FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Space Race
Titan II rockets launched 12 U.S. Gemini spacecraft in the 1960s.
Titan II rockets launched 12 U.S. Gemini spacecraft in the 1960s.

The Space Race was a competition of space exploration between Soviet Union and the United States, which lasted roughly from 1957 to 1975. It involved the efforts to explore outer space with artificial satellites, to send humans into space, and to land people on the Moon. 1Project Vanguard was transferred from the NRL to NASA immediately before launch. ... The term space race may refer to the following: The space race between the U.S. and USSR in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Download high resolution version (576x916, 108 KB)Liftoff of Gemini 6A from Pad 19 with astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford aboard http://www. ... Download high resolution version (576x916, 108 KB)Liftoff of Gemini 6A from Pad 19 with astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford aboard http://www. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


Space Race effectively began after the Soviet launch of Sputnik 1 on 4 October 1957. The term originated as an analogy to the arms race. The Space Race became an important part of the cultural, technological, and ideological rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Space technology became a particularly important arena in this conflict, because[specify] of both its potential military applications and the morale-boosting social benefits. Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Artificial satellites

Sputnik

Sputnik 1 was the size of a large beach ball, weighed more than 80 kg and orbited the Earth for more than two months.
Sputnik 1 was the size of a large beach ball, weighed more than 80 kg and orbited the Earth for more than two months.

On 4 October 1957, the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth, thus beginning the Space Race.[1] Because of its military and economic implications, Sputnik caused fear and stirred political debate in the United States, spurring the Eisenhower administration to enact several initiatives, including the formation of NASA. At the same time, the Sputnik launch was seen in the Soviet Union as a important sign of scientific and engineering capabilities of the nation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1094x896, 133 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1094x896, 133 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Kg redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... // Dwight D. Eisenhower had been a favorite of the New Dealers during the war, especially Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


In the Soviet Union, a country recovering from a devastating war, the launch of Sputnik and the following program of space exploration were met with great interest from the public.[2]It was also important and encouraging[specify] for Soviet citizens to see the proof of technical prowess in the new era.


Before Sputnik, the average American assumed that the United States had superiority in all fields of technology.[citation needed] In response to Sputnik, the United States launched a huge effort to regain technological supremacy, including revamping the school curricula. Within less than a year, the United States Congress passed the National Defense Education Act, the most far-reaching federally-sponsored education initiative in the nation's history.[citation needed] The bill authorized expenditures of more than $1 billion for a wide range of reforms including new school construction, fellowships and loans to encourage promising students to seek higher education, new efforts in vocational education to meet critical manpower shortages in the defense industry, and a host of other programs.[3] This reaction is now known as the Sputnik crisis. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) is a United States Act of Congress, passed in 1958 providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, both public and private. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ...


As with the Soviet public, the American public followed the succession of launches, and building replicas of rockets became a popular hobby.[citation needed] A model rocket launching Model rocketry is a hobby similar to building model airplanes, where rocket-shaped models are flown vertically and recovered by a variety of means (see Recovery below). ...

Explorer 1 model at NASA news conference.
Explorer 1 model at NASA news conference.

Nearly four months after the launch of Sputnik 1, the United States launched its first satellite, Explorer 1. In the meantime, several embarrassing launch failures had occurred at Cape Canaveral. Image File history File links Van_Allen_Explorer_1. ... Image File history File links Van_Allen_Explorer_1. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... This article is about the area of Florida. ...


The first satellites were already used for scientific purposes. Sputnik helped to determine the density of the upper atmosphere, and Explorer 1 flight data led to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt by James Van Allen. Van Allen radiation belts The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earths magnetic field. ... James Van Allen at National Air & Space Museum (NASM), 1981, Photo courtesy of NASM. Explorer I model and Pioneer H probe in background James Alfred Van Allen (September 7, 1914 – August 9, 2006) was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. ...


Satellite communications

The first American communications satellite, Project SCORE, launched on 18 December 1958, relayed a Christmas message from President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the world. Other notable examples of satellite communication during (or spawned by) the Space Race include: U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...

1962: Telstar: the first "active" communications satellite (experimental transoceanic)
1972: Anik 1: first domestic communications satellite (Canada)
1974: Westar: first U.S. domestic communications satellite
1976: Marisat: first mobile communications satellite

The United States launched the first geosynchronous satellite, Syncom-2, on 26 July 1963. The success of this class of satellite meant that a simple satellite dish no longer needed to track the orbit of the satellite because that orbit remained geostationary. Henceforth ordinary citizens could use satellite-mediated communications transmissions for television broadcasts, after a one-time setup. The original Telstar had a roughly spherical shape. ... Anik 1 was a Canadian geosynchronous communications satellite that was launched in 1972 by a Delta rocket. ... Westar was the name for the fleet of geosynchronous communications satellites operating in the C-band which were launched by Western Union from 1974 to 1984. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with geostationary orbit. ... Syncom (for synchronous communication satellite) started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ...


Living creatures in space

Animals in space

Main article: Animals in space

Fruit flies launched by the United States on captured German V-2 rockets in 1946 became the first reported animals sent into space for scientific study. Squirrel monkey Baker rode a Jupiter missile (modeled above) into space in 1959 Animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight before manned space missions were attempted. ... For other uses, see V2. ... Squirrel monkey Baker rode a Jupiter missile (modeled above) into space in 1959 Animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight before manned space missions were attempted. ...


The first animal sent into orbit, the dog Laika (in English, "Barker"), traveled in the Soviet Union's Sputnik 2 in 1957. The dog was never meant to be returned back to Earth, and died of stress, overheating and dehydration several days after reaching space. In 1960 Soviet space dogs Belka and Strelka orbited the earth and successfully returned.[citation needed] Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ... Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... Belka and Strelka orbited the Earth and returned safely on Korabl-Sputnik-2 During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. ...


The American space program imported chimpanzees from Africa and sent at least two into space before launching their first human orbiter. The Soviet Union launched turtles in 1968 on Zond 5, which became the first animals to fly around the Moon. Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Ham fitted into a special biopack couch prior to flight. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... Zond 5 (Soyuz 7K-L1) Zond 5, a member of the Soviet Unions Zond program, was launched from a Tyazheliy Sputnik (68-076B) in Earth parking orbit to make scientific studies during a lunar flyby and to return to Earth. ...


Humans in space

Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space.
Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space.

The Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space when he entered orbit in the Soviet Union's Vostok 1 on 12 April 1961, a day now celebrated as a holiday in Russia and in many other countries. He orbited the Earth for 108 minutes. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Twenty-three days later, on sub-orbital mission Freedom 7, Alan Shepard entered space for the United States, and John Glenn, in Friendship 7, became the first American to successfully orbit Earth, completing three orbits on 20 February 1962. // Crew Alan Shepard (flew on Mercury 3 & Apollo 14) Backup Crew John Glenn Mission parameters Mass: 1,295 kg (apogee) Maximum Altitude: 187. ... For other persons named Alan Shepard, see Alan Shepard (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... // Crew John Glenn (flew on Mercury 6 & STS-95) Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first dual-manned flights also originated in the Soviet Union, on 11 August - 15 August 1962. Soviet Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space on 16 June 1963 in Vostok 6. Korolev had initially scheduled further Vostok missions of longer duration, but following the announcement of the Apollo program, Premier Khrushchev demanded more firsts.[citation needed] The first flight with more than two crew members was the Soviet Union's Voskhod 1, a modified version of the Vostok craft, took off on 12 October 1964 carrying Komarov, Feoktistov, and Yegorov. This flight also marked the first occasion on which a crew did not wear spacesuits. is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 USSR postage stamp depicting Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: ; born March 6, 1937), is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on the 16th of June 1963. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... A joint flight with Vostok 5, Vostok 6 carried the first woman into space, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Voskhod 1 (Russian: ) was the first spaceflight to carry more than one person into space and the first flight without space suits. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ...


Alexey Leonov, from Voskhod 2, launched by the Soviet Union on 18 March 1965, carried out the first spacewalk. This mission nearly ended in disaster; Leonov almost failed to return to the capsule and, because of a poor retrorocket fire, the ship landed 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi) off target. By this time Khrushchev had left office, and the new Soviet leadership would not commit to an all-out lunar landing effort. General Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov, Soviet Air Force (Ret. ... Voskhod 2 (Russian: Восход 2) was a Soviet manned space mission. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... A retrorocket is a rocket engine used to provide thrust opposing the motion of a spacecraft, thereby causing it to decelerate. ...


Lunar missions

Main article: Moon landing

Though the achievements made by the United States and the Soviet Union brought great pride to their respective nations, the ideological climate ensured that the Space Race would continue at least until the first human walked on the Moon.[citation needed] Before this achievement, unmanned spacecraft had to first explore the Moon by photography and demonstrate their ability to land safely on it. Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ...


Unmanned probes

One of the first images of the lunar far side taken from Luna 3. The upper right is Mare Moscoviense and the dark areas below and left of center are Mare Marginis and Mare Smythii.

Following the Soviet success in placing the first satellite into orbit, the Americans focused their efforts on sending a probe to the Moon. They called this first attempt the Pioneer program. The Soviet Lunar program became operational with the launch of Luna 1 on 4 January 1959, and Luna 1 became the first probe to reach the vicinity of the Moon. The first craft to reach the surface of the Moon was Luna 2, launched on 12 September 1959. In addition to the Pioneer program, there were three specific American programs: the Ranger program, the Lunar Orbiter program, and the robotic Surveyor program, with the goal of locating potential Apollo landing sites on the Moon. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Luna 3 (E-3 series) was the third spacecraft sent successfully to the moon and was an early triumph in the human exploration of outer space. ... The US Pioneer program of unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration. ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Luna 2 (E-1A series) was the second of the Soviet Unions Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon. ... Lunar orbiter spacecraft (NASA) The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned Lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States in 1966 through 1967 with the purpose of mapping the lunar surface before the Apollo landings. ... Photograph of Surveyor(3) lunar landing spacecraft taken by Apollo 12 astronauts (descriptions added). ...


Lunar landing

After the Soviet successes, especially Gagarin's flight, United States President John F. Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson looked for an American project that would capture the public’s imagination. The Apollo Program met many of their objectives and promised to defeat arguments from politicians both on the left (who favored social programs) and the right (who favored a more military project).[citation needed] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ...


Apollo’s advantages included:

  • economic benefits to several key states in the next election;
  • closing the "missile gap" claimed by Kennedy during the 1960 election through dual-use technology;
  • technical and scientific spin-off benefits

In conversation with NASA’s director James E. Webb, Kennedy said: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James E. Webb James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906–March 27, 1992) was the second administrator of NASA, serving from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968. ...

Everything we do ought to really be tied in to getting on to the Moon ahead of the Russians... otherwise we shouldn't be spending that kind of money, because I'm not interested in space... The only justification (for the cost) is because we hope to beat the Soviet Union to demonstrate that instead of being behind by a couple of years, by God, we passed them.[4][not specific enough to verify]

Kennedy and Johnson managed to swing public opinion: by 1965, 58 percent of Americans favored Apollo, up from 33 percent in 1963.[citation needed] After Johnson became President in 1963, his continuing support allowed the program to succeed.

Soviet Soyuz rockets became the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit.

The Soviet Union showed a greater ambivalence about human visits to the Moon. Khrushchev wanted neither "defeat" by another power, nor the expense of such a project. In October 1963 he characterized the Soviet Union as "not at present planning flight by cosmonauts to the Moon"[not specific enough to verify], while adding that they had not dropped out of the race. A year passed before the Soviet Union committed itself to a Moon-landing attempt. - Russian Public Domain photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... - Russian Public Domain photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ...


In December 1968, the United States became the front runner in the Space Race when James Lovell, Frank Borman, and Bill Anders orbited the moon. In doing so, they also became the first humans to celebrate Christmas in space and a few days later they safely splashed down. James Lovell has been the name of miore than one prominent man: James Lovell (1736-1814), Continental Congress delegate from Massachusetts James A. Lovell, Jr. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... William A. Anders (b. ...


Kennedy proposed joint programs, such as a Moon landing by American and Soviet astronauts and improved weather-monitoring satellites. Khrushchev, sensing an attempt to steal superior Russian space technology, rejected these ideas. Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Space Agency's chief designer who designed the R-7 rocket which sent Sputnik into orbit, had started promoting his Soyuz craft and the N1 launcher rocket that had the capacity for a manned Moon landing. Khrushchev directed Korolev's design bureau to arrange further space firsts by modifying the existing Vostok technology, while a second team started building a completely new launcher and craft, the Proton booster and the Zond, for a manned cislunar flight in 1966. In 1964 the new Soviet leadership gave Korolev the backing for a Moon landing effort and brought all manned projects under his direction. With Korolev's death and the failure of the first Soyuz flight in 1967, the coordination of the Soviet Moon landing program quickly unraveled. Korolev's first choice for a lunar landing was Vladimir Komarov, but with Komarov's death on the Soyuz 1 in 1967, Yuri Gagarin and Aleksei Leonov became the most likely candidates. However, with Gagarin's death and the successive launch failures of the N1 booster in 1969, plans for a manned landing suffered first delay and then cancellation. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв) (December 30, 1906– January 14, 1966) was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the space race, known only as the chief designer during his lifetime. ... The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... Two N1 Moon rockets appear on the pads at Baikonur Cosmodrome in early July 1969. ... For other persons of the same name, see Komarov. ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... General Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov, Soviet Air Force (Ret. ...

