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Encyclopedia > Space

Space is the component of the universe in which matter is physically extended and objects have positions relative to one another[1]. Although there is disagreement between philosophers over whether space exists as anything other than a conceptual framework, scientists tend to think of it as a part of the boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime[2]. Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Look up space, spacing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... Look up continuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ...


In classical mechanics, space is treated as being seperate from time and is thought of as one of the few fundamental physical quantities. In Isaac Newton's view space was absolute, in the sense that it exists permanently and independently of whether there is any matter in the space or moving through it[3]. However Albert Einstein's theory of relativity predicted that space and time could not be seperated in such a way. Based on his work, scientists now acknowledge that the rate at which time passes for an object depends both on its velocity relative to the speed of light, and the strength of nearby gravitational fields. Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... A physical quantity is either a quantity within physics that can be measured (e. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... Cherenkov effect in a swimming pool nuclear reactor. ... It has been suggested that gravitation be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

In philosophy

Space has a range of definitions: Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time. ...

  • One is a very important part in the fundamental structure of the universe, a set of dimensions in which objects are separated and located, have size and shape, and through which they can move.
  • A contrasting view is that space is part of a fundamental abstract mathematical conceptual framework (together with time and number) within which we compare and quantify the distance between objects, their sizes, their shapes, and their speeds. In this view, space does not refer to any kind of entity that is a "container" that objects "move through".

These opposing views are relevant also to definitions of time. Space is typically described as having three dimensions, see Three-dimensional space and that three numbers are needed to specify the size of any object and/or its location with respect to another location. Modern physics does not treat space and time as independent dimensions, but treats both as features of space-time – a conception that challenges intuitive notions of distance and time. 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... An abstract structure is a set of laws, properties and relationships that is defined independently of any physical objects. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of time. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... Quantity is a kind of property which exists as magnitude or multitude. ... The space we live in is three-dimensional space. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ...


An issue of philosophical debate is whether space is an ontological entity itself, or simply a conceptual framework humans need to think (and talk) about the world. Another way to frame this is to ask, "Can space itself be measured, or is space part of the measurement system?" The same debate applies also to time, and an important formulation in both areas was given by Immanuel Kant. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ...


In his Critique of Pure Reason, Kant described space as an a priori intuition that (together with another a priori intuition, time) allows us to comprehend sensual experience. Kant referred to such intuitions as noumena and as things in themselves. In Kant's view, neither space nor time are conceived of as substances, but rather both are elements of a systematic framework we use to structure our experience. Spatial measurements are used to quantify how far apart objects are, and temporal measurements are used to quantify how far apart events occur. However, these measurements are applied by our minds to categorize what we sense and are not an inherent part of the thing in itself. Title page of the 1781 edition. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... The noumenon (plural: noumena) classically refers to an object of human inquiry, understanding or cognition. ... Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ... Look up Framework in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion because: this page is a test If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...


Schopenhauer, in the preface to his On the Will in Nature, stated that "space is the condition of the possibility of juxtaposition." This is in accordance with Kant's understanding of space as a form in the mind of an observing subject. Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Similar philosophical questions concerning space include: Is space absolute or purely relational? Does space have one correct geometry, or is the geometry of space just a convention? Historical positions in these debates have been taken by Isaac Newton (space is absolute), Gottfried Leibniz (space is relational), and Henri Poincaré (spatial geometry is a convention). Two important thought-experiments connected with these questions are: Newton's bucket argument and Poincaré's sphere-world. Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Isaac Newtons rotating bucket argument attempts to show that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. ... The idea of a sphere-world was constructed by Henri Poincaré while pursuing his argument for conventionalism (see philosophy of space and time), offered a thought experiment about a sphere with strange properties. ...


In physics

Classical mechanics
History of ...
Fundamental concepts
Space · Time · Mass · Force
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Space is one of the few fundamental quantities in physics, meaning that it cannot be defined via other quantities because there is nothing more fundamental known at present. Thus, similar to the definition of other fundamental quantities (like time and mass), space is defined via measurement. Currently, the standard space interval, called a standard meter or simply meter, is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of exactly 1/299,792,458 of a second. This definition coupled with present definition of the second is based on the special theory of relativity, that our space-time is a Minkowski space. Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... The Greeks, and Aristotle in particular, were the first to propose that there are abstract principles governing nature. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... This article is about momentum in physics. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Lagrangian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics that combines conservation of momentum with conservation of energy. ... Hamiltonian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics that was invented in 1833 by William Rowan Hamilton. ... Applied mechanics, also known as theoretical and applied mechanics, is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics. ... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... See also list of optical topics. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Kepler redirects here. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (March 23, 1749 - March 5, 1827) was a French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy. ... For other persons named William Hamilton, see William Hamilton (disambiguation). ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Augustin Louis Cauchy (August 21, 1789 – May 23, 1857) was a French mathematician. ... Joseph-Louis, comte de Lagrange (January 25, 1736 Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia - April 10, 1813 Paris) was an Italian-French mathematician and astronomer who made important contributions to all fields of analysis and number theory and to classical and celestial mechanics as arguably the greatest mathematician of the 18th century. ... Euler redirects here. ... A fundamental is something that cannot be built out of more basic things, which other things are built upon. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ... In physics and mathematics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is the mathematical setting in which Einsteins theory of special relativity is most conveniently formulated. ...


