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Encyclopedia > Soybean
Soybean

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Glycine
Species: G. max
Binomial name
Glycine L. max
(L.) Merr.
Soybean, green raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 30 kcal   130 kJ
Carbohydrates     5.94 g
- Sugars  4.13 g
- Dietary fiber  1.8 g  
Fat 0.18 g
- saturated  0.046 g
- monounsaturated  0.022 g  
- polyunsaturated  0.058 g  
Protein 3.04 g
Water 90.4 g
Vitamin A equiv.  1 μg  0%
Vitamin B6  0.088 mg 7%
Vitamin B12  0 μg   0%
Vitamin C  13.2 mg 22%
Vitamin K  33 μg 31%
Calcium  13 mg 1%
Iron  0.91 mg 7%
Magnesium  21 mg 6% 
Phosphorus  54 mg 8%
Potassium  149 mg   3%
Sodium  6 mg 0%
Zinc  0.41 mg 4%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia. It is an annual plant that may vary in growth, habit, and height. It may grow prostrate, not growing higher than 20 cm (7.8 inches), or even up to 2 meters (6.5 feet) in height. The pods, stems, and leaves are covered with fine brown or gray hairs. The leaves are trifoliolate, having 3 leaflets per leaf, and the leaflets are 6–15 cm (2–6 inches) long and 2–7 cm (1–3 inches) broad. The leaves fall before the seeds are mature. The small, inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of 3–5, with each pod 3–8 cm (1–3 inches) long and usually containing 2–4 (rarely more) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter. Download high resolution version (640x951, 162 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Fabaceae (legumes) Quillajaceae Polygalaceae (milkwort family) Surianaceae The Fabales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Tribes Abreae Adesmieae Aeschynomeneae Amorpheae Bossiaeeae Brongniartieae Carmichaelieae Cicereae Crotalarieae Dalbergieae Desmodieae Dipterygeae Euchresteae Galegeae Genisteae Hedysareae Indigofereae Liparieae Loteae Millettieae Mirbelieae Phaseoleae Podalyrieae Psoraleeae Robinieae Sophoreae Swartzieae Thermopsideae Trifolieae Vicieae Faboideae is a subfamily of the flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. ... Species See text Glycine Willd. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Elmer Drew Merrill (October 15, 1876 – February 25, 1956) was an American botanist. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty. It is a cultural variety (a cultigen) with a very large number of cultivars. However, it is known that the progenitor of the modern soybean was a vine-like plant that grew prone on the ground. Cultigen is the name for organisms, especially cultivated plants like the edible banana, not known to have a wild or uncultivated counterpart in nature. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera (species), Glycine and Soja. The subgenus Soja(Moench) includes the cultivated Soybean, G. max (L.) Merrill, and the wild soybean, G. soja Sieb.& Zucc. Both species are annual. The soybean grows only under cultivation while G. soja grows wild in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Russia. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of the soybean: the wild progenitor. At present, the subgenus Glycine consists of at least 16 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens, and G. tomentella Hayata found in Australia and Papua New Guinea [1] Carl Ludwig von Willdenow (August 22, 1765 - July 10, 1812) was a German botanist and pharmacist. ... Annual, from the Latin annuum, or year means pertaining to a year or happening every year. ... Look up Perennial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Beans are classed as pulses whereas soybeans are classed as oilseeds. It is a versatile bean, having a diverse range of uses. The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ... Seeds which are grown for their oil. ...


The English word soy is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of 醤油 (しょうゆ, shōyu), the Japanese word for soy sauce; soya comes from the Dutch adaptation of the same word.[2][3]

Contents

Physical characteristics

Soybeans occur in various sizes, and in several hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, and mottled. The hull of the mature bean is hard, water resistant, and protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl (or "germ") from damage. If the seed coat is cracked the seed will not germinate. The scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum (colors include black, brown, buff, gray and yellow) and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water. The term husk is mostly used to refer to the leafy outer covering of an ear of maize (corn) as it grows on the plant. ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ... Hypocotyl is a botanical term for a part of a germinating seedling of a seed plant. ... In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ...