A mounted slowscan TV camera shows Neil Armstrong as he climbs down the ladder to surface.
A mounted slowscan TV camera shows Neil Armstrong as he climbs down the ladder to surface.

While unmanned Soviet probes had reached the Moon before any U.S. craft, American Neil Armstrong became the first person to set foot on the lunar surface on 21 July 1969, after landing the previous day. Commander of the Apollo 11 mission, Armstrong received backup from command-module pilot Michael Collins and lunar-module pilot Buzz Aldrin in an event watched by over 500 million people around the world. Social commentators widely recognize the lunar landing as one of the defining moments of the 20th century, and Armstrong's words on his first touching the Moon's surface became similarly memorable: Image File history File links Apollo_11_first_step. ... Image File history File links Apollo_11_first_step. ... Apollo Lunar Television Camera TV cameras used on the Apollo (and later ASTP and Skylab) missions varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each design. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ...

Unlike other international rivalries, the Space Race was not motivated by the desire for territorial expansion. After its successful landings on the Moon, the United States explicitly disclaimed the right to ownership of any part of the Moon. Image File history File links Neil_Armstrong_small_step. ... Image File history File links Neil_Armstrong_small_step. ...


Other successes

Missions to other planets

Venus became the first planet flown past by a spacecraft in December 14, 1962.
Venus became the first planet flown past by a spacecraft in December 14, 1962.

The Soviet Union first sent planetary probes to both Venus and Mars in 1960. The first spacecraft to successfully fly by Venus, the United States' Mariner 2, did so on 14 December 1962. It sent back surprising data on the high surface temperature and air density of Venus. Since it carried no cameras, its findings did not capture public attention as did images from space probes, which far exceeded the capacity of astronomers' Earth-based telescopes. Image File history File links Venus-real. ... Image File history File links Venus-real. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... -1... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Soviet Union's Venera 7, launched in 1971, became the first craft to land on Venus. Venera 9 then transmitted the first pictures from the surface of another planet. These represent only two in the long Venera series; several other previous Venera spacecraft performed flyby operations and attempted landing missions. Seven other Venera landers followed. The Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7) was launched as part of the Venera program by the Soviet Union. ... Venera 9 (Russian: Венера-9) was a USSR unmanned space mission to Venus. ... Venera 7 lander Color image taken from the surface of Venus by the Soviet Venera 13 lander The Venera (Russian: Венера; formerly, sometimes referred to as Venusik in the West) series of probes was developed by the USSR to gather data from Venus. ...


The United States launched Mariner 10, which flew by Venus on its way to Mercury, in 1974. It became the first and only spacecraft to fly by Mercury for the next 34 years. The Mariner 10 probe. ... This article is about the planet. ...


Mariner 4, launched in 1965 by the United States, became the first probe to fly by Mars; it transmitted completely unexpected images. The first spacecraft to land on Mars, Mars 3, launched in 1971 by the USSR, did not return pictures. The U.S. Viking landers of 1976 transmitted the first such pictures. Mariner 4 (Mariner-Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mars 2. ... Viking mission profile. ...


Launches and docking

The American Gemini 7 and Gemini 6 spaceflights completed the world's first space rendezvous mission between two manned spacecraft on 15 December 1965. The spacecrafts came within a meter and kept station with each other for several orbits. [5] Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... In astrodynamics orbital station-keeping is a term used to describe a particular set of orbital maneuvers used to keep a spacecraft in assigned orbit, either low earth orbit (LEO), or geostationary orbit (GEO). ...


The U.S. craft Gemini 8, performed the first orbital space docking on 16 March 1966. The first automatic space docking linked the Soviet Union's Cosmos-186 and Cosmos-188 (two unmanned Soyuz spacecraft) on 30 October 1967. Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


The first launch from the sea took place with the United States' Scout B, on 26 April 1967. The first space station, the Soviet Union's Salyut 1, commenced operations on 7 June 1971. is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ...


Military competition

Out of view, but no less real a competition, the drive to develop space for military uses paralleled scientific efforts. Well before the launch of Sputnik 1, both the United States and the Soviet Union started developing plans for reconnaissance satellites. The Soviet Zenit spacecraft, which by the dual-use designed in by Korolev eventually became Vostok, began as a photoimaging satellite. It competed with the United States Air Force's Discoverer series. Discoverer XIII provided the first payload recovered from space in August 1960—one day ahead of the first Soviet recovered payload. A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Zenit (Russian: Зени́т, Zenith) is the name of a series of military spy satellites launched by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1994. ... Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (Серге́й Па́влович Королёв) (December 30, 1906– January 14, 1966) was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the space race, known only as the chief designer during his lifetime. ... The Vostok (Восток, translated as East) was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Unions space program for human spaceflight. ... USAF redirects here. ...


Both the United States and the Soviet Union developed major military space programs, often following a pattern whereby the United States only completed a mockup before its program ended, while the Soviet Union built, or even orbited, theirs:

  1. Supersonic Intercontinental Cruise Missile: Navaho (test program stopped) vs. Buran cruise missile (plan)
  2. Small Winged Spacecraft: X-20 Dyna-Soar (mockup) vs. MiG-105 (flight-tested)
  3. Satellite Inspection Capsule: Blue Gemini (mockup) vs. Soyuz interceptor (plan)
  4. Military Space Station: MOL (plan) vs. Almaz (flown somewhat modified as Salyut 2, 3, and 5)
  5. Military Capsule with hatch in heat shield: Gemini B (tested crewless in space) vs. VA TKS, also known as Merkur space capsule (flown crewless as part of TKS)
  6. Ferry to Military Space Station: Gemini Ferry (plan) vs. TKS (flown crewless in space, and docked with a Salyut)

The SM-64 Navaho was the last-built in a line of intermediate-range ballistic missiles designed by North American Aviation in the late 1950s for the U.S. Air Force. ... The Buran cruise missile, designation RSS-40, was a Soviet intercontinental cruise missile capable of carrying a 3500 kg nuclear warhead. ... Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a USAF program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... Spiral spaceplane on carrier The Spiral was a Soviet Union project to create an orbital spaceplane. ... Gemini B spacecraft intended for the MOL program. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... MOL test launch Nov. ... Merkur capsule. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ...

"End" of the Space Race

The July 17, 1975 rendezvous of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft traditionally marks the end of the Space Race.
The July 17, 1975 rendezvous of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft traditionally marks the end of the Space Race.

