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Encyclopedia > Space probe

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Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe.
Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe.

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A space probe is a scientific space exploration mission in which a robotic spacecraft leaves the gravity well of Earth and approaches the Moon or enters interplanetary or interstellar space; approximately twenty are currently extant. The space agencies of the USSR (now Russia and Ukraine), the United States, the European Union, Japan and China have in the aggregate launched probes to several planets and moons of the solar system as well as to a number of asteroids and comets. Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... A gravity well is the scientific/science fictional term for the distortion in space-time caused by a massive body such as a planet. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Interplanetary space refers to the region of outer space between planets in a solar system. ... Interstellar Space was one of the last albums recorded before the death of John Coltrane in 1967. ... For a list of probes categorized by destination, see List of planetary probes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... The common noun moon (not capitalized) is used to mean any natural satellite of the other planets. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Types

A space probe destined for a planet or other astronomical body can be classified as a " flyby", an "impactor", an "orbiter" or a "lander" mission. Historically, flyby missions proved easiest to accomplish, as they did not require the precise navigation needed for an impact, nor the need for additional propulsion to conduct a maneuver to enter orbit. Upon landing some landers have released "rovers" which travel across the surface of the astronomical body upon which they have landed. See lists of astronomical objects for a list of the various lists of astronomical objects in Wikipedia. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... A lander is a type of spacecraft which descends to come to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites. ... An orbital maneuver is a change from one orbit to another, accomplished by applying thrust. ... Two different Mars rover designs. ...

The Genesis probe was a sample return mission requiring very little fuel.
The Genesis probe was a sample return mission requiring very little fuel.

Download high resolution version (1500x1118, 136 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1118, 136 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In its collecting configuration, the Genesis spacecraft exposed collecting wafers to the solar wind. ...

Interplanetary trajectories

Once a probe has left the vicinity of Earth, its trajectory will likely take it along an orbit around the Sun similar to the Earth's orbit. To reach another planet, the conceptually simplest means is to execute a Hohmann transfer orbit maneuver. More complex techniques, such as gravitational slingshots, can be more efficient, though they may require the probe to spend more time in transit. A technique using very little propulsion, but possibly requiring a considerable amount of time, is to follow a trajectory on the Interplanetary Transport Network. Sol redirects here. ... In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that, under standard assumption, moves a spacecraft from one circular orbit to another using two engine impulses. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... Artists concept of the Interplanetary Transport Network. ...




Some notable probes

Luna 1:
The first successful space probe was the Soviet Luna 1 flyby of the Moon in 1959. Luna 1 reached the escape velocity of the Earth, and passed within 5,995 km (3,725 mi) of the Moon's surface after 83 hours of flight. It then went into orbit around the Sun, between the orbits of Earth and Mars. Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...



The Huygens landing site on Titan.

Huygens probe:
The Huygens probe was a lander constructed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and launched as part of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn's moon Titan. Huygens separated from the Cassini orbiter on December 25, 2004, and landed on Titan on January 14, 2005. It returned 350 pictures from the surface. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Huygens probe, supplied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and named after the Dutch 17th century astronomer Christiaan Huygens, is an atmospheric entry probe carried to Saturns moon Titan as part of the Cassini-Huygens mission. ... ESA redirects here. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Spirit and Opportunity:
The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars to explore the Martian surface and geology, and search for and clues to past water activity on Mars. They were each launched in 2003 and landed in 2004. As of January 24, 2007, both Spirit and Opportunity have lasted for more than three years on Mars--when they were intended to last only three months. On February 6, 2007, Opportunity had traversed more than 10 km (6 mi) on the surface of Mars.[1] Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers — Spirit and Opportunity — to explore the Martian surface and geology. ... The launch patch for Spirit, featuring Marvin the Martian. ... The launch patch for Opportunity, featuring Duck Dodgers (Daffy Duck). ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Locations of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.
Locations of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.

Voyager 1:
Voyager 1 is an 733-kilogram probe launched September 5, 1977. It is currently still operational, making it the longest-lasting mission of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It visited Jupiter and Saturn and was the first probe to provide detailed images of the moons of these planets. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x1687, 1789 KB) original description: This still shows the locations of Voyagers 1 and 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x1687, 1789 KB) original description: This still shows the locations of Voyagers 1 and 2. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ...


Voyager 1 is the farthest human-made object from Earth, traveling away from both the Earth and the Sun at a relatively faster speed than any other probe. As of August 12, 2006, Voyager 1 is over 14.96 terameters (14.96×1012 meters, or 14.96×109 km, 100 AU, or 9.3 billion miles) from the Sun. At this distance, signals from Voyager 1 take more than thirteen hours to reach its control center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Voyager 1 has achieved solar escape velocity, meaning that its trajectory will not return it to the solar system. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Sol redirects here. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A terametre (American spelling: terameter) (symbol: Tm) is a unit of length equal to 1012 metres. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ...


Along with Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and its sister ship Voyager 2, Voyager 1 is an interstellar probe. Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... Position of Pioneer 10 and 11 Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


References

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

Spaceflight Portal
For a list of probes organized by functional status and mission completion, see List of probes by operational status. ... // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
space probe — FactMonster.com (731 words)
Instruments carried by space probes include radiometers, magnetometers, and television cameras sensitive to infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light; there also may be special detectors for micrometeors, cosmic rays, gamma rays, and solar wind.
A probe may be directed to orbit a planet, to soft-land instrument packages on a planetary surface, or to fly by as close as a few thousand miles from one or more planets.
The particulars of trajectory and instrumentation of each space probe are tailored around the mission's scientific and technological objectives; the data provided by a single space probe may require months or even years of analysis.
space probe. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (812 words)
Unlike an artificial satellite, which is placed in more or less permanent orbit around the earth, a space probe is launched with enough energy to escape the gravitational field of the earth and navigate among the planets.
Instruments carried by space probes include radiometers, magnetometers, and television cameras sensitive to infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light; there also may be special detectors for micrometeors, cosmic rays, gamma rays, and solar wind.
The particulars of trajectory and instrumentation of each space probe are tailored around the mission’s scientific and technological objectives; the data provided by a single space probe may require months or even years of analysis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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