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Encyclopedia > Space Shuttle Columbia
Columbia
Space Shuttle Columbia
Columbia launches on its final mission, STS-107
OV Designation OV-102
Country United States
Contract award July 26, 1972
Named after Robert Gray’s Columbia Rediviva
First flight STS-1
April 12, 1981 - April 14, 1981
Last flight STS-107
January 16, 2003February 1, 2003
Number of missions 28
Crews 160
Time spent in space  300.74 days
Number of orbits 4,808
Distance travelled 125,204,911 miles (201,497,772 km)
Satellites deployed 8
Mir dockings 0
ISS dockings 0
Status Lost February 1, 2003

Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASA's orbital fleet. Its first mission, STS-1, lasted from April 12 to April 14, 1981. On February 1, 2003, Columbia disintegrated during re-entry over Texas, on its 28th mission. All seven crew members aboard perished. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x964, 144 KB)Description: A close-up camera view shows Space Shuttle Columbia as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-107. ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... Each NASA space shuttle designation is composed of a prefix and suffix separated by a dash. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Gray (May 10, 1755 – July, 1806) was an American merchant sea-captain and explorer. ... Columbia Rediviva (commonly known as the Columbia) was a privately owned sloop under Captain Robert Gray, best known for going to the Pacific Northwest for the fur trade. ... The first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, was launched April 12, 1981, and returned April 14. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... Mir (Russian: ; lit. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry into the Earths atmosphere, shortly before concluding its 28th mission, STS-107. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Each NASA space shuttle designation is composed of a prefix and suffix separated by a dash. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... The first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, was launched April 12, 1981, and returned April 14. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry into the Earths atmosphere, shortly before concluding its 28th mission, STS-107. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ...

Contents

History

Construction began on Columbia in 1975 primarily in Palmdale, California. Columbia was named after the Boston-based sloop Columbia captained by American Robert Gray, who explored the Pacific Northwest and became the first American vessel to circumnavigate the world; the name also honored Columbia, the Command Module of Apollo 11. After construction, the orbiter arrived at John F. Kennedy Space Center on March 25, 1979, to prepare for its first launch. On March 19, 1981, during preparations for a ground test, five workers were asphyxiated during a nitrogen purge, resulting in two deaths. Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Aerospace Capital of America Location of Palmdale in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor James C. Ledford Jr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... “Boston” redirects here. ... A sloop-rigged J-24 sailboat A sloop (From Dutch sloep) in sailing, is a vessel with a fore-and-aft rig. ... Robert Gray (May 10, 1755 – July, 1806) was an American merchant sea-captain and explorer. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Test pilot Stuart Present ejects safely from the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...

Columbia astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly and Pilot Henry W. Hartsfield salute President Ronald Reagan, standing beside his wife, Nancy, upon landing in 1982.
Columbia astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly and Pilot Henry W. Hartsfield salute President Ronald Reagan, standing beside his wife, Nancy, upon landing in 1982.

The first flight of Columbia (STS-1) was commanded by John Young (a space veteran from the Gemini and Apollo eras) and piloted by Robert Crippen, who had never been in space before, but who served as a support crew member for the Skylab missions and Apollo-Soyuz. It launched on April 12, 1981, and returned on April 14, 1981, after orbiting the earth 36 times. Columbia then undertook three further research missions to test its technical characteristics and performance. Its first operational mission, with a four-man crew, was STS-5, which launched on November 11, 1982. At this point Columbia was joined by Challenger, which performed the next three shuttle missions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 767 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1460 × 1142 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 767 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1460 × 1142 pixel, file size: 1. ... Thomas Kenneth (Ken) Mattingly II (born March 17, 1936) is an American astronaut who flew on the Apollo 16, STS-4, and STS-51-C missions. ... Henry Warren (Hank) Hartsfield, Jr. ... “Reagan” redirects here. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... The first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, was launched April 12, 1981, and returned April 14. ... John W. Young in 1986 John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... Official STS-1 portrait of Robert L. Crippen, May 7, 1979 Robert Laurel Crippen (b. ... Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... STS-5 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 11, 1982. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ...