While the Sputnik 1 launch can clearly be called the start of the Space Race, its end is more debatable. Most hotly contested during the 1960s, the Space Race continued apace through the Apollo moon landing of 1969. Although they followed Apollo 11 with five more manned lunar landings, American space scientists turned to new arenas. Skylab was to gather data, and the Space Shuttle was intended to return spaceships intact from space journeys. Russians claimed that by first sending a man into space they had won this unofficial "race," however Americans claimed that by first landing a man on the moon they had won. In any event, as the Cold War subsided, and as other nations began to develop their own space programs, the notion of a continuing "race" between the two superpowers became less real. Apollo Soyuz Test Project artist rendering of docking spacecraft Name of Image: Apollo Soyuz MIX #: 73A-S1905B NIX #: MSFC-73A-S1905B Date of Image: 1973 Category: Microgravity Full Description: Artist concept of Apollo Soyuz (MRPO) MRD/SPD Discipline(s): n/a (MRPO) Subject Type: n/a Keywords: Science, Microgravity, Apollo... Apollo Soyuz Test Project artist rendering of docking spacecraft Name of Image: Apollo Soyuz MIX #: 73A-S1905B NIX #: MSFC-73A-S1905B Date of Image: 1973 Category: Microgravity Full Description: Artist concept of Apollo Soyuz (MRPO) MRD/SPD Discipline(s): n/a (MRPO) Subject Type: n/a Keywords: Science, Microgravity, Apollo... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... Soyuz spacecraft from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the manned lunar programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... Apollo Program insignia Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1972. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...


Both nations had developed manned military space programs. The United States Air Force had proposed using its Titan missile to launch the Dyna-Soar hypersonic glider to use in intercepting enemy satellites. The plan for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (using hardware based on the Gemini program to carry out surveillance missions) superseded Dyna-Soar, but this also suffered cancellation. The Soviet Union commissioned the Almaz program for a similar manned military space station, which merged with the Salyut program. Artists conception of the X-20 during re-entry The X-20 Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a USAF program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and sabotage of enemy satellites. ... Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ...


The Space Race slowed after the Apollo landing, which many observers describe as its apex or even as its end. Others, including space historian Carole Scott and Romanian Dr. Florin Pop's Cold War Project, feel its end came most clearly with the joint Apollo-Soyuz mission of 1975. The Soviet craft Soyuz 19 met and docked in space with America's Apollo, allowing astronauts from the "rival" nations to pass into each other's ships and participate in combined experimentation. Although each country's endeavors in space persisted, they went largely in different directions, and the notion of a continuing two-nation "race" became outdated after Apollo-Soyuz. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ...


However, the Soviet leadership was alarmed at the prospect of U.S. Air Force involvement with the Space Shuttle program and began the competing Buran and Energia projects. In the early 1980s the commencement of the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative further escalated competition that only resolved with the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in 1989. This article is about the space vehicle. ... The Shuttle Buran, serial number 11F35 K1, was the only space shuttle to come out of the Shuttle Buran program that was completed. ... An artists conception of a Soviet Buran space shuttle lifting off atop the Energia booster. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ...


Timeline (1957-1975)

