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Encyclopedia > Space exploration
Sputnik 1
Yuri Gagarin
Buzz Aldrin
(From top to bottom)

This content has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on its removal. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 732 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1094 × 896 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sputnik 1 - Source (NSSDC Master Catalog by NASA). ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x2700, 2494 KB) Short description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the moon Full description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ...

Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space.[1] Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Explorer redirects here. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ...


While the observation of objects in space—known as astronomy—pre-dates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large liquid-fueled rocket engines during the early 20th century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality. Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity and developing military/strategic advantages against other countries. Various criticisms of Space Exploration are sometimes made, generally on cost or safety grounds. For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Space exploration has often been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries such as the Cold War. The early era of space exploration was driven by a "Space Race" between the Soviet Union and the United States; the launch of the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, the USSR's Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957, and the first Moon landing by the American Apollo 11 craft on July 20, 1969 are often taken as the boundaries for this initial period. The Soviet space program achieved many of the first milestones under Sergey Korolyov and Kerim Kerimov, including the first human spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1) in 1961, the first spacewalk (by Aleksei Leonov) in 1965, and the launch of the first space station (Salyut 1) in 1971. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (often transliterated as Sergei Korolev),[2] (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ), (January 12 [O.S. December 30 1906] 1907, Zhytomyr – January 14, 1966, Moscow), was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. ... Kerim Kerimov Kerim Kerimov (Azerbaijani: Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Russian: Керим Алиевич Керимов; 1917 – 2003) was a Soviet rocket scientist, one of the founders of the Soviet space industry, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... General Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov, Soviet Air Force (Ret. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ...


After the first 20 years of exploration, focus shifted from one-off flights to renewable hardware, such as the Space Shuttle program, and from competition to cooperation as with the International Space Station. From the 1990s onwards, private interests began promoting space tourism. Larger government programs have advocated manned missions to the Moon and possibly Mars sometime after 2010. This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ... ISS redirects here. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space. ...

Contents

History

See also: Timeline of space exploration  and Astronomy#History

1Project Vanguard was transferred from the NRL to NASA immediately before launch. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...

First orbital flights

Laika, in 1957, became the first animal to be launched into orbit.
Laika, in 1957, became the first animal to be launched into orbit.

The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik (Satellite I) mission on October 4, 1957. The satellite weighed about 83 kg (184 pounds), and is believed to have orbited Earth at a height of about 250 km (150 miles). It had two radio transmitters (20 and 40 MHz), which emitted "beeps" that could be heard by any radio around the globe. Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere, while temperature and pressure data was encoded in the duration of radio beeps. The results indicated that the satellite was not punctured by a meteoroid. Sputnik 1 was launched by an R-7 rocket. It incinerated upon re-entry on January 3, 1958. Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ... For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ... CCCP redirects here. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Meteor redirects here. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...


This success led to an escalation of the American space program, which unsuccessfully attempted to launch Vanguard 1 into orbit two months later. On January 31, 1958, the U.S. successfully orbited Explorer 1 on a Juno rocket. In the meantime, the Soviet dog Laika became the first animal in orbit on November 3, 1957.
Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... Vanguard 1 was the fourth artificial satellite launched, and is the oldest still orbiting Earth, though there is no longer any communication with it. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


First human flights

The first human spaceflight was Vostok 1 (East 1), carrying 27 year old cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961. The spacecraft completed one orbit around the globe, lasting about 1 hour and 48 minutes. Gagarin's flight resonated around the world; it was a demonstration of the advanced Soviet space program and it opened an entirely new era in space exploration — human spaceflight. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ...


The U.S. first launched a person into space within a month of Gagarin's flight with the first Mercury flight, by Alan Shepard. Orbital flight was achieved by the United States when John Glenn's Mercury-Atlas 6 orbited the Earth on February 20, 1962. Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... For other persons named Alan Shepard, see Alan Shepard (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... // Crew John Glenn (flew on Mercury 6 & STS-95) Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, orbited the Earth 48 times aboard Vostok 6 on June 16, 1963. 1963 USSR postage stamp depicting Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: ; born March 6, 1937), is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on the 16th of June 1963. ... A joint flight with Vostok 5, Vostok 6 carried the first woman into space, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


China first launched a person into space 42 years after the launch of Vostok 1, on October 15, 2003, with the flight of Yang Liwei aboard the Shenzhou 5 (Spaceboat 5) spacecraft. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Lìwěi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) (born June 21, 1965) is an astronaut of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shenzhou 5 (神舟五号) was the first manned space mission launched by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) on October 15, 2003. ...