Remarkably, seeds such as soybeans containing very high levels of protein can undergo desiccation yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold, son of Aldo Leopold, began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid 1980s. He found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability.[4] Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting "biological membranes" and proteins in the dry state. Compare to tardigrades. Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ... The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research is an renown research and education organization currently located on the campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Electron Micrograph of a Tardigrade Classes Heterotardigrada Mesotardigrada Eutardigrada Tardigrades (Tardigrada), or water bears, are a phylum of small, segmented animals, similar and related to the Arthropods. ...


Chemical composition of the seed

The oil and protein content together account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash. Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. One of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials, consisting mainly of carbonates and bicarbonates of metals. ... For the genus of Crassulaceae, see Cotyledon. ... Hypocotyl is a botanical term for a part of a germinating seedling of a seed plant. ...


The majority of soy protein is a relatively heat-stable storage protein. This heat stability enables soy food products requiring high temperature cooking, such as tofu, soymilk and textured vegetable protein (soy flour) to be made. Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ...


The principal soluble carbohydrates, saccharides, of mature soybeans are the disaccharide sucrose (range 2.5–8.2%), the trisaccharide raffinose (0.1–1.0%) composed of one sucrose molecule connected to one molecule of galactose, and the tetrasaccharide stachyose (1.4 to 4.1%) composed of one sucrpose connected to two molecules of galactose. While the oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose protect the viability of the soybean seed from desiccation (see above section on physical characteristics) they are not digestible sugars and therefore contribute to flatulence and abdominal discomfort in humans and other monogastric animals; compare to the disaccharide trehalose. Undigested oligosaccharides are broken down in the intestine by native microbes producing gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, etc. Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose and glucose. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Stachyose is an oligosaccharide (tetra-saccharide) consisting of two D-galactose units and one sucrose sequentially linked. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ... Trehalose, also known as mycose, is a type of alpha-linked disaccharide formed by an α, α-1, 1-glucoside bond between α-glucose units found extensively but not abundantly in nature. ...


Since soluble soy carbohydrates are found mainly in the whey and are broken down during fermentation, soy concentrate, soy protein isolates, tofu, soy sauce, and sprouted soybeans are without flatus activity. On the other hand, there may be some beneficial effects to ingesting oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose, namely, encouraging indigenous bifidobacteria in the colon against putrefactive bacteria. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... A bacterial group (and probiotic) that is perceived to exert health-promoting properties within humans, specifically the colon. ...


The insoluble carbohydrates in soybeans consist of the complex polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The majority of soybean carbohydrates can be classed as belonging to dietary fiber. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A hemicellulose can be any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides) present in almost all cell walls along with cellulose. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ...


Cultivation

Varieties of soybeans are used for many purposes.
Varieties of soybeans are used for many purposes.

Soybeans are an important global crop, providing oil and protein. The bulk of the crop is solvent-extracted for vegetable oil and then defatted soy meal is used for animal feed. A small proportion of the crop is consumed directly by humans. Soybean products do appear in a large variety of processed foods. Download high resolution version (624x948, 203 KB)Varieties of soybeans http://www. ... Download high resolution version (624x948, 203 KB)Varieties of soybeans http://www. ...


Soybeans were a crucial crop in eastern Asia long before written records, and they remain a major crop in China, Japan, and Korea . Prior to fermented products such as soy sauce, tempeh, natto, and miso, soy was considered sacred for its use in crop rotation as a method of fixing nitrogen. The plants would be plowed under to clear the field for food crops.[citation needed] Soy was first introduced to Europe in the early 1700s and the United States in 1765, where it was first grown for hay. Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter in 1770 mentioning sending soybeans home from England. Soybeans did not become an important crop outside of Asia until about 1910. In America, soy was considered an industrial product only and not utilized as a food prior to the 1920s. Soy was introduced in Africa from China in the late 19th Century and is now widespread across the continent. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Natto eaten on top of rice is commonly stirred before consumption Nattō ) is a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, popular especially at breakfast. ... Miso ) is a traditional Japanese food produced by fermenting rice, barley and/or soybeans, with salt and kōji (the most typical miso is made with soy). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...