Before Einstein's work on relativistic physics, time and space were viewed as independent dimensions. Einstein's discoveries have shown that due to relativity of motion our space and time can be mathematically combined into one object — space-time. (Distances in space or in time separately are not invariant with respect to Lorentz coordinate transformations, but distances in Minkowski space-time are — which justifies the name). Einstein redirects here. ...


In addition, time and space dimensions should not be viewed as exactly equivalent in Minkowski space-time. One can freely move in space but not in time. Thus, time and space coordinates are treated differently both in special relativity (where time is sometimes considered an imaginary coordinate) and in general relativity (where different signs are assigned to time and space components of spacetime metric). For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, in Riemannian geometry, the metric tensor is a tensor of rank 2 that is used to measure distance and angle in a space. ...


Furthermore, from Einstein's general theory of relativity, it has been shown that space-time is geometrically distorted- curved -near to gravitationally significant masses.[4]


Spatial measurement

Main article: Measurement

The measurement of physical space has long been important. Geometry, the name given to the branch of mathematics which measures spatial relations, was popularized by the ancient Greeks, although earlier societies had developed measuring systems. The International System of Units, (SI), is now the most common system of units used in the measuring of space, and is almost universally used within science. Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Geography is the branch of science concerned with identifying and describing the Earth, utilizing spatial awareness to try and understand why things exist in specific locations. Cartography is the mapping of spaces to allow better navigation, for visualization purposes and to act as a locational device. Geostatistics apply statistical concepts to collected spatial data in order to create an estimate for unobserved phenomena. Astronomy is the science involved with the observation, explanation and measuring of objects in outer space. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...


In geography

Geographical space is often considered as land, and can have a relation to ownership usage (in which space is seen as property or territory). While some cultures assert the rights of the individual in terms of ownership, other cultures will identify with a communal approach to land ownership, while still other cultures such as Australian Aboriginals, rather than asserting ownership rights to land, invert the relationship and consider that they are in fact owned by the land. Spatial planning is a method of regulating the use of space at land-level, with decisions made at regional, national and international levels. Space can also impact on human and cultural behavior, being an important factor in architecture, where it will impact on the design of buildings and structures, and on farming. A LAND attack is a DoS (Denial of Service) attack that consists of sending a special poison spoofed packet to a computer, causing it to lock up. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A territory (from the word terra, meaning land) is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution. ... Aboriginal Flag Indigenous Australians are the people who lived in the Australia and its nearby islands before the arrival of European settlers in 1788, and who continue to live there as minority peoples. ... Spatial planning refers to the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ...


Ownership of space is not restricted to land. Ownership of airspace and of waters is decided internationally. Other forms of ownership have been recently asserted to other spaces — for example to the radio bands of the electromagnetic spectrum or to cyberspace. Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... This article deals with the general meaning of spectrum and the history of its use. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ...


Public space is a term used to define areas of land as collectively owned by the community, and managed in their name by delegated bodies; such spaces are open to all. While private property is the land cultually owned by an individual or company, for their own use and pleasure. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ...


Abstract space is a term used in geography to refer to a hypothetical space characterized by complete homogeneity. When modeling activity or behavior, it is a conceptual tool used to limit extraneous variables such as terrain. Abstract space, in geography, refers to a hypothetical space characterized by equal and consistent properties; a geographic space that is completely homogenous. ... Extraneous variables are variables other than the independent variable that may bear any effect on the behavior of the person being studied. ...


In psychology

The way in which space is perceived is an area which psychologists first began to study in the middle of the 19th century, and it is now thought by those concerned with such studies to be a distinct branch within psychology. Psychologists analyzing the perception of space are concerned with how recognition of an object's physical appearance or its interactions are perceived. Psychological science redirects here. ...


Other, more specialized topics studied include amodal perception and object permanence. The perception of surroundings is important due to its necessary relevance to survival, especially with regards to hunting and self preservation as well as simply one's idea of personal space. Amodal perception is the term used to describe the full perception of a physical structure when it is only partially perceived, for example a table will be perceived as a continuous surface even if it is partially obscured by a book placed upon it. ... Object permanence is the term used to describe the awareness that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Self preservation is part of an animals instinct that demands that the organism survives. ... Personal space, an updated form of Edward T. Halls 1966 proxemics, is the region surrounding each person, or that area which a person considers their domain or territory. ...


Several space-related phobias have been identified, including agoraphobia (the fear of open spaces), astrophobia (the fear of celestial space), claustrophobia (the fear of enclosed spaces), and kenophobia (the fear of empty spaces). For other uses, see Phobia (disambiguation). ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder precipitated by the fear of having a symptom attack or panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. ... The English suffix -phobia is used to describe fear or hatred (the latter is often ignored) of a particular thing or subject. ... The term celestial refers to the sky and/or Heaven. ... Claustrophobia is an anxiety disorder that involves the fear of enclosed or confined spaces. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Space

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Personal space, an updated form of Edward T. Halls 1966 proxemics, is the region surrounding each person, or that area which a person considers their domain or territory. ... ISS in earth orbit. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... The Aether of classical elements is a concept, historically, used in science and in philosophy. ... In statistics, spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques used in various fields of research which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. ...

References

  1. ^ Britannica Online Encyclopedia: Space
  2. ^ The Penguin Dictionary of Science p. 378
  3. ^ French and Ebison, Classical Mechanics, p. 1
  4. ^ chapters 8 and 9- John A. Wheeler "A Journey Into Gravity and Spacetime" Scientific American Library isbn = 0-7167-6034-7
  • Space perception. Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed June 12, 2005.

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