Key people in early space exploration

The dream of stepping into the outer reaches of the Earth's atmosphere was driven by rocket technology. The German V2 was the first rocket to travel into space, overcoming the problems of thrust and material failure. During the final days of World War II this technology was obtained by both the Americans and Soviets as were its designers. The initial driving force for further development of the technology was a weapons race for inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) to be used as long-range carriers for fast nuclear weapon delivery, but in 1961 when USSR launched the first man into space, the U.S. declared itself to be in a "Space Race" with Russia. For other uses, see V2. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ...

Kerim Kerimov was one of the founders of the Soviet space program.
Kerim Kerimov was one of the founders of the Soviet space program.
  • Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert Goddard, Hermann Oberth and Reinhold Tilling laid the groundwork of rocketry in the early years of the 20th century.
  • Wernher von Braun was the lead rocket engineer for Nazi Germany's World War II V-2 rocket project. In the last days of the war he led a caravan of workers in the German rocket program to the American lines, where they surrendered and were brought to the USA to work on U.S. rocket development. He acquired American citizenship and led the team that developed and launched Explorer 1, the first American satellite. Von Braun later led the team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center which developed the Saturn V moon rocket.
  • Initially the race for space was often led by Sergey Korolyov, whose legacy includes both the R7 and Soyuz—which remain in service to this day. Korolev was the mastermind behind the first satellite, first man (and first woman) in orbit and first spacewalk. Until his death his identity was a closely guarded state secret; not even his mother knew that he was responsible for creating the Russian space program.
  • Kerim Kerimov was one of the founders of the Soviet space program and was one of the lead architects behind the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1) alongside Sergey Korolyov. After Korolyov's death in 1966, Kerimov became the lead scientist of the Soviet space program and was responsible for the launch of the first space stations from from 1971 to 1991, including the Salyut and Mir series, and their precursors in 1967, the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188.[2][3]

Other key people included: ImageMetadata File history File links Kerimov21. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Kerimov21. ... Kerim Kerimov Kerim Kerimov (Azerbaijani: Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Russian: Керим Алиевич Керимов; 1917 – 2003) was a Soviet rocket scientist, one of the founders of the Soviet space industry, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (Константин Эдуардович Циолковский, Konstanty Ciołkowski) (September 5, 1857 new style – September 19, 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of cosmonautics who spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of the Russian town of Kaluga. ... Robert Goddard is the name of several notable individuals, including: Robert Goddard (scientist) (1882-1945), one of the pioneers of modern rocketry. ... Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see V2. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (often transliterated as Sergei Korolev),[2] (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ), (January 12 [O.S. December 30 1906] 1907, Zhytomyr – January 14, 1966, Moscow), was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... Kerim Kerimov Kerim Kerimov (Azerbaijani: Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Russian: Керим Алиевич Керимов; 1917 – 2003) was a Soviet rocket scientist, one of the founders of the Soviet space industry, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... Cosmos 186 incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. ... Cosmos 188 incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. ...

  • Valentin Glushko held role of Chief Engine Designer for USSR. Glushko designed many of the engines used on the early Soviet rockets, but was constantly at odds with Korolyov.
  • Vasily Mishin, Chief Designer working under Sergey Korolyov and one of first Soviets to inspect the captured German V2 design. Following the death of Sergei Korolev, Mishin was held responsible for the Soviet failure to be first country to place a man on the moon.
  • Bob Gilruth, was the NASA head of the Space Task Force and director of 25 manned space flights. Gilruth was the person who suggested to John F. Kennedy that the Americans take the bold step of reaching the Moon in an attempt to reclaim space superiority from the Soviets.
  • Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., was NASA's first flight director and oversaw development of Mission Control and associated technologies and procedures.

Valentin Petrovich Glushko (born September 2, 1908 in Odessa, Ukraine, died January 10, 1989) was a Russian engineer and rocketry pioneer. ... Vasily Mishin Vasily Pavlovich Mishin (born January 18, 1917, died October 10, 2001) was a Soviet engineer and a prominent rocketry pioneer. ... Robert Rowe Gilruth (October 18, 1913_August 17, 2000) was an American aviation and space pioneer. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... “Chris Kraft” redirects here. ... Flight controller: a space flight control room position at NASAs Mission Control Center. ... Mission Control Center (MCC) is a unit that manages aerospace flights. ...

Targets of exploration

Astrobiology

Main article: Astrobiology

Astrobiology is the interdisciplinary study of life in the universe, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology.[4] It is focused primarily on the study of the origin, distribution and evolution of life. It is also known as exobiology (from Greek: έξω, exo, "outside").[5][6][7] The term "Xenobiology" has been used as well, but this is technically incorrect because its terminology means "biology of the foreigners".[8] Astrobiologists must also consider the possibility of life that is chemically entirely distinct from any life found on earth.[9] The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1] Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, constellation; βίος, bios, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the definition, see Life. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...

