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Encyclopedia > Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz spacecraft

Soyuz spacecraft (TMA version)
Description
Role: Used to carry cosmonauts to and from the Salyut, Mir and International Space Station. Intended originally for Moon orbit.
Crew: 3
Dimensions (TMA version)
Height: 57.44 ft 7.48 m
Diameter: 13.61 ft 2.72 m
Volume: 7.2 m3
Performance
Endurance: 6 months docked to station

Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning "union") is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Union's space program. The Soyuz succeeded the Voskhod spacecraft design and were originally built as part of the Soviet Manned Lunar program. The first unmanned launch of the Soyuz was on November 28, 1966. The first manned launch of the Soyuz was on April 23, 1967. Currently, the Soyuz spacecraft family is still in service and has launched more manned space missions than any other platform. The Soyuz spacecraft is launched by the Soyuz launch vehicle, as part of the Soyuz program and in the later missions as part of the Zond program. They were later used to carry cosmonauts to and from the Salyut and Mir space stations and are now used for transport to and from the International Space Station. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (3032 × 2008 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Mir (Мир, which can mean both world and peace in Russian) was a Soviet (and later Russian) orbital station. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Sergei Korolyov at the Kapustin Yar firing range in 1953. ... The Voskhod (Восход, Voschod, or Wosschod, translated as Rising) was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Unions space program for human spaceflight (see Voskhod programme). ... Details of the Soviet Moonshot were kept intensely secret until the arrival of glasnost. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the Luna programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... Mir (Мир, which can mean both world and peace in Russian) was a Soviet (and later Russian) orbital station. ... “ISS” redirects here. ...

Contents

Design

Soyuz diagram
Diagram showing the three elements of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft.
Diagram showing the three elements of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft.

A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts (from front to back): Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

The first two portions are habitable living space. By moving as much as possible into the orbital module, which does not have to be shielded or decelerated during atmospheric re-entry, the Soyuz is both larger and lighter than the Apollo spacecraft's command module. The Apollo command module had six cubic meters of living space and a mass of 5000 kg; the three-part Soyuz provided the same crew with nine cubic meters of living space, an airlock, and a service module for the mass of the Apollo capsule alone. In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... The orbital module is a spherical part of Soviet-Russian Soyuz space ship series. ... The Reeentry capsule is the part of the Soviet/Russian Soyuz or Chineese Shenzhou spacecraft that returns to Earth after either a International Space Station-bound flight (Soyuz) or solo-orbit flight (Shenzhou). ... A spacecrafts service module is a compartment containing a variety of support systems used for spacecraft operations, but not any habitable area. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[2] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ...


Soyuz can carry up to three cosmonauts and provide life support for them for about 30 person days. The life support system provides a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere at sea level partial pressures. The atmosphere is regenerated through KO2 cylinders, which absorb most of the CO2 and water produced by the crew and regenerates the oxygen, and LiOH cylinders which absorb leftover CO2. For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Potassium superoxide is a superoxide of potassium. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a corrosive alkali. ...


The vehicle is protected during launch by a nose fairing, which is jettisoned after passing through the atmosphere. It has an automatic docking system. The ship can be operated automatically, or by a pilot independently of ground control.


Orbital Module (BO)

Soyuz spacecraft's Orbital Module
Soyuz spacecraft's Orbital Module

The forepart of the spacecraft is the orbital module (also known as Habitation section (BO)). It houses all the equipment that will not be needed for reentry, such as experiments, cameras or cargo. Commonly, it is used as both dining area and lavatory. At its far end, it also contains the docking port. This module also contains a toilet, docking avionics and communications gear. On latest Soyuz versions, a small window was introduced, providing the crew with a forward view. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


A hatch between it and the descent module can be closed so as to isolate it to act as an airlock if needed, cosmonauts exiting through its side port (at the bottom of this picture, near the descent module). On the launch pad, they have entered the spacecraft through this port.


This separation also lets the orbital module be customized to the mission with less risk to the life-critical descent module. The convention of orientation in zero gravity differs from that of the descent module, as cosmonauts stand or sit with their heads to the docking port.