Date Significance Country Mission Name
August 21, 1957 First intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) USSR R-7 Semyorka/SS-6 Sapwood
October 4, 1957 First artificial satellite
First signals from space
USSR Sputnik 1
November 3, 1957 First animal in orbit, the dog Laika USSR Sputnik 2
January 31, 1958 First detection of Van Allen belts USA-ABMA Explorer 1
March 17, 1958 First solar powered satellite NRL Vanguard 1
December 18, 1958 First communications satellite USA-ABMA Project SCORE
January 2, 1959 First firing of a rocket in Earth orbit
First reaching Earth escape velocity
First detection of solar wind
USSR Luna 1
January 4, 1959 First man-made object in heliocentric orbit USSR Luna 1
February 17, 1959 First weather satellite USA-NASA (NRL)1 Vanguard 2
February 28, 1959 First satellite in a Polar orbit USA-DARPA Discoverer 1
August 7, 1959 First photograph of Earth from orbit USA-NASA Explorer 6
September 13, 1959 First impact into another world (the Moon) USSR Luna 2
October 4, 1959 First photos of far side of the Moon USSR Luna 3
April 1, 1960 First Imaging weather satellite USA-NASA TIROS-1
July 5, 1960 First reconnaissance satellite USA-NRL GRAB-1
August 11, 1960 First satellite payload recovered intact from orbit USA-Air Force Discoverer 13
August 12, 1960 First passive communications satellite USA-NASA Echo 1A
August 18, 1960 First photo reconnaissance satellite USA-Air Force KH-1 9009
1961 First launch from orbit
First mid-course corrections
First spin-stabilisation
USSR Venera 1
April 12, 1961 First manned spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin)
First manned orbital flight
USSR Vostok 1
May 5, 1961 Second nation to achieve manned spaceflight USA-NASA Mercury-Redstone 3
March 7, 1962 First orbital solar observatory USA-NASA OSO-1
December 14, 1962 First planetary flyby (Venus closest approach 34,773 kilometers) USA-NASA Mariner 2
June 16, 1963 First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova) USSR Vostok 6
July 19, 1963 First reusable manned spacecraft (suborbital) USA-NASA X-15 Flight 90
July 26, 1963 First geosynchronous satellite USA-NASA Syncom 2
December 5, 1963 First satellite navigation system US Navy NAVSAT
August 19, 1964 First geostationary satellite USA-NASA Syncom 3
October 12, 1964 First multi-man crew (3 members) USSR Voskhod 1
March 18, 1965 First extra-vehicular activity USSR Voskhod 2
July 14, 1965 First Mars flyby (closest approach 9,846 kilometers) USA-NASA Mariner 4
December 15, 1965 First orbital rendezvous (parallel flight, no docking) USA-NASA Gemini 6A/Gemini 7
February 3, 1966 First soft landing on another world (the Moon)
First photos from another world
USSR Luna 9
March 1, 1966 First impact into another planet (Venus) USSR Venera 3
March 16, 1966 First orbital rendezvous (docking) USA-NASA Gemini 8/Agena target vehicle
April 3, 1966 First artificial satellite around another world (the Moon) USSR Luna 10
June 2, 1966 soft landing on the Moon
photos from the Moon
USA-NASA Surveyor 1
April 23, 1967 First spaceflight casualty USSR Soyuz 1
October 30, 1967 First unmanned rendezvous with docking USSR Cosmos 186/Cosmos 188
December 21, 1968 First human orbiting of another celestial body (Moon) USA-NASA Apollo 8
January 16, 1969 First manned docking and exchange of crew USSR Soyuz 4/Soyuz 5
July 21, 1969 First human on the Moon and first space launch from a celestial body USA-NASA Apollo 11
November 19, 1969 First rendezvous on the surface of a celestial body USA-NASA Apollo 12/Surveyor 3
September 24, 1970 First automatic sample return from the Moon USSR Luna 16
November 23, 1970 First lunar rover USSR Lunokhod 1
December 12, 1970 First X-ray orbital observatory USA-NASA Uhuru (satellite)
December 15, 1970 First soft landing on another planet (Venus)
First signals from another planet
USSR Venera 7
April 23, 1971 First space station USSR Salyut 1
June, 1971 First Manned orbital observatory USSR Orion 1
November 14, 1971 First orbit around another planet (Mars) USA-NASA Mariner 9
November 27, 1971 First impact into Mars USSR Mars 2
December 2, 1971 First soft Mars landing
First signals from Mars surface
USSR Mars 3
March 3, 1972 First human made object sent on escape trajectory away from the Sun USA-NASA Pioneer 10
July 15, 1972 First mission to enter the asteroid belt and leave inner solar system USA-NASA Pioneer 10
December 3, 1973 First Jupiter flyby (at 130,000 km) USA-NASA Pioneer 10
February 5, 1974 Venus flyby at 5768 kilometers, first gravitational assist manoeuvre USA-NASA Mariner 10
March 29, 1974 First Mercury flyby at 703 kilometers USA-NASA Mariner 10
July 15, 1975 First multinational manned mission USSR USA-NASA Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... ICBM redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... For other uses, see Laika (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Sputnik 2 (Russian: , Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal - a dog named Laika. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Van Allen radiation belts The Van Allen Radiation Belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earths magnetic field. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Hermann Oberth (front) with officials of the ABMA in 1956. ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps and conducts a broad program of scientific research and advanced development. ... Vanguard 1 was the fourth artificial satellite launched, and is the oldest still orbiting Earth, though there is no longer any communication with it. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Hermann Oberth (front) with officials of the ABMA in 1956. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Space Shuttle Atlantis launches on mission STS-71. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A heliocentric orbit is an orbit around the sun. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps and conducts a broad program of scientific research and advanced development. ... // Vanguard 2 or Vanguard II was an earth-orbiting satellite designed to measure cloud-cover distribution over the daylight portion of its orbit. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet orbiting on each revolution. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Recovery of Discoverer 14 return capsule (typical for the Corona series Diagram of J-1 type stereo / panoramic reciprocating Corona reconnaissance satellite camera system used on KH-4A missions from 1963 to 1969. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Explorer 6 was a US satellite launched on August 7, 1959. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Luna 2 (E-1A series) was the second of the Soviet Unions Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Far side of the Moon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Luna 3 (E-3 series) was the third spacecraft sent successfully to the moon and was an early triumph in the human exploration of outer space. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... First TV image of Earth from space TIROS-1 (or TIROS-I) was the first successful weather satellite, and the first of a series of TIROS satellites. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps and conducts a broad program of scientific research and advanced development. ... Galactic Radiation and Background (GRAB) is the name of a series of intelligence satellites operated by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to collect electronic intelligence (ELINT). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Recovery of Discoverer 14 return capsule (typical for the Corona series Diagram of J-1 type stereo / panoramic reciprocating Corona reconnaissance satellite camera system used on KH-4A missions from 1963 to 1969. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Echo 1 sits fully inflated at a Navy hangar in Weeksville, North Carolina. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Recovery of Discoverer 14 return capsule (typical for the Corona series Diagram of J-1 type stereo / panoramic reciprocating Corona reconnaissance satellite camera system used on KH-4A missions from 1963 to 1969. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spin-stabilisation is the method of stabilizing a satellite by means of spin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Venera 1 Venera 1 diagram On February 12, 1961, 00:34:36 UTC, the first planetary probe was launched to Venus by the Soviet Union. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... “Gagarin” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Vostok 1 (Russian: , meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... // Alan Shepard (1) *Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual prior to and including this mission. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Dr. Nancy Roman, with a model of the Orbiting Solar Observatory. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... -1... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... 1963 USSR postage stamp depicting Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: ; born March 6, 1937), is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on the 16th of June 1963. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... A joint flight with Vostok 5, Vostok 6 carried the first woman into space, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Crew Joseph A. Walker Mission Parameters Mass: 15,195 kg fueled; 6,577 kg burnout; 6,260 kg landed Maximum Altitude: 106. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite whose orbital track on the Earth repeats regularly over points on the Earth over time. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Syncom (for synchronous communication satellite) started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For the global navigation satellite system operated by Russia, see GLONASS. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... USN redirects here. ... Operational Transit satellite The TRANSIT system, also known as NAVSAT (for Navy Navigation Satellite System), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Syncom (for synchronous communication satellite) started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Voskhod 1 (Russian: ) was the first spaceflight to carry more than one person into space and the first flight without space suits. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Voskhod 2 (Russian: Восход 2) was a Soviet manned space mission. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Mariner 4 (Mariner-Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Soft landing is a landing in which buoyancy is slightly decreased. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Luna 9 (E-6 series), also known as Lunik 9 (internal name E-6 N. 13), was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Unions Luna program. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Venera 3 Venera-3 on-board medal Venera 3 (Russian:Венера-3) was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... An Agena Target Vehicle An Atlas launch vehicle launches GATV-5006 into orbit for the Gemini 11 mission. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Luna 10 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 10. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Soft landing is a landing in which buoyancy is slightly decreased. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Surveyor 1 was the first lunar lander in the American Surveyor program that explored the Moon. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Soyuz 1 (Russian Союз 1, Union 1) was part of the Soviet Unions space program and was launched into orbit on April 23, 1967, carrying a single cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov, who was killed when the spacecraft crashed after its return to Earth. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Cosmos 186 incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. ... Cosmos 188 incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Soyuz 4 launched January 14, 1969. ... The Soyuz 5 was a Soyuz spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on January 15, 1969 that docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Surveyor 3 was the third lunar lander of the Surveyor program that explored the Moon. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An artists impression of a capsule returned from Stardust containing cometary samples A sample return mission is a mission with the goal of returning tangible samples from an extraterrestrial location to Earth for analysis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Luna 16 (Ye-8-5 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 16. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Soviet robotic rovers, see Lunokhod programme. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Lunokhod series Soviet Moon exploration robot vehicle A panorama shot from Lunokhod 1 A photo from Lunokhod 1 showing the Luna 17 lander The tracks of Lunokhod showing the little wheel in the center that was used for odometry. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Space telescopes A space observatory is any instrument in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Uhuru was the first satellite launched specifically for the purpose of X-ray astronomy. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The Venera 7 (Russian: Венера-7) was launched as part of the Venera program by the Soviet Union. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Space telescopes A space observatory is any instrument in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The Orion 1 Space Observatory and Orion 2 Space Observatory were space observatories installed in spacecraft launched by the space program of the Soviet Union during the 1970s. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Mariner 9 launch Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars 71 / Mariner-I) was a NASA space probe orbiter that helped in the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The Mars program was a series of Mars unmanned landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mars 2. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Mariner 10 probe. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the planet. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Mariner 10 probe. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ...