MESSENGER image of Mercury
A MESSENGER image from 18,000 km showing a region about 500 km across
A MESSENGER image from 18,000 km showing a region about 500 km across

This article is about the NASA space mission. ...

Mercury

The exploration of Mercury has taken only a minor role in the space interests of the world. It is the least explored inner planet (JHU/APL, 2006). As of January 2008, the Mariner 10 and MESSENGER missions have been the only missions that have made close observations of Mercury. MESSENGER made a fly-by of Mercury on 14 January 2008, to further investigate the observations made by Mariner 10 in 1975 (Munsell, 2006b). A third mission to Mercury, BepiColombo, is to include two probes. BepiColombo is a joint mission between Japan and the European Space Agency. MESSENGER and BepiColombo are intended to gather complementary data to help scientists understand many of the mysteries discovered by Mariner 10's flybys. The exploration of Mercury has taken only a minor role in the space interests of the world. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mariner 10 probe. ... This article is about the NASA space mission. ... This article is about the NASA space mission. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... BepiColombo is a joint Cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury. ... Italic textBold text Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe. ... ESA redirects here. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ...


Flights to other planets within the Solar System are accomplished at a cost in energy, which is described by the net change in velocity of the spacecraft, or delta-v. Due to the relatively high delta-v to reach Mercury and its proximity to the Sun, it is difficult to explore and orbits around it are rather unstable. General In general physics delta-v is simply the change in velocity. ...

Mariner 10 image of Venus
Mariner 10 image of Venus

Image File history File links Venus-real. ... Image File history File links Venus-real. ... The Mariner 10 probe. ...

Venus

Venus was the first target of interplanetary flyby and lander missions and, despite one of the most hostile surface environments in the solar system, has had more landers sent to it, nearly all from the Soviet Union, than any other planet in the solar system. The first successful Venus flyby was the American Mariner 2 spacecraft, which flew past Venus in 1962. Mariner 2 has been followed by several other flybys by multiple space agencies often as part of missions using a Venus flyby to provide a gravitational assist en route to other celestial bodies. In 1967 Venera 4 became the first probe to enter and directly examine the atmosphere of Venus. In 1970 Venera 7 became the first successful lander to reach the surface of Venus and by 1985 it had been followed by 8 additional successful Soviet Venus landers which provided images and other direct surface data. Starting in 1975 with the Soviet orbiter Venera 9 some 10 successful orbiter missions have been sent to Venus including later missions which were able map the surface of Venus using radar to pierce the obscuring atmosphere. The planet Venus has been explored several times. ... This article is about the planet. ... -1... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Venera 4 Venera 4 landing capsule Venera 4 (Russian:Венера-4) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7) was launched as part of the Venera program by the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Venera 9 (Russian: Венера-9) was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...

The 'marble' Earth picture taken by Apollo 17
The 'marble' Earth picture taken by Apollo 17
The first television image of Earth from space from the TIROS-1 weather satellite.
The first television image of Earth from space from the TIROS-1 weather satellite.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3002 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 599 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3002 pixel, file size: 6. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program. ... Download high resolution version (590x658, 236 KB)First TV image of Earth from space. ... Download high resolution version (590x658, 236 KB)First TV image of Earth from space. ...

Earth

The Earth is by far the most explored object in the Solar System.


The Americans were the first to discover the existence of the Van Allen belts around the Earth. These belts contain radiation trapped by the Earth's magnetic fields, which currently prevent habitable space stations from being placed above 1000km. Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ...


The Earth is explored and observed by Earth observation satellites. The hole in the ozone layer was found from an artificial satellite that was exploring Earth's atmosphere. Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth...

The Moon as seen from the Earth
The Moon as seen from the Earth
John Young works at the LRV near the Lunar Module Orion
John Young works at the LRV near the Lunar Module Orion

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 594 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1411 × 1424 pixel, file size: 903 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 594 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1411 × 1424 pixel, file size: 903 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x985, 269 KB)Apollo 16 LM Orion with John W. Young working at the Lunar Rover http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x985, 269 KB)Apollo 16 LM Orion with John W. Young working at the Lunar Rover http://www. ... For the Soviet robotic rovers, see Lunokhod programme. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ...

Earth's Moon

The Russians were the first to take pictures of the far side of the moon; something that was never visible to humans. It was discovered that the far side was more heavily cratered. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Far side of the Moon. ...