Reentry Module (SA)

Soyuz spacecraft's Descent Module
Soyuz spacecraft's Descent Module

The reentry module is used for launch and the journey back to Earth. It is covered by a heat-resistant covering to protect it during re-entry. It is slowed initially by the atmosphere, then by a braking parachute, followed by the main parachute which slows the craft for landing. At one meter above the ground, solid-fuel braking engines mounted behind the heat shield are fired to give a soft landing. One of the design requirements for the reentry module was for it to have the highest possible volumetric efficiency (internal volume divided by hull area). The best shape for this is a sphere, but such a shape can provide no lift, which results in a purely ballistic reentry. Ballistic reentries are hard on the occupants due to high deceleration and can't be steered beyond their initial deorbit burn. That is why it was decided to go with the 'headlight' shape that the Soyuz uses - a hemispherical forward area joined by a barely angled conical section (seven degrees) to a classic spherical section heat shield. This shape allows a small amount of lift to be generated due to the unequal weight distribution. The nickname was thought up at a time when nearly every headlight was circular.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ... In aeronautics, a heat shield is a protective layer on a spacecraft or ballistic missile that is designed to protect it from high temperatures, usually those that result from aerobraking during entry into a planets atmosphere. ... A ballistic reentry is a re-entry of an atmosphere that relies solely on friction with the atmosphere to slow the vessel. ...


Service Module (PAO)

Soyuz spacecraft's Instrumentation/Propulsion Module

At the back of the vehicle is the service module (known by its Russian acronym as PAO, or Priborno-Agregatniy Otsek). It has a pressurized container shaped like a bulging can (Instrumentation compartment, PO (Priborniy Otsek) that contains systems for temperature control, electric power supply, long-range radio communications, radio telemetry, instruments for orientation and control. A non-pressurized part of the service module (Propulsion compartment, AO (Agregatniy Otsek)) contains the main engine and a spare: liquid-fuel propulsion systems for maneuvering in orbit and initiating the descent back to Earth. The ship also has a system of low-thrust engines for orientation, attached to the Intermediate compartment (PkhO or Perekhodnoi Otsek). Outside the service module are the sensors for the orientation system and the solar array, which is oriented towards the sun by rotating the ship.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites, or in short, to provide delta-v. ...


Re-Entry Procedure

Because its modular construction differs from that of previous designs, the Soyuz has an unusual sequence of events prior to re-entry. The spacecraft is turned engine-forward and the main engine is fired for de-orbiting fully 180° ahead of its planned landing site. This requires the least propellant for re-entry, the spacecraft traveling on an elliptical Hohmann orbit to a point where it will be low enough in the atmosphere to re-enter. In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that, under standard assumption, moves a spacecraft from one circular orbit to another using two engine impulses. ...


Early Soyuz spacecraft would then have the service and orbital modules detach simultaneously. As they are connected by tubing and electrical cables to the descent module, this would aid in their separation and avoid having the descent module alter its orientation. Later Soyuz spacecraft detach the orbital module before firing the main engine, which saves even more propellant, enabling the descent module to return more payload. But in no case can the orbital module remain in orbit as an addition to a space station, for the hatch enabling it to function as an airlock is part of the descent module.


Re-entry firing is done on the "dawn" side of the earth, so that the spacecraft can be seen by recovery helicopters as it descends in the evening twilight, illuminated by the sun when it is above the shadow of the Earth.


Spacecraft systems

Thermal Control System - Sistema Obespecheniya Teplovogo Rezhima, SOTR
Life Support System - Kompleks Sredstv Obespecheniya Zhiznideyatelnosti, KSOZh
Power Supply System - Sistema Elektropitaniya, SEP
Communication and Tracking Systems - Rassvet (Dawn) radio communications system, Onboard Measurement System (SBI), Kvant-V spacecraft control, Klyost-M television system, Orbit Radio Tracking (RKO)
Onboard Complex Control System - Sistema Upravleniya Bortovym Kompleksom, SUBK
Combined Propulsion System (KDU)
Chaika-3 Motion Control System (SUD)
Optical/Visual Devices (OVP)- VSK-4 (Vizir Spetsialniy Kosmicheskiy-4),Night Vision Device (VNUK-K, Visir Nochnogo Upravleniya po Kursu), Docking light, Pilot's Sight (VP-1, Vizir Pilota-1), Laser Range Finder (LPR-1, Lazerniy Dalnomer-1)
Kurs rendezvous system
Docking System - Sistema Stukovki i Vnutrennego Perekhoda, SSVP
Teleoperator Control Mode - Teleoperatorniy Rezhim Upravleniya, TORU
Entry Actuators System - Sistema Ispolnitelnikh Organov Spuska, SIO-S
Landing Aids Kit - Kompleks Sredstv Prizemleniya, KSP
Portable Survival Kit - Nosimiy Avariyniy Zapas, NAZ
Soyuz Launch Escape System - Sistema Avariynogo Spaseniya, SAS