In 1983, Columbia undertook its second operational mission (STS-9), this time with six astronauts, including the first non-American astronaut on a space shuttle, Ulf Merbold. Columbia was not used for the next three years, during which time the shuttle fleet was expanded to include Discovery and Atlantis. Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... STS-9 (Spacelab 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 6th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... Ulf Dietrich Merbold (born June 20, 1941) was the first West German and second German astronaut. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of three spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with Atlantis and Endeavour. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ...


Columbia returned to space on January 12, 1986, with the launch of STS-61-C. The mission's crew included Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, as well as the first sitting member of the House of Representatives to venture into space, Bill Nelson. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... // Crew (total flights to date in parentheses) Robert L. Gibson,(2) Commander Charles F. Bolden, (1) Pilot Franklin Chang-Diaz (1) Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley, (2) Mission Specialist George D. Nelson, (2) Mission Specialist Robert Cenker (RCA Electronics), (1) Payload Specialist Rep. ... Franklin Chang-Diaz Franklin Ramón Chang Díaz (張福林, pinyin: Zhāng Fùlín) (born 5 April 1950) is an Costa Rican-American physicist and astronaut. ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Clarence William Bill Nelson (born September 29, 1942) is the senior U.S. Senator from Florida. ...


The next shuttle mission was undertaken by Challenger. It was launched on January 28, 1986, ten days after STS-61-C had landed. The mission ended in disaster shortly after launch. In the aftermath NASA's shuttle timetable was disrupted, and Columbia was not flown again until 1988 (on STS-28), after which it resumed normal service as part of the shuttle fleet. is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... // Crew (total flights to date in parentheses) Robert L. Gibson,(2) Commander Charles F. Bolden, (1) Pilot Franklin Chang-Diaz (1) Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley, (2) Mission Specialist George D. Nelson, (2) Mission Specialist Robert Cenker (RCA Electronics), (1) Payload Specialist Rep. ... // Crew Brewster H. Shaw (flew on STS-9, STS-61-B & STS-28), Commander Richard N. Richards (flew on STS-28, STS-41, STS-50 & STS-64), Pilot James C. Adamson (flew on STS-28 & STS-43), Mission Specialist 1 David C. Leestma (flew on STS-41-G, STS-28...


STS-93, launched on July 23, 1999, was commanded by Lt. Col. Eileen Collins. STS-93 marked the 95th launch of the Space Shuttle, the 26th launch of Columbia, and the 21st night launch of a Space Shuttle. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Eileen Marie Collins (b. ...


Prototype orbiter

Columbia was roughly 8,000 lb. heavier than subsequent orbiters such as Endeavour, which were of a slightly different design, and had benefitted from advancements in materials technology.[1] In part this was due to heavier wing and fuselage spars, the weight of early test instrumentation that remained fitted to the avionics suite, and an internal airlock that was not fitted to the other shuttles.[2] Despite refinements to the launcher's thermal protection system and other enhancements, Columbia would never weigh as little unloaded as the other orbiters in the fleet. The next-oldest shuttle, Challenger, was also relatively heavy, although 2,200 lb. lighter than Columbia. Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ...


Externally, Columbia was the only orbiter in the fleet that had an all-tile thermal protection system (TPS), although this was later modified to incorporate nomex felt insulation blankets on the fuselage and upper wing surfaces. The work was performed during Columbia's first retrofitting and the post-Challenger stand-down. Also unique to Columbia were the black "chines" on the upper surfaces of the shuttle's forward wing. These black areas were added because the first shuttle's designers did not know how reentry heating would affect the craft's upper wing surfaces. The space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protects the space shuttle orbiter during the searing 1649 °C (3000 °F) heat of atmospheric reentry. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ...