The American Apollo missions returned rocks from the moon that support the theory that the Moon was once part of the Earth. Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ...

Mars as seen by the HST
Mars as seen by the HST
Part of a panorama taken by the Spirit rover in 2004
Part of a panorama taken by the Spirit rover in 2004

Image File history File links Mars_Hubble. ... Image File history File links Mars_Hubble. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as the Hubble or just Hubble) is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit...

Mars

Main article: Exploration of Mars

The exploration of Mars has been an important part of the space exploration programs of the Soviet Union (later Russia), the United States, Europe, and Japan. Dozens of robotic spacecraft, including orbiters, landers, and rovers, have been launched toward Mars since the 1960s. These missions were aimed at gathering data about current conditions and answering questions about the history of Mars. The questions raised by the scientific community are expected to not only give a better appreciation of the red planet but also yield further insight into the past, and possible future of Earth. Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... An orbiter is a spacecraft that orbits a planet or moon without landing on it in order to study the objects surface from a safe distance. ... A lander is a type of spacecraft which descends to come to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. ... Two different Mars rover designs. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


The exploration of Mars has come at a considerable financial cost with roughly two-thirds of all spacecraft destined for Mars failing before completing their missions, with some failing before they even begin. Such a high failure rate can be attributed to the complexity and large number of variables involved in an interplanetary journey, and has led researchers to jokingly speak of The Great Galactic Ghoul [10] which subsists on a diet of Mars probes. This phenomenon is also informally known as the Mars Curse. [11]

Voyager 1 image of Jupiter
Voyager 1 image of Jupiter
Image of Io taken by the Galileo spacecraft
Image of Io taken by the Galileo spacecraft

Download high resolution version (758x858, 58 KB)Caption: Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. ... Download high resolution version (758x858, 58 KB)Caption: Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, while still more than 25 million miles (40 million kilometers) away. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo and Inertial Upper Stage being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ...

Jupiter

The exploration of Jupiter has consisted solely of a number of automated NASA spacecraft visiting the planet since 1973. A large majority of the missions have been "flybys", in which detailed observations are taken without the probe landing or entering orbit; the Galileo spacecraft is only one to have orbited the planet. As Jupiter is projected to have only a relatively small rocky core and no real solid surface, a landing mission is impossible. The exploration of Jupiter has consisted of a few automated spacecraft visiting the planet since 1973. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ...


Reaching Jupiter from Earth requires a delta-v of 9.2 km/s,[12] which is comparable to the 9.7 km/s delta-v needed to reach low Earth orbit.[13] Fortunately, gravity assists through planetary flybys can be used to reduce the energy required at launch to reach Jupiter, albeit at the cost of a significantly longer flight duration.[12] In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ...


Jupiter has over 60 known moons many of which relatively little is known. Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ...

A picture of Saturn taken by Voyager 2.
A picture of Saturn taken by Voyager 2.
Huygens probe image from the surface of Titan
Huygens probe image from the surface of Titan

Download high resolution version (650x813, 21 KB)Original Caption Released with Image: This true color picture was assembled from Voyager 2 Saturn images obtained Aug. ... Download high resolution version (650x813, 21 KB)Original Caption Released with Image: This true color picture was assembled from Voyager 2 Saturn images obtained Aug. ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... Download high resolution version (316x630, 38 KB)Image of Titans surface taken by the Huygens lander on January 14, 2005; the simulated colour is based on spectral measurements taken by the probe. ... Download high resolution version (316x630, 38 KB)Image of Titans surface taken by the Huygens lander on January 14, 2005; the simulated colour is based on spectral measurements taken by the probe. ... The Huygens probe, supplied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and named after the Dutch 17th century astronomer Christiaan Huygens, is an atmospheric entry probe carried to Saturns moon Titan as part of the Cassini-Huygens mission. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ...

Saturn

Main article: Exploration of Saturn

The exploration of Saturn has been solely through unmanned spacecraft launched by NASA including one mission planned and executed in cooperation with other space agencies. Like all gas giants, there is no solid surface for a probe to land on. Most missions therefore have been flybys with the exception of the joint NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini–Huygens spacecraft currently in orbit. The exploration of Saturn has been soley through unmanned spacecraft. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ...


Saturn has at least 60 satellites, although the exact number is debatable since Saturn's rings are made up of vast numbers of independently orbiting objects of varying sizes. The Saturnian system (photographic montage) Moons of Saturn (photographic montage) Saturn has 60 confirmed natural satellites, plus three hypothetical moons. ...