Technical Data

Version: Soyuz-A (1963) Soyuz 7K-OK (1967-1971) Soyuz 7K-L3 (LOK) Soyuz 7K-T (1973-1981) Soyuz 7K-TM Soyuz-T (1976-1986) Soyuz-TM (1986-2003) Soyuz-TMA (2003-.... )
Mass
Mass (kg) 5.880 6.560 9.850 6.800 6.680 6.850 7.250 7.220
Length (m) 7,40 7,95 10,06 7,48 7,48 7,48 7,48 7,48
Max. Diameter (m) 2,50 2,72 2,930 2,72 2,72 2,72 2,72 2,72
Span (m)  ? 9,80  ? 9,80/– 8,37 10,6 10,6 10,7
Orbital module
Mass (kg) 1.000 1.100 - 1.350 1.224 1.100 1.450 1.370
Length (m) 3,00 3,45 - 2,98 3,10 2,98 2,98 2,98
Diameter (m) 2,20 2,25 - 2,26 2,26 2,26 2,26 2,26
Volume (m³) 2,20 5,00 - 5,00 5,00 5,00 5,00 5,00
Reentry module
Mass (kg) 2.480 2.810 2.804 2.850 2.802 3.000 2.850 2.950
Length (m) 2,30 2,24 - 2,24 2,24 2,24 2,24 2,24
Diameter (m) 2,17 2,17 - 2,17 2,17 2,17 2,17 2,17
Volume (m³) 4,00 4,00 - 3,50 4,00 4,00 3,50 3,50
Service module
Mass (kg) 2.400 2.650 - 2.700 2.654 2.750 2.950 2.900
Usable mass (kg) 830 500 - 500 500 700 880 880
Length (m) 2,10 2,26 - 2,26 2,26 2,26 2,26 2,26
Diameter (m) 2,50 2,72 - 2,72 2,72 2,72 2,72 2,72

Variants

A-B-C circumlunar complex (1963)

Soyuz-A manned spacecraft concept (1963). It was to have been part of the Soyuz A-B-C circumlunar complex
Soyuz-A manned spacecraft concept (1963). It was to have been part of the Soyuz A-B-C circumlunar complex
Soyuz A-B-C circumlunar concept. The drawing shows Soyuz-A (right), Soyuz-B booster, and Soyuz-C tanker with twin whip antennae (left)
Soyuz A-B-C circumlunar concept. The drawing shows Soyuz-A (right), Soyuz-B booster, and Soyuz-C tanker with twin whip antennae (left)

Korolev initially promoted the Soyuz A-B-C circumlunar complex concept in which a two-man craft would rendezvous with other components in Earth orbit to assemble a lunar excursion vehicle, the components being delivered by the proven R-7 rocket. Besides the Soyuz-A spacecraft, the complex would feature a Soyuz-B booster and a Soyuz-C tanker with twin whip antennae.
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1722x1122, 112 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz programme Soyuz spacecraft Soviet Moonshot ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1722x1122, 112 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz programme Soyuz spacecraft Soviet Moonshot ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1744x1221, 122 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soviet Moonshot ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1744x1221, 122 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soviet Moonshot ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ...


Soyuz 7K-OK (1966-1971)

Soyuz 7K-OK(A) spacecraft with an active docking unit.
Soyuz 7K-OK(A) spacecraft with an active docking unit.

The manned Soyuz spacecraft can be classified into design generations. Soyuz 1 through Soyuz 11 (1967-1971) were first-generation vehicles, carrying a crew of up to three without spacesuits and distinguished from those following by their bent solar panels and their use of the Igla automatic docking navigation system, which required special radar antennas. The first unmanned test of this version was Cosmos-133, launched on Nov. 28, 1966. This first generation was called 7K-OK and encompassed the original Soyuz and Salyut 1 Soyuz. Variations within it were primarily docking fixtures; the first nine examples had no internal hatch and crew transfer had to take place by means of spacewalks, employing spacesuits kept in the orbital module, which functioned as an airlock, as done on Soyuz 4 and 5.
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1741 × 1012 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1741 × 1012 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Soyuz 1 (Russian Союз 1, Union 1) was part of the Soviet Unions space program and was launched into orbit on April 23, 1967, carrying a single cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov, who was killed when the spacecraft crashed after its return to Earth. ... Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ... Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ... A laundromat in California with flat-plate solar water heating collectors on its roof. ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Soyuz 4 launched January 14, 1969. ... The Soyuz 5 was a Soyuz spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on January 15, 1969 that docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit. ...