Until its last refit, Columbia was the only operational orbiter with wing markings consisting of an American flag on the left wing and the letters "USA" on the right. Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour all until 1998 bore markings consisting of the letters "USA" afore an American flag on the left wing, and the pre-1998 NASA "worm" logo afore the respective orbiter's name on the right wing. From its last refit to its destruction, Columbia bore markings identical to those of its sister orbiters — the NASA "meatball" logo on the left wing and the American flag afore the "Columbia" designation on the right; Columbia's distinctive wing "chines" remained. It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... Space Shuttle Discovery (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of three spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with Atlantis and Endeavour. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104) is one of the fleet of space shuttles belonging to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three official designs, although one of them (the worm) has been retired from official use since 1992. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three official designs, although one of them (the worm) has been retired from official use since 1992. ...


Another unique external feature, termed the "SILTS" pod, was located on the top of Columbia's tailfin, and was installed after STS-9 to acquire infrared and other thermal data. Though the pod's equipment was removed after initial tests, NASA decided to leave it in place, mainly to save costs, along with the agency's plans to use it for future experiments. The tailfin was later modified to incorporate the drag chute first used on Endeavour in 1992. STS-9 (Spacelab 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 6th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

Columbia on the launch pad before its first mission.
Columbia on the launch pad before its first mission.

Internally, Columbia was originally fitted with Lockheed-Martin-built ejection seats identical to those found on the SR-71 Blackbird. These seats were active on the initial series of orbital test flights, but were deactivated after STS-4 and were removed entirely after STS-9. Columbia was also the only orbiter not delivered with heads-up displays for the pilot and copilot, although these were incorporated after STS-9. Like its sister ships, Columbia was eventually retrofitted (at its last refit) with the new MEDS "glass cockpit" display and lightweight seats. Unlike the other orbiters, Columbia retained an internal airlock, but was modified so that it could be fitted to accept the external airlock and docking adapter needed for flights to the International Space Station. This retention of an internal airlock allowed NASA to use Columbia for the STS-109 Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, along with the Spacehab double module used on STS-107. If Columbia had not been destroyed, it would have been fitted with the external airlock/docking adapter for mission STS-118, an International Space Station assembly mission, in November 2003. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x1536, 791 KB) This is a featured picture on the English Wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x1536, 791 KB) This is a featured picture on the English Wikipedia. ... Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is a leading multinational aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology company formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was an advanced, long-range, Mach 3 strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works. ... STS-4 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched June 27, 1982. ... STS-9 (Spacelab 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 6th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... For other meanings of Hud, see this article A Rafale fighter of the FS Charles de Gaulle, seen through the HUD of another Rafale. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle Crew Scott D. Altman (3), Commander Duane G. Carey (1), Pilot John M. Grunsfeld (4), Payload Commander Nancy J. Currie (4), Mission Specialist James H. Newman (4) , Mission Specialist Richard M. Linnehan (3), Mission Specialist Michael J. Massimino (1), Mission... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... SPACEHAB is an aerospace company based out of Arlington, Virginia that has had several modules fly aboard the Space Shuttle. ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... STS-118 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. ... “ISS” redirects here. ...


After the STS-118 mission, Columbia’s career would have started to wind down. The shuttle was planned to service the Hubble Space Telescope two more times, once in 2004, and again in 2005, but no more missions were planned for it again until 2009 when, on STS-144, it would retrieve the Hubble Space Telescope from orbit and bring it back to Earth. STS-118 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-144 was a proposed mission of the United States Space Shuttle program that was to send the Space Shuttle Columbia to retrieve the Hubble Space Telescope from orbit and bring it back to Earth. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Flights

Space Shuttle Columbia flew 28 flights, spent 300.74-days in space, completed 4,808 orbits, and flew 125,204,911 miles in total, including its final mission. It is the only spaceworthy shuttle to have never visited either the Russian Space Station Mir or the International Space Station. The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... “ISS” redirects here. ...