Uranus from Voyager 2
Uranus from Voyager 2
Voyager 2 image showing the tortured surface of Miranda
Voyager 2 image showing the tortured surface of Miranda

Image File history File linksMetadata Uranus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Uranus. ... Miranda, moon of Uranus. ... Miranda, moon of Uranus. ... Miranda (IPA: ) is the smallest and innermost of Uranus five major moons. ...

Uranus

Main article: Exploration of Uranus

The exploration of Uranus has been solely through the Voyager 2 spacecraft, with no other visits currently planned. The closest approach to Uranus occurred on January 24, 1986. Voyager 2 discovered 10 previously unknown moons; studied the planet's unique atmosphere, caused by its axial tilt of 97.77°; and examined its ring system. Uranus viewed from 18 million kilometers. ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Uranus has 27 known moons. ... In astronomy, axial tilt is the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to a perpendicular to its orbital plane. ... The scheme of Uranuss ring-moon system The planet Uranus has a complex system of rings. ...

Picture of Neptune taken by Voyager 2
Picture of Neptune taken by Voyager 2
Triton as imaged by Voyager 2
Triton as imaged by Voyager 2

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (651x641, 42 KB) [[LinBold texthioyoihijhiohglmjjl;,hl;khkljblhgklbmyhgmklmjjhop[trp Original Caption Released with Image: During August 16 and 17, 1989, the Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera was used to photograph Neptune almost continuously, recording approximately two and one-half rotations of the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (651x641, 42 KB) [[LinBold texthioyoihijhiohglmjjl;,hl;khkljblhgklbmyhgmklmjjhop[trp Original Caption Released with Image: During August 16 and 17, 1989, the Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera was used to photograph Neptune almost continuously, recording approximately two and one-half rotations of the... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... Download high resolution version (1024x796, 150 KB)A color mosaic of Triton, Neptunes moon (large). ... Download high resolution version (1024x796, 150 KB)A color mosaic of Triton, Neptunes moon (large). ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ...

Neptune

Main article: Exploration of Neptune

The exploration of Neptune has only begun with one explorer, Voyager 2, which visited on August 25, 1989. The possibility of a Neptune Orbiter is being discussed, yet other than that, no other missions have been given serious thought. As Neptune is a gas giant and has no solid surface, a surface mission such as a lander or rover is impossible. Voyager 2 found that Neptune has the fastest winds of any planet in the solar system, measured as high as 2,100 km/h.[14] Neptunes largest moon Triton is thought to be a captured Kuiper belt object.[15] The exploration of Neptune has only begun with one expolorer, Voyager 2, which visited on August 25, 1989. ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Artists conceptual drawing of the future Neptune Orbiter. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A lander is a type of spacecraft which descends to come to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. ... Two different Mars rover designs. ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ...

Image of Pluto based on data from Charon eclipses of Pluto
Image of Pluto based on data from Charon eclipses of Pluto

Image File history File links Pluto. ... Image File history File links Pluto. ... Charon (pronounced SHAIR-ən, or KAIR-ən as in Greek: ), discovered in 1978, is, depending on the definition employed, either the largest moon of Pluto or one member of a double dwarf planet with Pluto being the other member. ...

Pluto

Main article: Exploration of Pluto

The dwarf planet Pluto (considered a planet until the IAU redefinition of "planet" in October 2006[16]) presents significant challenges for spacecraft because of its great distance from Earth (requiring high velocity for reasonable trip times) and small mass (making capture into orbit very difficult at present). Voyager 1 could have visited Pluto, but controllers opted instead for a close flyby of Saturn's moon Titan, resulting in a trajectory incompatible with a Pluto flyby. Voyager 2 never had a plausible trajectory for reaching Pluto.[17] For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ...


Despite its reclassification, as the lead and nearest member of a new and growing class of distant icy bodies of intermediate size, in mass between the remaining eight planets and the small rocky objects historically termed asteroids (and also the first member of the important subclass, defined by orbit and known as "Plutinos"), Pluto continues to be of great interest. After an intense political battle, a mission to Pluto dubbed New Horizons, was granted funding from the US government in 2003.[18] New Horizons was launched successfully on January 19, 2006. In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object that has a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. ... For other uses, see New Horizons (disambiguation). ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early 2007 the craft made use of a gravity assist from Jupiter. Its closest approach to Pluto will be on July 14, 2015; scientific observations of Pluto will begin 5 months prior to closest approach and will continue for at least a month after the encounter. In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the video game developer, see 2015, Inc. ...

Source : NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Source : NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 951 Gaspra is an S-type asteroid that orbits very close to the inner edge of the asteroid belt. ...