Organization, funding, and economic impact

The huge expenditures and bureaucracy needed to organize successful space exploration led to the creation of national space agencies. The United States and the Soviet Union developed programs focused solely on the scientific and industrial requirements for these efforts. This article is about the sociological concept. ...


On 29 July 1958, President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). When it began operations on 1 October 1958, NASA consisted mainly of the four laboratories and some 8,000 employees of the government's 46-year-old research agency for aeronautics, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). While its predecessor, NACA, operated on a US$5 million budget, the NASA budget rapidly accelerated to US$5 billion per year, including huge sums for subcontractors from the private sector. The Apollo 11 Moon landing, the high point of NASA's success, cost an estimated 20 to 25 billion dollars. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... USD redirects here. ... Each year, the United States Congress passes a Federal Budget detailing where federal tax money will be spent in the coming year. ...


Lack of reliable statistics makes it difficult to compare U.S. and Soviet Union space spending, especially during the Khrushchev years. However in 1989, the Chief of Staff of the Soviet Armed Services, General M. Moiseyev, reported that the Soviet Union had allocated 6.9 billion rubles (about US$4 billion) to its space program that year.[6] Other Soviet officials estimated that their total manned space expenses totalled about that amount over the entire duration of the programs, with some lower unofficial estimates of about four and half billion rubles. In addition to ambiguity of the figures, such comparisons must also take into account the likely effect of Soviet propaganda, which pursued the goal of making the Soviet Union look strong and of confusing the Western analysis. ISO 4217 Code SUR User(s) Soviet Union Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural rublya (gen. ...


Organizational issues, particularly internal rivalries, also plagued the Soviet effort. The Soviet Union had nothing like NASA (the Russian Aviation and Space Agency originated only in the 1990s). Too many political issues in science and too many personal views handicapped Soviet progress. Every Soviet chief designer had to stand for his own ideas, looking for the patronage of a communist official. In 1964, between the various chief designers, the Soviet Union was developing 30 different programs of launcher and spacecraft design. Following the death of Korolev, the Soviet space program became reactive, attempting to maintain parity with the United States. In 1974 the Soviet Union reorganized its space program, creating the Energia project to duplicate the U.S. Space Shuttle with Shuttle Buran. The Russian Federal Space Agency, formerly the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RKA) (in Russian: Российское авиационно-космическое агентство) is the government agency responsible for Russias space science program and general aerospace research. ... An artists conception of a Soviet Buran space shuttle lifting off atop the Energia booster. ...


The Soviets also operated in the face of an economic disadvantage. Although the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world; the U.S. economy was the largest. Some observers have argued that the high economic cost of the space race, along with the extremely expensive arms race, eventually deepened the economic crisis of the Soviet system during the late 1970s and 1980s and was one of the factors that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.[citation needed] The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


Legacy

Deaths

When the United States' Apollo 15 left the moon, the astronauts left behind a memorial to astronauts from both nations who had perished during the efforts to reach the Moon. In the United States, the first astronauts to die during direct participation in space travel or preparation served in Apollo 1: Command Pilot "Gus" Grissom, Senior Pilot Ed White, and Pilot Roger Chaffee. These three died in a fire during a ground test on 27 January 1967. Italics indicate parameters for the planned mission canceled following the Jan 27 fire. ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Roger Chaffee Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 - January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Navy pilot who became an American astronaut in the Apollo program. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


Flights of the Soviet Union's Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11 resulted in cosmonaut deaths. Soyuz 1, launched into orbit on 23 April 1967, carried a single cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Komarov, who died when the spacecraft crashed after return to Earth because of parachute failure. In 1971, Soyuz 11 cosmonauts Georgi Dobrovolski, Viktor Patsayev, and Vladislav Volkov asphyxiated during reentry. Since 1971, the Soviet/Russian space program has suffered no further losses. Soyuz 1 (Russian Союз 1, Union 1) was part of the Soviet Unions space program and was launched into orbit on April 23, 1967, carrying a single cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov, who was killed when the spacecraft crashed after its return to Earth. ... Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons of the same name, see Komarov. ... Georgi Dobrovolski Georgi Timofeyevich Dobrovolski (Russian: Георгий Тимофеевич Добровольский; June 1, 1928 – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut. ... Viktor Patsayev Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev (Russian: Виктор Иванович Пацаев; June 19, 1933, Aktuybinsk – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 11 mission and had the unfortunate distinction of being part of the second crew to die during a space flight. ... Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov (Russian: Владислав Николаевич Волков; b. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ...


Other astronauts died in related missions, including four Americans (Ted Freeman, Elliot See, Charlie Bassett, C.C.Williams) who died in crashes of T-38 aircraft. Soviet Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, met a similar death when he crashed in a MiG-15 'Fagot' fighter in 1968. The Northrop T-38 Talon is a widely used US-built supersonic jet trainer. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR by Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich. ...


Many believe that the worst disaster in rocketry was the R-16 failure in 1960, when improper shutdown and control procedures during hasty on-pad repairs caused the missile's second stage to fire straight onto the full propellant tanks in the still-attached first stage. The toxic fuel and fire killed around 100 top Soviet military and technical personnel. The R-16 Missile that caused the catastrophe. ...


Advances in technology and education

Technology, especially in aerospace engineering and electronic communication, advanced greatly during this period. The effects of the Space Race however went far beyond rocketry, physics, and astronomy. "Space age technology" extended to fields as diverse as home economics and forest defoliation studies, and the push to win the race changed the very ways in which students learned science. Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ...


American concerns that they had fallen so quickly behind the Soviets in the race to space led quickly to a push by legislators and educators for greater emphasis on mathematics and on the physical sciences in American schools. The United States' National Defense Education Act of 1958 increased funding for these goals from childhood education through the post-graduate level. To this day over 1,200 American high schools retain their own planetarium installations, a situation unparalleled in any other country worldwide and a direct consequence of the Space Race. For the song by Ai Otsuka, see Planetarium (song) // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ...