Columbia launching during STS-1. The original white-painted external tank, as well as Columbia's distinctive black chines, are clearly visible
Columbia launching during STS-1. The original white-painted external tank, as well as Columbia's distinctive black chines, are clearly visible
Date Designation Launch pad Landing location Notes
1981 April 12 STS-1 39-A Edwards Airforce Base First Shuttle mission
1981 November 12 STS-2 39-A Edwards Airforce Base First re-use of manned space vehicle
1982 March 22 STS-3 39-A White Sands Space Harbor First mission with an unpainted External tank.
Only time that a space shuttle has landed at the White Sands Space Harbor. This launch was dedicated by Ronald Reagan to "the people of Afghanistan".
1982 June 27 STS-4 39-A Edwards Airforce Base Last shuttle R&D flight
1982 November 11 STS-5 39-A Edwards Airforce Base First four-person crew, first deployment of commercial satellite.
1983 November 28 STS-9 39-A Edwards Airforce Base First six-person crew, first Spacelab.
1986 January 12 STS-61-C 39-A Edwards Airforce Base Representative Bill Nelson (D-FL) on board/ final successful shuttle flight before Challenger disaster
1989 August 8 STS-28 39-B Edwards Airforce Base Launched KH-11 reconnaissance satellite
1990 January 9 STS-32 39-A Edwards Airforce Base Retrieved Long Duration Exposure Facility
1990 December 2 STS-35 39-B Edwards Airforce Base Carried multiple X-ray & UV telescopes
1991 June 5 STS-40 39-B Edwards Airforce Base 5th Spacelab - Life Sciences-1
1992 June 25 STS-50 39-A Kennedy Space Center U.S. Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1)
1992 October 22 STS-52 39-B Kennedy Space Center Deployed Laser Geodynamic Satellite II
1993 April 26 STS-55 39-A Edwards Airforce Base German Spacelab D-2 Microgravity Research
1993 October 18 STS-58 39-B Edwards Airforce Base Spacelab Life Sciences
1994 March 4 STS-62 39-B Kennedy Space Center United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2)
1994 July 8 STS-65 39-A Kennedy Space Center International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2)
1995 October 20 STS-73 39-B Kennedy Space Center United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2)
1996 February 22 STS-75 39-B Kennedy Space Center Tethered Satellite System Reflight (TSS-1R)
1996 June 20 STS-78 39-B Kennedy Space Center Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)
1996 November 19 STS-80 39-B Kennedy Space Center 3rd flight of Wake Shield Facility (WSF)/ longest Shuttle flight as of 2006
1997 April 4 STS-83 39-A Kennedy Space Center Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL)- cut short
1997 July 1 STS-94 39-A Kennedy Space Center Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL)- reflight
1997 November 19 STS-87 39-B Kennedy Space Center United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4)
1998 April 13 STS-90 39-B Kennedy Space Center Neurolab - Spacelab
1999 July 23 STS-93 39-B Kennedy Space Center Deployed Chandra X-ray Observatory
2002 March 1 STS-109 39-A Kennedy Space Center Hubble Space Telescope service mission (HSM-3B)
2003 January 16 STS-107 39-A Did not land (Planned to land at KSC) A multi-disciplinary microgravity and Earth science research mission. Shuttle destroyed during re-entry on February 1, 2003 and all seven astronauts on board perished.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB) A launch of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB) A launch of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... The first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, was launched April 12, 1981, and returned April 14. ... Diagram of Space Shuttle External Tank showing internal structure The Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) contains the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer and supplies them under pressure to the three space shuttle main engines in the orbiter during lift-off and ascent. ... This article is about the color. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, was launched April 12, 1981, and returned April 14. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-2 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 12, 1981. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-3 was the third space shuttle mission, and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern... The Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building. ... “Reagan” redirects here. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-4 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched June 27, 1982. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-5 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 11, 1982. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-9 (Spacelab 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 6th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Spacelab in payload bay during STS-90 Spacelab is a microgravity laboratory flown into space on the Space Shuttle. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Crew (total flights to date in parentheses) Robert L. Gibson,(2) Commander Charles F. Bolden, (1) Pilot Franklin Chang-Diaz (1) Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley, (2) Mission Specialist George D. Nelson, (2) Mission Specialist Robert Cenker (RCA Electronics), (1) Payload Specialist Rep. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Clarence William Bill Nelson (born September 29, 1942) is the senior U.S. Senator from Florida. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... STS-51-L was the 25th launch of a Space Shuttle and the tenth launch of the Challenger. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Crew Brewster H. Shaw (flew on STS-9, STS-61-B & STS-28), Commander Richard N. Richards (flew on STS-28, STS-41, STS-50 & STS-64), Pilot James C. Adamson (flew on STS-28 & STS-43), Mission Specialist 1 David C. Leestma (flew on STS-41-G, STS-28... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... A leaked KH-11 photo showing the Nikolaiev 444 shipyard in the Black Sea taken in 1984 The KH-11, also referenced by the codenames 1010[1], Crystal and Kennan[2], also commonly known as Key Hole (Big Bird was KH-8 and KH-9 series)[1], was a type... A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-32 was the 33rd launch of the Space Shuttle and the 9th launch of Space Shuttle Columbia. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... NASAs Long Duration Exposure Facility, a school-bus sized cylindrical space experiment rack, exposed various material samples to outer space for about 5. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // (total flights to date in parentheses) Vance D. Brand (4), Commander Guy S. Gardner (2), Pilot Jeffrey A. Hoffman (2), Mission Specialist 1 John M. Lounge (3), Mission Specialist 2 Robert A. Parker (2), Mission Specialist 3 Samuel T. Durrance (1), Payload Specialist 1 Ronald A. Parise (1), Payload Specialist... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... ROSAT image of X-ray fluorescence of, and occultation of the X-ray background by, the Moon. ... UV astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics which deals with objects visible in ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // (total flights to date in parentheses) Bryan D. OConnor (2), Commander Sidney M. Gutierrez (1), Pilot James P. Bagian (2), Mission Specialist 1 Tamara E. Jernigan (1), Mission Specialist 2 M. Rhea Seddon (2), Mission Specialist 3 F. Drew Gaffney (1), Payload Specialist 1 Millie Hughes-Fulford (1), Payload... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Spacelab in payload bay during STS-90 Spacelab is a microgravity laboratory flown into space on the Space Shuttle. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-50 (U.S. Microgravity Laboratory 1) was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 12th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Crew James B. Wetherbee (2), Commander Michael A. Baker (2), Pilot Charles L. Veach (2), Mission Specialist 1 William M. Shepherd (3), Mission Specialist 2 Tamara E. Jernigan (2), Mission Specialist 3 Steven G. MacLean (1), Payload Specialist 1 - Canada Mission parameters Mass: Orbiter landing with payload: 97,201 kg... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Crew Commander: Steven R. Nagel (4) Pilot: Terence T. Henricks (2) Mission Specialist 1: Jerry L. Ross (4) Mission Specialist 2: Charles J. Precourt (1) Mission Specialist 3: Dr. Bernard A. Harris Jr. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Crew Commander: John E. Blaha (4), Pilot: Richard A. Searfoss (1), Mission Specialist 1: M. Rhea Seddon (3), Mission Specialist 2: William S. McArthur Jr. ... Edwards Air Force Base is an airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home for... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-62 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-65 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-73 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-75 was a United States Space Shuttle mission, the 19th mission of the Columbia orbiter. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-78 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-80 is a Space Shuttle program mission. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle Crew James D. Halsell (3), Mission Commander Susan L. Still (1), Pilot Janice E. Voss (3), Payload Commander Donald A. Thomas (3), Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (2), Mission Specialist Roger Crouch (1), Payload Specialist Greg Linteris (1), Payload Specialist... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle Crew James D. Halsell (4), Mission Commander Susan L. Still (2), Pilot Janice E. Voss (4), Payload Commander Donald A. Thomas (4), Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (3), Mission Specialist Roger Crouch (2), Payload Specialist Greg Linteris (2), Payload Specialist... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This was a mission of the United States Space Shuttle. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle // Crew Richard A. Searfoss (3), Commander Scott D. Altman (1), Pilot Richard M. Linnehan DVM (2), Mission Specialist Dafydd Rhys Williams MD (1) (CSA), Mission Specialist Kathryn P. Hire (1), Mission Specialist Dr. Jay C. Buckey (1), Payload Specialist Dr... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... This article is about the year. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... STS-93 marked the 95th launch of the Space Shuttle, the 26th launch of Columbia, and the 21st night launch of a Space Shuttle. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... The Chandra X-ray Observatory is a satellite launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle Crew Scott D. Altman (3), Commander Duane G. Carey (1), Pilot John M. Grunsfeld (4), Payload Commander Nancy J. Currie (4), Mission Specialist James H. Newman (4) , Mission Specialist Richard M. Linnehan (3), Mission Specialist Michael J. Massimino (1), Mission... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Final mission

