well as adjacent areas in the neighbouring Maritime provinces. ... Ben Guerir Air Base was a United States Air Force base in Morocco, later operated by the Royal Moroccan Air Force, located about 36 miles north of Marrakech. ... Columbus AFB is a United States Air Force base located in Lowndes County, Mississippi, treated for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau as a census-designated place. ...

Fleet history

Below is a list of major events in the Space Shuttle orbiter fleet. This is a list of missions flown by space shuttles. ...

Space Shuttle Major Events
Date Orbiter Event Remarks
February 18, 1977 Enterprise First flight Attached to Shuttle Carrier Aircraft throughout flight.
August 12, 1977 Enterprise First free flight Tailcone on; lakebed landing.
October 12, 1977 Enterprise Fourth free flight First with no tailcone; lakebed landing.
October 26, 1977 Enterprise Final Enterprise free flight First landing on Edwards AFB concrete runway.
April 12, 1981 Columbia First Columbia flight, first orbital test flight STS-1
November 11, 1982 Columbia First operational flight of the Space Shuttle, first mission to carry four astronauts STS-5
April 4, 1983 Challenger First Challenger flight STS-6
August 30, 1984 Discovery First Discovery flight STS-41-D
October 3, 1985 Atlantis First Atlantis flight STS-51-J
January 28, 1986 Challenger Disintegrated 73 seconds after launch All seven crew members perished.
September 29, 1988 Discovery First post-Challenger mission STS-26
May 4, 1989 Atlantis The first Space Shuttle mission to launch a space probe, Magellan. STS-30
May 7, 1992 Endeavour First Endeavour flight STS-49
November 19, 1996 Columbia Longest Shuttle mission to date at 17 days, 15 hours STS-80
October 11, 2000 Discovery 100th Space Shuttle mission STS-92
February 1, 2003 Columbia Disintegrated during re-entry All seven crew members perished.
July 25, 2005 Discovery First post-Columbia mission STS-114
Planned fleet events
2010 Atlantis Last planned Atlantis flight STS-131
2010 Discovery Last planned Discovery flight STS-132
2010 Endeavour Last planned Endeavour flight; Last flight of the Space Shuttle Program STS-133

is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of space operations; its purpose was to perform test flights in the atmosphere. ... Discovery leaves Edwards AFB on the back of a Shuttle Carrier enroute to Kennedy Space Center in Florida Space Shuttle Columbia atop Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) N905NA, after the successful STS-32 mission, fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... STS-1 is also an abbreviation for Synchronous Transport Signal (level)-1 in the SONET hierarchy. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... STS-5 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 11, 1982. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... STS-6 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Challenger, launched April 4, 1983. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... STS-41-D was a Space Shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Discovery. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... STS-51-J was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Atlantis. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... STS-26 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Discovery. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Magellan spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center The Magellan spacecraft carried out a mission from 1989-1994, orbiting Venus from 1990-1994. ... STS-30 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Atlantis. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... // Crew Daniel Brandenstein (flew on STS-8, STS-51-G, STS-32 & STS-49), Commander Kevin P. Chilton (flew on STS-49, STS-59 & STS-76), Pilot Pierre J. Thuot (flew on STS-36, STS-49 & STS-62), Mission Specialist 1 Kathryn C. Thornton (flew on STS-33, STS-49... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... STS-80 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle, as this mission is the 100th mission of the Space Shuttle. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-114 was the first return to flight Space Shuttle mission following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. ... STS-131 is a Contingency Logistic Flight (CLF) of the Space Shuttle Endeavour planned for no earlier than January 14, 2010. ... This is a Space Shuttle launch to visit the International Space Station, planned for January 2010. ... This is a Space Shuttle launch to visit the International Space Station, planned for July 15, 2010. ...