Soyuz 7K-L1 (1967-1970)

Soyuz 7K-L1 (Zond) circumlunar spacecraft
Soyuz 7K-L1 (Zond) circumlunar spacecraft

The 7K-L1 was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the moon. It was based on the 7K-OK with several components stripped out to reduce the vehicle weight. The most notable modifications included the removal of the orbital module (providing extra space for living quarters or equipment) and a reserve parachute. It was the primary hope for Soviet circumlunar flight. Tests in the Zond program from 1968-1970 (Zond 4 to Zond 8) produced multiple failures in the 7K-L1's re-entry systems. The goal was scrapped, along with the two remaining 7K-L1s.
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1748 × 1016 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Timeline of Solar System exploration Soyuz... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1748 × 1016 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Timeline of Solar System exploration Soyuz... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Zond 4 (Soyuz 7K-L1) Zond 4, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was a short flight that was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned spaceflight. ... Zond 8 (Soyuz 7K-L1) Zond 8, a member of the Soviet Unions Zond program, was launched from an Earth orbiting platform, Tyazheliy Sputnik (70-088B), towards the Moon. ...


Soyuz 7K-L3 (LOK)

Soyuz 7K-L3 (LOK) drawing
Soyuz 7K-L3 (LOK) drawing

The 7K-L3 was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the moon and developed in paralled to the 7K-L1. The LOK -Lunniy Orbitalny Korabl would carry two cosmonauts into orbit around the Moon, acting as "mother" spacecraft for the LK Lander, which would land one member of the crew to the surface.
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1750x1194, 161 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soviet Moonshot LK Lander ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1750x1194, 161 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soviet Moonshot LK Lander ... The LK (Lunniy korabl - lunar craft) was a Soviet lunar lander and counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. ...


Soyuz 7K-OKS (1971)

The next manned version of the Soyuz was the 7K-OKS


This was designed for space station flights and now had a docking port that allowed internal transfer between spacecraft. It flew only twice manned (Soyuz 10 and Soyuz 11). During the reentry of the second flight, Soyuz 11, the crew were killed when the capsule depressurized during the re-entry phase.
The International Space Station in 2006 Computer-generated image of the completed International Space Station A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... Soyuz 10 was the first planned visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, which had been successfully placed in orbit on April 19, 1971. ... Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ... Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ...


Soyuz 7K-T (1973-1981)

Upgraded Soyuz 7K-T version capable of carrying 2 cosmonauts with Sokol space suits (after the Soyuz 11 accident).
Upgraded Soyuz 7K-T version capable of carrying 2 cosmonauts with Sokol space suits (after the Soyuz 11 accident).
Salyut 1-type Soyuz 7K-T/A9 for 3 cosmonauts without space suits. This was the Original Soyuz 7K-OK upgraded for the military Almaz space stations. The probe and drogue docking system (left) permitted internal transfer of cosmonauts from the Soyuz to the station.
Salyut 1-type Soyuz 7K-T/A9 for 3 cosmonauts without space suits. This was the Original Soyuz 7K-OK upgraded for the military Almaz space stations. The probe and drogue docking system (left) permitted internal transfer of cosmonauts from the Soyuz to the station.

The second generation, the Soyuz Ferry, comprised Soyuz 12 through Soyuz 40 (1973-1981). Although still using the Igla system, these had no solar panels, employing batteries; the crew could now wear spacesuits throughout their flight, though their number was reduced to two. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1589 × 894 pixel, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1589 × 894 pixel, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Crew of the International Space Station Expedition 7. ... Soyuz 11 was the first successful visit to the worlds first space station, Salyut 1, but ended in disaster when an air leak killed the three-man crew during preparations for re-entry. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 461 pixelsFull resolution (1710 × 985 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 461 pixelsFull resolution (1710 × 985 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Salyut 1 (DOS 1) was the first Salyut space station, and the first human-made space station of any kind. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... Soyuz 12 was the test flight of the newly-redesigned Soyuz spacecraft that was intended to provide greater crew safety in the wake of the Soyuz 11 tragedy. ... Crew Leonid Popov (2) Dumitru Prunariu - Romania (1) Mission Parameters Mass: 6800 kg Perigee: 198. ...


This version is called the 7K-T. With just a crew of two, all cosmonauts could wear spacesuits during launch and reentry. The replacement of solar panels with batteries limited it to about two days of undocked flight.