On its final mission, Columbia carried a crew of seven astronauts. They were Rick Husband (commander), Willie McCool (pilot), Michael P. Anderson, Laurel B. Clark, and David M. Brown, Israeli astronaut Ilan Ramon, and Kalpana Chawla. The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry into the Earths atmosphere, shortly before concluding its 28th mission, STS-107. ... Memorial emblem for the three U.S. human space flight accidents. ... Rick D. Husband (larger image) Richard Douglas Husband (July 12, 1957 – February 1, 2003) was an astronaut and the space shuttle commander of STS-107 (Columbia) who was killed when the craft disintegrated after reentry into the Earths atmosphere. ... William C. Willie McCool (September 23, 1961 - February 1, 2003) was an United States Navy Commander, NASA astronaut and the Space Shuttle pilot of Columbia mission STS-107 who was killed when the craft disentegrated after re-entry into the Earths atmosphere. ... Michael P. Anderson Michael Phillip Anderson (December 25, 1959 – February 1, 2003) was a Lieutenant Colonel (USAF), a NASA astronaut and the Space Shuttle payload commander of STS-107 (Columbia) who was killed when the craft disintegrated after reentry into the Earths atmosphere. ... Laurel Blair Salton Clark (March 10, 1961 – February 1, 2003) was a medical doctor, United States Navy Captain, NASA astronaut and Space Shuttle mission specialist of STS-107 (Columbia) who was killed when the shuttle disintegrated after re-entry into the Earths atmosphere. ... David M. Brown David M. Brown (April 16, 1956 – February 1, 2003) was a United States Naval Captain, NASA astronaut and space shuttle mission specialist. ... Ilan Ramon (Hebrew: אילן רמון) (June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003) was a combat pilot in the Israeli Air Force and later the first Israeli astronaut. ... Kalpana Chawla (Hindi: कल्‍पना चावला)(Punjabi:ਕਲਪਨਾ ਚਾਵਲਾ) (7 March 1962 – 1 February 2003), was an Indian-born American astronaut and space shuttle mission specialist. ...