Asteroids

Main article: Exploration of the asteroids

Until the advent of space travel, objects in the asteroid belt were merely pinpricks of light in even the largest telescopes, their shapes and terrain remaining a mystery. Several asteroids have now been visited by probes, the first of which was Galileo, which flew past two: 951 Gaspra in 1991, followed by 243 Ida in 1993. Both of these lay near enough to Galileo's planned trajectory to Jupiter that they could be visited at acceptable cost. The first landing on an asteroid was performed by the NEAR Shoemaker probe in 2000, following an orbital survey of the object. The dwarf planet Ceres and the asteroid 4 Vesta are targets of NASA's Dawn mission, launched in 2007 September.
ISS in earth orbit. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Gaspra (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a spa town in Crimea, Ukraine. ... Artists conception of the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft Near Earth Asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft. ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... The Dawn Mission, launched on September 27, 2007, is NASAs mission to send a robotic space probe to the two most massive members of the asteroid belt: the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. ...


Rationale

See also: Space advocacy

Space advocacy is a political position that favors the exploration, utilization, and colonization of outer space. ...

In favor

The research that is conducted by national space exploration agencies, such as NASA and the RKA, is among the reasons supporters cite to justify government expenses. Some even claim that space exploration is a necessity to mankind and that staying in our home planet will lead us to oblivion. Some of the reasons are lack of natural resources, comets, nuclear war, worldwide epidemic etc. Stephen Hawking, renowned British theoretical physicist, said that "I don't think the human race will survive the next thousand years, unless we spread into space. There are too many accidents that can befall life on a single planet. But I'm an optimist. We will reach out to the stars."[19] The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ...


NASA has produced a series of Public Service Announcement videos supporting the concept of space exploration.[20]


Overall, the public remains largely supportive of both manned and unmanned space exploration. According to an Associated Press Poll conducted in July 2003, 71% of U.S. citizens agreed with the statement that the space program is "a good investment", compared to 21% who did not.[21] The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Arthur C. Clarke (1950) presented a summary of motivations for the human exploration of space in his non-fiction semi-technical monograph Interplanetary Flight [22]. In it he argued that humanity's choice is essentially between expansion off the Earth into space, versus cultural (and eventually biological) stagnation and death. Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008), was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to the film of the same name...


Opposed

Critics, such as the late physicist and Nobel prize winner Richard Feynman have contended that space travel has never achieved any major scientific breakthroughs.[23] Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article is about the physicist. ...


Related topics

Spaceflight

Main article: Spaceflight

Spaceflight is the use of space technology to fly a spacecraft into and through outer space. Spaceflight is very typically a component of space exploration, but also supports commercial activities, satellite launches. ISS in earth orbit. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...


Space colonization

Main article: Space colonization

Space colonization, also called space settlement and space humanization, would be the permanent autonomous (self-sufficient) human habitation of locations outside Earth, especially of natural satellites or planets such as the Moon or Mars, using significant amounts of In-Situ Resource Utilization. Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Lunar outpost redirects here. ... Mars Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization. ... In astronautics, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is the way to describe the use the resources of the planetary body which is explored (Moon, Mars,...) to provide propellant, energy or consumables to the science payload or to the crew which has been deployed there. ...


Many past and current concepts for the continued exploration and colonization of space focus on a return to the moon as a "stepping stone" to the other planets, especially Mars. At the end of 2006 NASA announced they were planning to build a permanent moon base with continual presence by 2024.[24]


Space agencies

While only the space programs of the United States, Soviet Union/Russia, and China have launched humans into orbit, a number of other countries have space agencies which design and launch satellites, conduct space research, and coordinate national astronaut programs. // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ...

This is a timeline of first orbital launches by nationality. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ...

See also

Spaceflight Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Space exploration
Main list: List of basic space exploration topics
Robotic space exploration programs
Animals in space
Humans in space
Recent and future developments
Other

Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space by both manned and unmanned spacecraft. ... An artists interpretation of the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. ... Timeline of planetary exploration by date of launch. ... This is a list of all spacecraft landings on other planets and bodies in the solar system, including both intended and unintended crash-landings. ... The US Pioneer program of unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration. ... The Luna programme was a series of 24 unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ... Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander The Venera series of probes was developed by the USSR for the gathering of data from Venus. ... The Mars program was a series of Mars unmanned landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. ... The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon. ... Launch of Mariner 1 (NASA) The Mariner program was a program conducted by the American space agency NASA that launched a series of robotic interplanetary probes designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury. ... Photograph of Surveyor(3) lunar landing spacecraft taken by Apollo 12 astronauts (descriptions added). ... Viking mission profile. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... The Vega mission was a Venus mission which also took advantage of the appearance of Comet Halley in 1986. ... Illustration of the Phobos spacecraft Image of Phobos taken by Phobos 2 spacecraft The Phobos program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. ... NASAs Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost, highly focused scientific space missions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Squirrel monkey Baker rode a Jupiter missile (modeled above) into space in 1959 Animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight before manned space missions were attempted. ... Sam the rhesus monkey flew to an apogee of 88 km in 1959. ... Belka and Strelka orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-5 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight), or were launched with that intention but failed. ... List of human spaceflights: // Apollo Missions Apollo 7 Apollo 8 - first human flight around the moon Apollo 9 Apollo 10 Apollo 11 - first human moon landing Apollo 12 Apollo 13 - explosion en route to Moon forced emergency return to Earth by using free return trajectory Apollo 14 Apollo 15 Apollo... The Vostok program (Восто́к, translated as East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth orbit for the first time. ... Description Role: Orbital spaceflight Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Height: 11. ... The Voskhod programme (Восход, translated as Sunrise) was a Soviet human spaceflight project. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the Luna programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... The Apollo program was a human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961 – 1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... ISS redirects here. ... Shenzhou (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a spacecraft from the Peoples Republic of China which first carried a Chinese astronaut into orbit on October 15, 2003. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... The Aurora Programme is a programme of the European Space Agency established in 2001 with the primary objectives of creating, and then implementing, a European long-term plan for exploration of the Solar System using robotic spacecraft and human spaceflight. ... Tier One is Scaled Composites program of suborbital human spaceflight using the reusable spacecraft SpaceShipOne and its launcher White Knight. ... Human physiological adaptation to the conditions of space is a challenge faced in the development of human spaceflight. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... CEV with lunar lander CEV during a landing on earth CEV rocket, the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (right) along side the heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) rocket. ... Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space. ... This space for sale Private spaceflight is flight above 100km Earth altitude conducted by an entity other than a government. ... Artists conception of a space habitat called the Stanford torus, by Don Davis Space colonization (also called space settlement, space humanization, space habitation, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interstellar travel. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Space and survival is the relationship between space and the long-term survival of the human species and civilization. ... Test pilot Stuart Present ejects safely from the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Huygens probe which landed on Titan List of artificial objects on the Moon List of artificial objects on Mars List of artificial objects on Venus Artificial objects on other solar-system bodies In 1995 the Galileo spacecraft released a... This is a list of all spaceflights, both manned and unmanned, sorted chronologically by launch date. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... This is a list of all spaceflights, both manned and unmanned, sorted chronologically by launch date. ... 1Project Vanguard was transferred from the NRL to NASA immediately before launch. ... See also Space Race Space firsts Space exploration Categories: | | ... This article gives a concise timeline of rocket and missile technology. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... This is a partial list of manned spacecraft (excluding space stations) sorted by manufacturer/operator and series in chronological order. ... These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight), or were launched with that intention but failed. ... This is a list of programs intended to send humans into space. ... This is a list of the manned space missions conducted by the Soviet space programme and its successor agency, the Russian Federal Space Agency. ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Green dots indicate locations of Apollo missions on the moon The Apollo missions were a series of space missions, both manned and unmanned, flown by NASA between 1961 and 1975. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... Categories: Mir ... The table lists extra-vehicular activity at the Soviet space station Mir. ... ISS redirects here. ... This is a list of a permanent crews assigned to the International Space Station. ... See also International Space Station List of manned spaceflights to the ISS List of ISS spacewalks Categories: International Space Station ... This is a list of visitors to the International Space Station in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of extra-vehicular activities at the International Space Station. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... This is a list of missions flown by space shuttles. ... Timeline of space shuttle missions ... This is a list of persons who served aboard Space Shuttle crews, arranged in chronological order by mission. ... This is an alphabetical list of all space travelers, people who have flown in space. ... // This is an alphabetical list of all space travelers, people who have flown in space organized by nationality. ... Map of countries whose citizens have flown in space Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 37 countries have flown in space. ... This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. ... 1958 1959 1960 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1976 1978 1979 1980 1982 1984 1985 1987 1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 2004 1958 June 25 - Man In Space Soonest - USA The first group of American astronaut candidates were selected... Eugene Cernan operating the Lunar rover during Apollo 17 This is a list of all astronauts directly associated with NASAs Apollo program. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... This list contains all spacewalks and moonwalks; that is, every occasion where an astronaut has fully or partially left his spacecraft. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Timeline of solar system exploration organized by date of launch. ... For a list of probes organized by functional status and mission completion, see List of probes by operational status. ... Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes // Key: Year - Origin - Target - Status - Description 1957 - Soviet Union - Earth - Success - Sputnik 1 is launched, the first Earth orbiting satellite 1957 - Soviet Union - Earth - Partial success - Sputnik 2 is launched, the first Earth orbiting satellite with an animal (Laika) 1958 - USA - Earth - Success... This is a comprehensive list of spaceflights between two or more bodies of the Solar System, listed in chronological order by launch date. ... This is a list of all spacecraft landings on other planets and bodies in the solar system, including both intended and unintended crash-landings. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Huygens probe which landed on Titan List of artificial objects on the Moon List of artificial objects on Mars List of artificial objects on Venus Artificial objects on other solar-system bodies In 1995 the Galileo spacecraft released a... This is a list of known objects which have been, are or are planned to occupy any of the five Lagrangian points of two-body systems in space. ... Geocentric orbit refers to the orbit of any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... Partial list of Earth observation satellites by series/program. ... The Timeline of Earth science satellites shows, in chronological order, those successful satellites with a program of Earth science. ... Early milestones in the history of communications satellites. ... This is a list of Cosmos satellites. ... // This is the list of satellites in geosynchronous orbit. ... Here is an incomplete list of all unmanned spacecraft categorized by program. ... This is a partial list of manned spacecraft (excluding space stations) sorted by manufacturer/operator and series in chronological order. ... This is a list of space launch vehicles sorted by country/operator in alphabetical order, commercial vehicles are listed under their corresponding country. ... The following a list of rockets. ... This is a list of launches made by the Proton rocket. ... This is a list of the known test launches of the A4 rocket, better known as the V-2 rocket, which were made at Peenemünde, Blizna and Tuchola Forest. ... // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ... A list of private companies offering or planning manned spaceflights for space tourism. ... The following is a list of the worlds largest fixed service satellite in the world as of 2004. ... . ... A map showing countries which have spaceports within their territory. ... Human spaceflight Mercury program Gemini program Apollo program Apollo-Soyuz (Soviet Union partnership) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle-Mir Program (Russian partnership) International Space Station (working together with Russia, Canada, ESA, and JAXA along with co-operators, ASI and Brazil) Orion Program Satellite and Robotic space missions Earth Observing Explorer I... In October 2006 NASA released a draft schedule of all planned NASA Project Constellation missions through 2019 [1]. This document included descriptions of a series of proposed vehicle test missions. ... This is a list of Cosmos satellites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of space exploration milestones, 1957-1969. ... This is a timeline of first orbital launches by nationality. ...