A modified version of this spacecraft flew on Soyuz 13, where instead of the docking system a large Orion 2 astrophysical camera for imaging the sky and Earth was used. Soyuz 13 was a second test flight of the redesigned Soyuz capsule that first flew as Soyuz 12. ...


Another modification was the 7K-T/A9 used for the flights to the military Almaz space station. This featured the ability to remote control the space station and a new parachute system and other still classified and unknown changes.
The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ...


Soyuz-T (1976-1986)

Soyuz-T spacecraft.
Soyuz-T spacecraft.
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Soyuz. The APAS-75 docking unit is located at left.
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Soyuz. The APAS-75 docking unit is located at left.

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Soyuz served as a technological bridge to the third generation Soyuz-T (T - транспортный, Transportnyi meaning transport) spacecraft (1976-1986). It featured solar panels allowing longer missions, a revised Igla rendezvous system and new translation/attitude thruster system on the Service module. It could carry a crew of three, now wearing spacesuits. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 485 pixelsFull resolution (1727 × 1046 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 485 pixelsFull resolution (1727 × 1046 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (1747 × 1194 pixel, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (1747 × 1194 pixel, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ...


The Soyuz ASTP spacecraft was designed for use during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project. It featured design changes mandated by the Americans to make the spacecraft safer. The Soyuz ASTP featured new solar panels for increased mission length, an androgynous universal docking mechanism instead of the standard male mechanism and modifications to the environmental control system to lower the cabin pressure to 0.68 atmospheres (69 kPa) prior to docking with Apollo. The last flight of this version, Soyuz 22 again replaced the docking port with a camera. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the US and Soviet space programs. ... Soyuz 22 was an earth-sciences mission using a modified Soyuz capsule that had served as a backup for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission the previous year. ...




Soyuz-TM (1986-2003)

Soyuz-TM spacecraft. Compare the antennae on the orbital module to those on Soyuz-T. Differences reflect the change from the Igla rendezvous system used on Soyuz-T to the Kurs rendezvous system used on Soyuz-TM.
Soyuz-TM spacecraft. Compare the antennae on the orbital module to those on Soyuz-T. Differences reflect the change from the Igla rendezvous system used on Soyuz-T to the Kurs rendezvous system used on Soyuz-TM.

Soyuz-TM crew transports (M - модифицированный, Modifitsirovannyi meaning modified) was fourth generation (1986-2003) and used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 491 pixelsFull resolution (1754 × 1076 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 491 pixelsFull resolution (1754 × 1076 pixel, file size: 142 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soyuz spacecraft ... Mir (Мир, which can mean both world and peace in Russian) was a Soviet (and later Russian) orbital station. ... “ISS” redirects here. ...




Soyuz-TMA (2003-.... )

The Soyuz TMA-6
The Soyuz TMA-6
Soyuz TMA seat improvements
Soyuz TMA seat improvements

A slightly modified Soyuz TMA is now also being used (A - антропометрический, Antropometricheskii meaning anthropometric). This features several changes to accommodate requirements requested by NASA in order to service the International Space Station, including more latitude in the height and weight of the crew and improved parachute systems. It is also the first expendable vehicle to feature "glass cockpit" technology, and the first of the Soyuz spacecraft family to have the feature. Soyuz-TMA looks identical to a Soyuz-TM spacecraft on the outside, but interior differences allow it to accommodate taller occupants with new adjustable crew couches. Download high resolution version (3032x2008, 2737 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3032x2008, 2737 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Illustration from The Speaking Portrait (Pearsons Magazine, Vol XI, January to June 1901) demonstrating the principles of Bertillons anthropometry. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... A Glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays. ...




Soyuz TMAT (2009/....)

In 2004, Russian space officials announced that the Soyuz will be replaced by early 2011 with the new Kliper and Parom spacecrafts. However, since then the Kliper appears to have been indefinitely postponed due to lack of funding from government, and it has been announced that the Soyuz will receive an upgrade to make it suitable for up to one year in space, as well as new digital interior displays and updated docking equipment. This new version, known as Soyuz TMAT, could service around 2008/9. Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... Kliper utilizing Parom Space Tug The Parom (ferry in Russian) is a space tug that has been proposed by RKK Energia. ...


Soyuz ACTS (2012/....)

Soyuz ACTS (Advanced Crew Transportation System), also known as Soyuz-K, is a proposed version of the Soyuz design capable of achieving lunar orbit. The upgrades could include a new habitation module developed by the European Space Agency. Missions could be launched from Baikonur or Guiana Space Centre.[1] ESA redirects here. ... Map showing Baikonurs location in Kazakhstan. ... The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais) is a French/European spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ...