Columbia at 8:57 AM over central New Mexico. Debris is visible coming off the left wing.

On the morning of February 1, 2003, the shuttle re-entered the atmosphere after a 16-day scientific mission. NASA lost radio contact at about 0900 EST, only minutes before the expected 0916 landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Video recordings show the craft breaking up in flames over Texas, at an altitude of approximately 39 miles (63 km) and a speed of 12,500 mph (5.6 km/s). Image File history File linksMetadata Columbia_02-01-03_-_0857_EST.jpg Summary Description: This image is a view of the underside of Space Shuttle Columbia during its entry from mission STS-107 on February 1, 2003, as it passed by the Starfire Optical Range, Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory... Image File history File linksMetadata Columbia_02-01-03_-_0857_EST.jpg Summary Description: This image is a view of the underside of Space Shuttle Columbia during its entry from mission STS-107 on February 1, 2003, as it passed by the Starfire Optical Range, Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


In the months following the tragedy, NASA scientists determined that a hole was punctured in the leading edge on one of Columbia's wings, made of a carbon-carbon composite. The hole had formed when a piece of insulating foam from the external fuel tank peeled off during the launch 16 days earlier, puncturing the edge of the wing. Hot gases, inaccurately described in initial reports as plasma,[3] penetrated the interior of the wing, destroying the support structure and causing the rest of the shuttle to break apart during the intense heat of re-entry. A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ...


Forensic analysis of the debris was conducted jointly with the Materials Science department of Lehigh University. The collected debris of the vessel is currently stored on the 16th floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center; recovered items are occasionally loaned for research into the hypersonic flight regime. Former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe vowed that Columbia will not be sealed away as the debris from the Challenger was. The debris from Challenger is permanently entombed in two Minuteman missile silos at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Lehigh University is a private, co-educational university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the Lehigh Valley region of the United States. ... The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, is a very large building located at in NASAs Kennedy Space Center, halfway between Jacksonville and Miami, and due east of Orlando on Merritt Island, on the Atlantic coast of Florida. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ... Sean OKeefe Sean OKeefe (born January 27, 1956) was the tenth Administrator of NASA, leading the space agency from December 2001 to February 2005. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). ... The Bumper V-2 was the first missile launched at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. ...


The shuttle's final crew were honored in 2003 when the USGS's Board of Geographic Names approved the name Columbia Point for a 13,980' mountain in Colorado's Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Not more than a half-mile away lies Challenger Point, a peak named for America's other lost shuttle. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Columbia Point is a 13,980 foot (4261m) subpeak of Kit Carson Peak. ... The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains located in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado in the United States. ... Challenger Point is a mountain in the Sangre de Cristo range in southern Colorado. ...


See also

This is a list of missions flown by space shuttles. ...

References

  1. ^ http://spaceflightnow.com/shuttle/features/000414overhaul/weightloss.html
  2. ^ http://spaceflightnow.com/shuttle/features/000414overhaul/future.html
  3. ^ Britt, Robert Roy (30 June 2005). "PLASMA: What is it?". Columbia FAQ. Space.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-09. The use of the word "plasma" to describe the gases that entered the wing is not technically accurate, according to NASA and Boeing aero-thermal engineers who support the Space Shuttle program at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. They pointed out during the Columbia accident investigations that atmospheric entry heating and its intrusion into damaged left wing was from superheated air, not ionized gas and not plasma.

is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An aerial view of the complete Johnson Space Center facility in Houston, Texas in 1989. ... Houston redirects here. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... See superheater for the device used in steam engines. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Seal of STS-107
STS-107
Main articles: Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster
Crew: Husband (Cmdr), McCool, Brown, Chawla, Anderson, Clark, Ramon
Crew photo of STS-107
 v  d  e 
Space Shuttles
American US Space Shuttle program Soviet Soviet Buran program
  • OK-GLI (Buran Analog BST-02, aerotester)
  • Buran (Shuttle 1.01, destroyed 2002)
  • Ptichka (Shuttle 1.02, 95–97% completed)
  • Baikal (Shuttle 2.01, incomplete)
  • Shuttle 2.02 (partially dismantled)
  • Shuttle 2.03 (dismantled)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Space Shuttle Columbia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1817 words)
Columbia was named after the Boston-based sloop Columbia captained by American Robert Gray, who explored the Pacific Northwest and became the first American vessel to circumnavigate the world; the name also honored Columbia, the Command Module of Apollo 11.
Columbia, unlike her operational sister ships, was built with the technologies that were available at the time of her construction in Palmdale in the mid-1970s.
NVAR and TXAR Infrasound of Explosion of Space Shuttle Columbia
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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