References

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  6. ^ World Wide Words: Fears and dreads
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  9. ^ Launching the Alien Debates :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evolution distribution Origin of life universe - life beyond :: Astrobiology is study of earth science evolution distribution Origin of life in universe terrestrial
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  12. ^ a b Wong, Al (May 28, 1998). Galileo FAQ - Navigation. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
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  15. ^ Agnor, C. B.; and Hamilton, D. P. (2006). "Neptune's capture of its moon Triton in a binary–planet gravitational encounter". Nature 441: 192. doi:10.1038/nature04792. 
  16. ^ IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes. International Astronomical Union (2006)Staff (2006). IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU resolution votes. IAU. Retrieved on 2007-05-11..
  17. ^ Voyager Frequently Asked Questions. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (January 14, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
  18. ^ Robert Roy Britt (2003). Pluto Mission a Go! Initial Funding Secured. space.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  19. ^ "Colonies in space may be only hope, says Hawking", Telegraph.co.uk, October 15, 2001. Retrieved on 2007-08-05. 
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  22. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, Interplanetary Flight -- An Introduction to Astronautics, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1950,Chapter 10
  23. ^ [What do you care what other people think- Richard Feynman]
  24. ^ NASA (December 4, 2006). "GLOBAL EXPLORATION STRATEGY AND LUNAR ARCHITECTURE". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.

For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Azerbaijan International is a quarterly magazine that features articles about Azerbaijan written in English. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Space Exploration - MSN Encarta (1435 words)
Space exploration is a use of astronomy and space technology to physically explore outer space, with both human spaceflight and robotic spacecraft.
Although artificial satellites and piloted spacecraft are achievements of the last half of the 20th century, the technology and principles of space travel stretch back hundreds of years, to the invention of rockets in the 11th century and the formulation of the laws of motion in the 17th century.
In space, the motions of satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are described by the laws of motion formulated by German astronomer Johannes Kepler, also in the 17th century.
Space exploration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1176 words)
Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors.
The first reusable spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981.
Per the Vision for Space Exploration, the Space Shuttle is due to be retired in 2010.
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