Other spaceplane designs use the vehicle's wings to provide lift for the ascent to space as well, in addition to the rocket. As of June 21, 2004, the only such craft to reach space have been the X-15 and SpaceShipOne. Neither of these craft have been capable of entering orbit, and both only start independent flight after being lifted to high altitude by a carrier aircraft. NASA and Boeing are currently developing uncrewed orbital spaceplane technologies as a low-cost alternative to expendable launch vehicles for satellite launches (see X-34, X-37, X-40A)
Future orbital spaceplanes may take off, ascend, descend, and land like conventional aircraft, providing true single stage to orbit capability. Proponents of scramjet technology often cite such a vehicle as being a possible application of that type of engine.
Various types of spaceplanes have been suggested since the early twentieth century. Notable early designs include Friedrich Zander's spaceplane equipped with wings made of combustible alloys that it would burn during its ascent, and Eugen Sänger's Silbervogelbomber design. Winged versions of the V2 rocket were considered during and after World War II, and when public interest in space exploration was high in the 1950s and 60s, winged rocket designs by Wernher von Braun and Willy Ley served to inspire science fiction artists and filmmakers. The X-20 Dyna-Soar was to have been the first orbital spaceplane, but was cancelled in favor of the Space Shuttle.
The OrbitalSpacePlane program (now defunct and replaced by the Spiral series of CEV â€” Crew Exploration Vehicles) was designed to support the International Space Station requirements for crew rescue, crew transport and contingency cargo such as supplies, food and other needed equipment.
Since it was designed to support the International Space Station, the OrbitalSpacePlane was initially designed to serve as a crew rescue vehicle for the Station; this replaced the previous plans for a dedicated station Crew Return Vehicle, which had been sidelined by budget cuts.
The OrbitalSpacePlane was also designed to provide safe, affordable access to the International Space Station, as a replacement for the aging Shuttle.
Spaceplanes may be categorized into surface to surface (STS) type and surface to outer space (STO) type according to the purposes of their usage.
However, while the space shuttle is launched as a rocket with some disposable parts including two boosters and a fuel tank and lands as a glider without any power, the STO type spaceplane is entirely reusable, will take off and land horizontally in the same way as an airplane.
A space object is a body that is able to reach the first cosmic speed or circular speed and more, with the intention of launching that body into earth orbit or beyond, including a series of activities related to that launching as well as an attempted launching.
Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Want to know more? Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:
Press Releases |
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m