The scientists fostered by these efforts helped develop for space exploration technologies which have seen adapted uses ranging from the kitchen to athletic fields. Dried watermelon and ready-to-eat foods, in particular food sterilisation and package sealing techniques, stay-dry clothing, and even no-fog ski goggles have their roots in space science.


Today over a thousand artificial satellites orbit earth, relaying communications data around the planet and facilitating remote sensing of data on weather, vegetation, and human movements to nations who employ them. In addition, much of the micro-technology which fuels everyday activities from time-keeping to enjoying music derives from research initially driven by the Space Race. For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real...


And with all these advances since the first Sputnik was launched, the former Soviet Union's R-7 rocket, that marked the beginning the space race, is still in use today, notably servicing the ISS. R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... ISS is an abbreviation, acronym, or initialism that may refer to: The International Space Station is a joint international project to build and maintain an orbiting space station. ...


Recent events

Although its pace has slowed, space exploration continues to advance long after the demise of the Space Race. The United States launched the first reusable spacecraft (space shuttle) on the 20th anniversary of Gagarin's flight, 12 April 1981. On 15 November 1988, the Soviet Union launched Buran, their first and only reusable spacecraft. These and other nations continue to launch probes, satellites of many types, and huge space telescopes. is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Illustration of the Buran Shuttle on an Energiya booster rocket Buran_Energia on the launch pad at Baikonur Buran_Energia on the pad Buran on liftoff Buran on touchdown Buran piggybacked on an An-225 carrier The Soviet reusable spacecraft program Buran (Бура́н meaning snowstorm or blizzard in Russian) began in 1976...

The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA)
The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA)

The possibility of a second international space race appeared at the end of the 20th century, with the European Space Agency taking the lead in commercial rocket launches with Ariane 4, and competing in unmanned space exploration with NASA. ESA's efforts have culminated into ambitious plans such as the Aurora Programme that intends to send a human mission to Mars no later than 2030 and has set various flagship missions to reach this goal. With U.S. President George W. Bush's similar announcement in 2004, outlining a timeframe for the construction and mission plan of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (a subsequent return to the Moon and later to Mars by 2030), the two major space agencies have similar plans. The ESA has teamed up with Russia. They are likely to co-fund and develop the Crew Exploration Vehicle counterpart, Kliper, which is scheduled to launch in 2011, years earlier than its American opponent, which is in an early draft status. As of 2006 the ESA has yet to fund a study of Kliper. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB) A launch of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB) A launch of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... ESA redirects here. ... Ariane 42P rocket with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite (Kourou, August 10, 1992) (NASA) Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the European Space Agency and manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace. ... The Aurora Programme is a programme of the European Space Agency established in 2001 with the primary objectives of creating, and then implementing, a European long-term plan for exploration of the Solar System using robotic spacecraft and human spaceflight. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... CEV with lunar lander CEV during a landing on earth CEV rocket, the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (right) along side the heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) rocket. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ...


Other nations are also capable of increasing competition in space exploration, most notably Japan, China, and India. Although China's funding is not in the same league with ESA or NASA, the successful manned space flights of Shenzhou 5 and Shenzhou 6 and plans for a space station by the Chinese space program of the People's Republic of China have shown what the country can accomplish. The United States military is evidently keeping a close watch on China's space aspirations, with the Pentagon releasing a report in 2006 detailing concerns about China's growing space power.[7]In early 2007 China launched a ballistic missile to destroy a satellite, frustrating international observers as this had violated a consensus not to attempt such maneuvers in space that have military undertones. This was some token that the space race had not really ever ended and actually had only expanded. In addition to China, India also has active space programs, with India's national space agency, ISRO, planning to launch an unmanned lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, by early 2008. India also has plans for manned space flights and an unmanned mission to Mars in 2012[8]. The Japanese Space Agency, JAXA, has launched a moon probe, SELENE in 2007. SELENE is touted as the most sophisticated lunar exploration mission in the post-Apollo Era. Shenzhou 5 (神舟五号) was the first manned space mission launched by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) on October 15, 2003. ... Shenzhou 6 (Chinese: 神舟六号) was the second human spaceflight of the Peoples Republic of China, launched on 12 October 2005 on a Long March rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... The space program of the Peoples Republic of China was initiated at the behest of the Central Military Commission for fulfilling national needs. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is Indias national space agency. ... Chandrayan I (Chandra=Moon, yan=Ship) is the name for a mission of the Indian space agencies to send an unmanned spacecraft to the Moon which will then take a polar orbit around. ... The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ...


Satellite launching order according to a Nation

Few countries have successfully launched a satellite independently. The countries which have accomplished this include (sequentially, as of February, 2007), former Soviet Union, U.S.A., France, Japan, China,U.K., India and Israel. Kazakhstan has rocket and satellite development technology and hosts the Baikonur Cosmodrome launch facility which is used by other countries particularly Russia. Brazil made three attempts at satellite launching in 97, 99, 03 years but none of these were successful. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ...

Rnk Date Nation Satellite Name kg Remarks
1 1957(10.4) Soviet Union Sputnik 1 R-7 84 kg
2 1958(1.31) U.S.A. Explorer 1 Jupiter C 13.7 kg
3 1965(11.26) France Aesterix 1 Deer man
4 1970(2.11) Japan おおすみ/Osumi L-4S 5 23.8 kg
5 1970(4.24) China 東方紅 長征1型
6 1971(10.28) U.K. Prospero Black arrow in Australia
7 1979(12.24) ESA CAT Alian 1type(L01)
8 1980(7.18) India Rohini1 SLV
9 1988(9.19) Israel Ofeq 1 Shabit launching westward

Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... The Jupiter-C Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) was designed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) The vehicle consists of a modified Redstone ballistic missile with three solid-propellant upper stages. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... Ofeq 5 Ofeq, also spelled Offek or Ofek (Hebrew: אופק, Horizon) is the designation of a series of Israeli reconnaissance satellites. ...

The satellite launching number according to a Nation

The world satellite launching total number is 5,736 at a point in time at the end of 2006. I occupy about 88% only in CIS and U.S.A[1]. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services...

The satellite launching number according to a Nation, higher 10 countries,(December of 2006). Joint possession is not included.
Rnk Nation Number (2005)
1 CIS 3228(3212)
2 U.S.A. 1815(1781)
3 Japan 119(111)
4 China 99(92)
INTELSAT 70(69)
ESRO/ESA 64(63)
5 France 54(52))In addition, France and Germany hold two planes jointly
6 India 38
7 Germany 38(37)In addition, France and Germany hold two planes jointly
8 U.K. 35
9 Canada 27(26)
10 Italy 20(19)
Among American 34 planes, ones planes are joint development with France. Sixs planes develop it jointly with Taiwan.