See also

This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ... The primary negative criticisms of the Space Shuttle program are: It failed in the goal of greatly reducing the cost of space access (e. ... A GRiD Compass on display at the U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama The GRiD Compass 1100 was arguably the first laptop computer, introduced in April 1982. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight), or were launched with that intention but failed. ... Even before the Apollo moon landing in 1969, in October 1968 NASA began early studies of space shuttle designs. ... Space Shuttle Columbia at the entrance of the Orbiter Processing Facility The Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) is the hangar where NASAs Space Shuttle Orbiter undergoes maintenance between flights. ... Comparison of the Saturn V, Space Shuttle and the two Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicles proposed to replace the Shuttle. ... Shuttle SERV was a concept that was never realized, put forward in 1971 by Chrysler Corporation, for NASA Alternate Space Shuttle Concept programme. ... Space Shuttle Challenger was torn apart 73 seconds after launch due to hot gases escaping the SRBs cutting a hole into the external tank. ... Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. ... A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASAs Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent. ... This is a list of persons who served aboard Space Shuttle crews, arranged in chronological order by mission. ... The Shuttle Training Aircraft positioned in a downward trajectory like the Space Shuttle. ...

Fiction and games

  • Space shuttles in fiction
  • Space Shuttle Mission 2007, latest Space Shuttle simulator for Windows XP and Vista PCs.
  • Orbiter, a freeware simulator that allows users to fly various spacecraft including the shuttle.
  • Space Shuttle America
  • Shuttle, a Space Shuttle simulator for PC, Amiga & Atari ST.
  • X-Plane, a flight simulator that allows players to fly the Space Shuttle's re-entry phase.

Even before the first space shuttle was launched, science fiction filmmakers were featuring the craft in their productions. ... Orbiter is a closed source freeware space flight simulator for the Windows operating system. ... Space Shuttle America viewed from Sky Trek Tower Space Shuttle America (also known as Space Shuttle America - The Next Century) is a motion simulator ride at Six Flags Great America that opened in 1994. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... X-Plane is a flight simulator for personal computers produced by Laminar Research. ...

Physics

“Reentry” redirects here. ... The lifting body is an aircraft configuration where the body itself produces lift. ... A reusable launch system (or RLV: reusable launch vehicle) is a launch vehicle which is capable of launching into space more than once. ... A single-stage to orbit (or SSTO) launcher describes an as-yet theoretical class of spacecraft designed to place a load into orbit as a self-contained vehicle without the use of multiple stages. ...

Similar spacecraft

Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar was a USAF program to develop an orbital spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hopper (spacecraft). ... Artists impression of the Hermes Shuttle A cutaway view of the Hermes Shuttle Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the European Space Agency which was superficially similar to the US X-20. ... HOPE = H-II Orbiting Plane HOPE-X = HOPE-Experimental A joint venture between NASDA and NAL (both now part of JAXA), started in the 1980s as part of the Japanese contribution to the International Space Station, was cancelled in 2003. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... A military space shuttle would be (if it existed) the oft-speculated-upon military equivalent of NASAs space shuttle. ... Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... This article is about the Buran space program in general. ... The X-33 was a sub scale technology demonstrator for the VentureStar, a next-generation, commercially operated reusable launch vehicle. ... For other uses, see Direct. ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ...

References

  1. ^ a b NASA (1995). Earth's Atmosphere (English). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved on October 25, 2007.
  2. ^ NASA Space Shuttle Columbia Launch.
  3. ^ NASA. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. NASA.
  4. ^ The Computer History Museum (2006). Pioneering the Laptop:Engineering the GRiD Compass (English). The Computer History Museum. Retrieved on October 25, 2007.
  5. ^ NASA (1985). Portable Computer (English). NASA. Retrieved on October 26, 2007.
  6. ^ Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Robert Tate and Hiram C. Thompson. Implementing Space Shuttle Data Processing System Concepts in Programmable Logic Devices. NASA Office of Logic Design. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  7. ^ IBM. IBM and the Space Shuttle. IBM. Retrieved on August 27, 2006.
  8. ^ (2007-09-12). Helvetica [Documentary].
  9. ^ Aerospaceweb.org (2006). Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Insulation (English). Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved on October 25, 2007.
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. Shuttle. Encyclopedia Astronautica.
  11. ^ Jim Dumoulin. Woodpeckers damage STS-70 External Tank. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  12. ^ Jenkins, Dennis R. (2007). Space Shuttle: The History of the National Space Transportation System. Voyageur Press, 524 pages. ISBN 0963397451. 
  13. ^ Weather at About.com. What is the Anvil Rule for Thunderstorms? Accessed 2008-06-10.
  14. ^ NASA Launch Blog. [1] Accessed 2008-06-10.
  15. ^ Bergin, Chris. NASA solves YERO problem for shuttle. Retrieved on 2007-12-22.
  16. ^ National Aeronautics and Space Administration. "Sound Suppression Water System" Revised 2000-08-28. Accessed 2006-07-09.
  17. ^ National Aeronautics and Space Administration. "NASA - Countdown 101" Accessed 2006-07-10.
  18. ^ HSF - The Shuttle
  19. ^ Space Shuttle Technical Conference pg 258
  20. ^ Global Security. Space Shuttle Emergency Landing Sites. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.

NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Helvetica is a feature-length independent documentary film about typography, graphic design, and global visual culture released in 2007 to coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the titular typefaces introduction. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) is an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to put all of the educational materials from MITs undergraduate- and graduate-level courses online, free and openly available to anyone, anywhere, by the year 2007. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

NASA TV (originally NASA Select) is the television network of the U.S. space agency, NASA. NASA TV is broadcast by satellite, and also simulcast over the Internet. ... This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ... This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) is the rocket that provides 83% of liftoff thrust for the Space Shuttle. ... A Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building. ... Space Shuttle Main Engine cluster The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are the three main engines on the Space Shuttle orbiter. ... An OMS pod detached from a Shuttle for maintenance. ... The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of space operations; its purpose was to perform test flights in the atmosphere. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Launch Complex 39 is a large site and a collection of facilities at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA, originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified to support Space Shuttle operations. ... Boeing Delta 4 Medium+ (4,2) lifts off from Space Launch Complex Six (SLC-6) at Vandenberg AFB, California (Official photo by Thom Baur for the Boeing Company) Vandenberg Air Force Base (IATA: VBG, ICAO: KVBG) is a United States military installation with a spaceport, in Santa Barbara County, California... First launch of a Boeing Delta IV Medium+ (4,2) from SLC-6 on June 27, 2006 (Official photo by Thom Baur for Boeing) Space Launch Complex-6 (SLC-6, nicknamed Slick Six) at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California was a launch pad and support area designed for the... Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) is a location where the Space Shuttle can land. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern... A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASAs Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent. ... Comparison of the Saturn V, Space Shuttle, Ares I, Ares V, and Ares IV. The Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV), is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space launch vehicles from the components, technology and... An artists conception of a Shuttle-C launching at night. ... Ares I is the crew launch vehicle being developed by NASA as a component of Project Constellation. ... The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) is the cargo launch component of Project Constellation. ... The Space Shuttle Orbiter Pathfinder (honorary Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-098) is a Space Shuttle simulator made of steel and wood. ... Main Propulsion Test Article being lifted onto its test stand in 1977. ... The Main Propulsion Test Article ET was built by NASA to be used in conjuction with MPTA-098 for structural tests of the Space Shuttle prior to construction of flyable craft. ... This is a list of missions flown by space shuttles. ... It has been suggested that STS-61-H be merged into this article or section. ... Even before the Apollo moon landing in 1969, in October 1968 NASA began early studies of space shuttle designs. ... This is a list of persons who served aboard Space Shuttle crews, arranged in chronological order by mission. ... A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASAs Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent. ... Even before the first space shuttle was launched, science fiction filmmakers were featuring the craft in their productions. ... Crawler-transporter #2 (Franz) in a December 2004 road test after track shoe replacement. ... Discovery leaves Edwards AFB on the back of a Shuttle Carrier enroute to Kennedy Space Center in Florida Space Shuttle Columbia atop Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) N905NA, after the successful STS-32 mission, fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). ... Space Shuttle America viewed from Sky Trek Tower Space Shuttle America (also known as Space Shuttle America - The Next Century) is a motion simulator ride at Six Flags Great America that opened in 1994. ... The Space Shuttle Explorer is a full-scale replica of a Space Shuttle. ... The Shuttle Training Aircraft positioned in a downward trajectory like the Space Shuttle. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 260 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (458 × 1053 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diagram of US space shuttle in launch configuration File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... CCCP redirects here. ... This article is about the Buran space program in general. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 247 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1700 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diagram of Soviet space shuttle in launch configuration File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of space operations; its purpose was to perform test flights in the atmosphere. ... The Space Shuttle Orbiter Pathfinder (honorary Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-098) is a Space Shuttle simulator made of steel and wood. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... The OK-GLI (Buran Analog BST-02) was a test vehicle (Buran aerodynamic analogue) in the Shuttle Buran program. ... The Buran spacecraft, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational space shuttle from the Soviet Unions Buran program. ... Ptichka (Птичка meaning little bird in Russian) is an informal nickname for the second space shuttle to be produced as part of the Buran program. ... 2. ... 2. ... 2. ... A reusable launch system (or RLV: reusable launch vehicle) is a launch vehicle which is capable of launching into space more than once. ... The Falcon 1 is a partially reusable launch system, designed and manufactured by SpaceX, a space-transportation startup company founded by entrepreneur and PayPal founder Elon Musk to provide commercial launch-to-space services. ... Ares I is the crew launch vehicle being developed by NASA as a component of Project Constellation. ... The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) is the cargo launch component of Project Constellation. ... The Falcon 9 is an EELV class launch vehicle planned by SpaceX and scheduled to launch in 2008. ... Hopper is a proposed European Space Agency orbital craft. ... A rendering of PlanetSpaces Silver Dart reusable spacecraft being launched from its base in Cape Breton Island on Canadas Atlantic seaboard, sometime after 2009. ... The Skylon Spaceplane For other uses of the word Skylon, see Skylon (disambiguation) Skylon is a plausible design by top British rocket scientist Alan Bond for an aeroplane that would be able to fly into low earth orbit, and return, completely intact. ... Richard Branson (right) presents the Governor of New Mexico Bill Richardson with (possibly) an early scale model of Virgin SpaceShip (VSS) aka SpaceShipTwo SpaceShipTwo is a suborbital spaceplane currently under development by The Spaceship Company, a joint venture between Scaled Composites and Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Group, as part... The Scaled Composites SpaceShipThree is a proposed orbital spaceplane to be developed by Virgin Galactic and Scaled Composites if SpaceShipTwo is successful. ... Project 921-3 is a Chinese space shuttle project. ... Project 921-3 is a Chinese space shuttle project. ... Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOnes patch The Scaled Composites Model 316 SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched suborbital spaceplane that uses a hybrid rocket motor. ... The North American X-15 rocket plane was part of the USAF/NASA/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, including also the Bell X-1. ... Energia II (Uragan) rocket was planned to be completely reusable and would be able to land on a conventional airfield. ... The Falcon 5 is a Falcon family two stage to orbit RP-1 kerosene/liquid oxygen semi-reusable launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX. The 1st stage includes five Merlin engines and the upper stage includes one Merlin engine. ... An illustration of a K-1 launch (RpK) The K-1 launch vehicle is a two-stage, fully reusable aerospace vehicle now in commercial development by Rocketplane Kistler. ... The Saturn-Shuttle was a proposed interface of the Space Shuttle orbiter and external tank with the S-IC stage on the Saturn V rocket. ... An artists conception of a Shuttle-C launching at night. ... VentureStar VentureStar was Lockheed-Martins proposed design for a SSTO RLV. The programs primary goal was to develop a reusable unmanned space plane for launching satellites into orbit at about 1/10 the cost of other systems that would completely replace the space shuttle. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Space Shuttle - MSN Encarta (1520 words)
The space shuttle was initially used to deploy satellites in orbit; to carry scientific experiments such as Spacelab, a modular arrangement of experiments installed in the shuttle's cargo bay; and to carry out military missions.
The space shuttle carries a wide range of equipment, known as the payload, into space, ranging from communication, military, and astronomical satellites; space experiments for studying the apparent weightlessness (called microgravity) experienced aboard a shuttle flight; and human experimental facilities.
The space shuttle is designed to leave Earth as a vertically launched rocket weighing up to 2.0 million kg (4.5 million lb) with 3 million kg (7 million lb) of thrust from its multiple propulsion systems.
Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Columbia, Columbia Space Shuttle at SPACE.com (375 words)
The NASA Space Shuttle program, officially called the Space Transportation System (STS), has been the United States’ official means of launching man into outer space for the purpose of exploration since its inception in the late 1960’s by President Richard Nixon.
The final design of the space shuttle, which is still used today, was designed to carry between five and seven astronauts, and was to be used for approximately 100 launches, or 10 years by the program.
The first completed, fully functional NASA space shuttle was the Columbia, which made her debut at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on March 25, 1979.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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