Related craft

The unmanned Progress spacecraft were derived from Soyuz and are used for servicing space stations. ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ...


The Chinese Shenzhou spacecraft is also heavily influenced by the design of the Soyuz. 1:40 scale model of Shenzhou 1 Shenzhou (Chinese: 神舟; Pinyin: ) is a spacecraft from the Peoples Republic of China which first carried a Chinese astronaut into orbit on October 15, 2003. ...


See also

ISS Progress cargo spacecraft The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. ... Crew of the International Space Station Expedition 7. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space by both manned and unmanned spacecraft. ... boogers loser The furthest of destinations for manned spaceflight missions has been the Moon. ... For the trade union, see Confederation of Cameroon Trade Unions CSTS or ACTS (Crew Space Transportation System and Advanced Crew Transportation System respectively) is a crew transportation system which is jointly studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) with the objective to design a...

Missions

See List of manned space missions as well as the Zond program List of human spaceflights: // Apollo Missions Apollo 7 Apollo 8 - first human flight around the moon Apollo 9 Apollo 10 Apollo 11 - first human moon landing Apollo 12 Apollo 13 - explosion en route to Moon forced emergency return to Earth by using free return trajectory Apollo 14 Apollo 15 Apollo... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ...


Image Gallery

References

  1. ^ [1]

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Soyuz spacecraft

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... From World War II until its breakup, the Soviet Union undertook projects to build rockets, craft, and instruments for war and exploration of space. ... The Soyuz human spaceflight programme was initiated in the early 1960s as part of the manned lunar programme that was intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... The Vostok program (Восто́к, translated as East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in putting a person into Earth orbit for the first time. ... Image:Woschod 1 Montage. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... Mir (Мир, which can mean both world and peace in Russian) was a Soviet (and later Russian) orbital station. ... The Shuttle-Mir program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian Space Station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the Shuttle and American astronauts staying aboard Mir for long periods of time. ... The name Zond (meaning probe in Russian) is the name given to two series of Soviet unmanned space missions from 1964 to 1970 to gather information about nearby planets and test spacecraft. ... Proton-K rocket with Zond (7K-L1) circumlunar spacecraft (Baikonur) Details of the Soviet Moonshot were kept intensely secret until the arrival of glasnost. ... Spiral 50 / 50. ... The Almaz (Алмаз - Diamond) program was a series of military space stations launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the Salyut program. ... The TKS spacecraft was first designed as a Proton rocket launched manned spacecraft, with the VA (Vozvrashaemiy Apparat) capsule on top for the crew, where they would enter the lower portion of the TKS, the FGB (the Functional Cargo Block), through a hatch cut in the heat shield. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Model of Energia rocket with Buran shuttle The Soviet reusable spacecraft program Buran (Бура́н meaning snowstorm or blizzard in Russian) began in 1976 at TsAGI as a response to the United States Space Shuttle program. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... Soyuz (Russian: Союз, pronounced sah-YOUS, meaning union) is a series of spacecraft designed by Sergey Korolyov for the Soviet Unions space program. ... Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4267x2400, 2120 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lunar Surface Access Module Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... The LK (Lunniy korabl - lunar craft) was a Soviet lunar lander and counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. ... The LSAM launches its ascent stage to return the astronauts to Lunar Orbit. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Soyuz spacecraft (1084 words)
An "abbreviated" version of the Soyuz spacecraft, designated L1, was developed for a circumlunar mission launched by the Proton rocket.
Accordingly, the Soyuz was re-tailored for the role of a ferry, capable of delivering a crew of three to the orbital outpost.
The reentry capsule of the Soyuz spacecraft, known by its Russian acronym as "SA." is the only section of the vehicle, which returns to Earth at the end of the mission.
Science Fair Projects - Soyuz spacecraft (1368 words)
The spacecraft are launched by the Soyuz launch vehicle, as part of the Soyuz program and the later missions of the Zond program.
In the Command Module of the Apollo spacecraft there were 6 cubic metres of living space for a mass of 5000 kg; the Soyuz provided the same crew with 9 cubic meters of living space, an airlock, and the service module for the mass of the Apollo capsule alone.
A modified version of this spacecraft flew on Soyuz 13 where instead of the docking system was a large Orion 2 astrophysical camera for imaging the sky and Earth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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