Higher may refer to one of several secondary school qualifications: Higher - the Higher level of National Qualification in Scotland, part of the Scottish Qualification Certificate Higher School Certificate - the Australian examination It may also refer to: Higher, a 1968 song by Sly & the Family Stone, remade as I Want to... For other uses, see 10 (disambiguation). ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Intelsat, Ltd. ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ...

Commercial space race

Another kind of space race may differ in nature from the original Soviet-American competition, as it could occur between commercial space enterprises. Early efforts in what is commonly referred to as space tourism, to run the first commercial trips into orbit, culminated on April 28, 2001 when American Dennis Tito became the first fee-paying space tourist when he visited the International Space Station on board Russia's Soyuz TM-32. The Ansari X Prize, a competition for private suborbital spaceships, has also evoked the prospect of a new space race by private companies. In late 2004, British aviator-financier Richard Branson announced the launch of Virgin Galactic, a company which will use SpaceShipOne technology, with hopes of launching sub-orbital flights by 2008. The curvature of Earth seen from orbit provides one of the main attractions for tourists paying to go into space Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940 in Queens, New York) is a United States multimillionaire who gained celebrity status by becoming the first space tourist to pay for his own ticket, although he himself opposes being called tourist and asks to be called an independent researcher since he performed... ISS redirects here. ... Soyuz TM-32 Image:Soyuz TM-32crew. ... For other uses, see X Prize (disambiguation). ... This space for sale Private spaceflight is flight above 100km Earth altitude conducted by an entity other than a government. ... Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English entrepreneur, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. ... Virgin Galactic is a company within Sir Richard Bransons Virgin Group, which plans to offer sub-orbital spaceflights and later orbital spaceflights to the paying public. ... SpaceShipOne is small, having a three-person cabin and short but wide wings. ...


See also

A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... Mathematically the term trajectory refers to the ordered set of states which are assumed by a dynamical system over time (see e. ... . ... // Mission Space surveillance is a critical part of USSTRATCOMs mission and involves detecting, tracking, cataloging and identifying man-made objects orbiting Earth, i. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... CEV with lunar lander CEV during a landing on earth CEV rocket, the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (right) along side the heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) rocket. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... See also Space Race Space firsts Space exploration Categories: | | ... 1Project Vanguard was transferred from the NRL to NASA immediately before launch. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space Age. NASA.
  2. ^ Both Sides of the “Moon”, an October 12, 1957 leader from The Economist
  3. ^ Dow, Peter. "Sputnik Revisited: Historical Perspectives on Science Reform". symposium hosted by the Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 
  4. ^ From a tape recording in the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library.
  5. ^ THE WORLD'S FIRST SPACE RENDEZVOUS (HTML). Apollo to the Moon; To Reach the Moon - Early Human Spaceflight. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  6. ^ Oberg, James, in Final Frontier, as reprinted in The New Book of Popular Science Annual, 1992
  7. ^ "Report: China’s Military Space Power Growing" by Leonard David, Space.com, June 5, 2006, Accessed June 8, 2006.
  8. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/5922_1853057,0015002100000000.htm[dead link]

Look up editorial, op-ed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Edward Oberg (b. ...

References

  • An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963, Robert Dallek (2003). ISBN 0-316-17238-3
  • Arrows to the Moon: Avro's Engineers and the Space Race , Chris Gainor (2001). ISBN 1-896522-83-1
  • Fallen Astronauts: Heroes Who Died Reaching for the Moon, Colin Burgess, Kate Doolan, Bert Vis (2003). ISBN 0-8032-6212-4
  • Light This Candle : The Life & Times of Alan Shepard--America's First Spaceman, Neal Thompson (2004). ISBN 0-609-61001-5
  • The New Columbia Encyclopedia, Col. Univ.Press (1975).
  • The Right Stuff, Tom Wolfe (pbk ed. 2001). ISBN 0-553-38135-0 ISBN 0-613-91667-0
  • Russia in Space: The Failed Frontier?, Brian Harvey (2001). ISBN 1-85233-203-4
  • The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, Asif A. Siddiqi (2003). ISBN 0-8130-2628-8
  • Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft, Rex Hall, David J. Shayler (2003). ISBN 1-85233-657-9
  • Space for Women: A History of Women With the Right Stuff, Pamela Freni (2002). ISBN 1-931643-12-1
  • Space Exploration, Carole Scott, Eyewitness Books, 1997
  • Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Asif A. Siddiqi (2003). ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  • Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles, Roger E. Bilstein (2003). ISBN 0-8130-2691-1
  • Yeager: An Autobiography, Chuck Yeager (1986). ISBN 0-553-25674-2

For the early 20th century American novelist, see Thomas Wolfe. ...

External links

Listen to this article (2 parts) · (info)
Part 1 • Part 2
Spoken Wikipedia
This audio file was created from a revision dated 2005-07-02, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles

NASA: Image File history File links Space_Race_Part_1. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Arrows to the Moon synopsis from the NASA website
  • Communications Satellites from the NASA website
  • Scan of a letter from Wernher Von Braun to Vice President Johnson, dated 29 April 1961, providing Von Braun's personal (not professional) assessment of United States and Soviet capability. The analysis includes the opinion that the U.S. has "an excellent chance" of beating the Russians to a manned lunar landing, adding "with an all-out crash program I think we could accomplish this objective in 1967/68."
  • "America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier", a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

Other websites: For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Why Did the USSR Lose the Moon Race? from Pravda, 2002-12-03
  • The 1st and 2nd Space Races Compared: Bi vs. Multi-polarity Jagiellonian University, 2006
  • Space Race Exhibition at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
  • TheSpaceRace.com – Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs
  • Timeline of the Space Race to the Moon 1960 - 1969
  • Shadows of the Soviet Space Age, Paul Lucas
  • Chronology:Moon Race at russianspaceweb.com
  • Space study hobbyists' organization
  • Artwork representing the cold war in space
  • Buzz Aldrin's Race Into Space: a game that simulates the Space Race, from a GeoCities website
  • Artifacts from the U.S. Space Program

This is a timeline of first orbital launches by nationality. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Space Race (0 words)
For over a decade, the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in a heated competition—the space race.
The space race began in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik.
NASA is the federal agency devoted to exploring space.
Nuçi's Space - Resource Center and Climate Controlled Practice Spaces for Musicians (317 words)
The S.P.A.C.E Race and Health Fair is a fun event for the entire family, students, University faculty, local musicians/artists and all those interested in helping a great cause.
Although serious runners are encouraged to participate, the key to the success of the Space Race is the involvement of casual joggers and walkers, and people who do not ordinarily run in 5Ks.
This year's race will also include teams of survivors of suicide and their loved ones; people are encouraged to walk as a group in memory or in honor of someone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m