Cultivation is successful in climates with hot summers, with optimum growing conditions in mean temperatures of 20 °C to 30 °C (68°F to 86°F); temperatures of below 20 °C and over 40 °C (68 °F, 104 °F) retard growth significantly. They can grow in a wide range of soils, with optimum growth in moist alluvial soils with a good organic content. Soybeans, like most legumes, perform nitrogen fixation by establishing a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum (syn. Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982). However, for best results an inoculum of the correct strain of bacteria should be mixed with the soybean (or any legume) seed before planting. Modern crop cultivars generally reach a height of around 1 m (3 ft), and take 80–120 days from sowing to harvesting. Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...

Top Soybean Producers
in 2005
(million metric tons)
Flag of the United States United States 83.9
Flag of Brazil Brazil 52.7
Flag of Australia Australia 44.7
Flag of Argentina Argentina 38.3
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 17.4
Flag of India India 6.6
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay 3.5
Flag of Canada Canada 3.0
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia 1.7
World Total 214.3
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation
(FAO)
[1]

Soybeans are native to east Asia, but 45 percent of the world’s soybean area, and 55 percent of production, is in the United States. The U.S. produced 75 million metric tons of soybeans in 2000, of which more than one-third was exported. Other leading producers are Brazil, Australia, Argentina, China, and India. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...


Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace and the WWF, have reported that both soybean cultivation and the probability of increased soybean cultivation in Brazil, has destroyed huge areas of Amazon rainforest and is encouraging further deforestation. [5] American soil scientist Dr. Andrew McClung, who first showed that the infertile Cerrado region of Brazil could grow soybeans, was awarded the 2006 World Food Prize on October 19, 2006.[6] Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... The cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast area of savanna-like grasslands in Brazil. ... The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity or availability of food in the world. ...


The first research on soybeans in the United States was conducted by George Washington Carver at Tuskegee, Alabama, but he decided it was too exotic a crop for the poor black farmers of the South so he turned his attention to peanuts. George Washington Carver, 1906 George Washington Carver (c. ... Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States. ...


Production history

Soybean output in 2005
Soybean output in 2005

According to the ancient Chinese, in 2853 BC the legendary Emperor Shennong of China named five sacred plants – soybeans, rice, wheat, barley, and millet.[7] The origins of the soybean plant are obscure, but many botanists believe it to have derived from glycine ussuriensis, a legume native to central China.[8] The soybean has been used in China for 5,000 years as a food and a component of drugs. Cultivation of the soybean, long confined chiefly to China, gradually spread to other countries.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of soyabean output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 83,368,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of soyabean output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 83,368,000 tonnes). ... Shennong‎ Shennong (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝) or the Emperor of the Five Grains (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a legendary ruler of China and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to had lived some 5,000 years ago, and taught... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Species See text Glycine Willd. ...


According to other sources, the earliest preserved soybeans were unearthed from archaeological sites in Korea[10][11]. AMS radiocarbon dating on soybean recovered through flotation during excavations at the Early Mumun Period Okbang site in Korea indicates that soybean was cultivated as a food crop in ca. 1000–900 BC. [12]. The best current evidence on the Japanese Archipelago suggests that soybean cultivation occurred in the early Yayoi period. An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Flotation is a method for the separation of mixtures. ... The Mumun Pottery Period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ...


From about the first century AD to the Age of Discovery (15-16th century), soybeans were introduced into several countries such as Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal and India. The spread of the soybean was due to the establishment of sea and land trade routes. The earliest Japanese textual reference to the soybean is in the classic Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) which was completed in 712 AD. Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ...


During World War II, soybeans became important in both North America and Europe chiefly as substitutes for other protein foods and as a source of edible oil. In the United States they are now a leading crop, and Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay also are significant soybean-exporting nations. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Many people have claimed that soybeans in Asia, prior to modern times, were only used after a fermentation process, which alters the high increase in phytoestrogens found in the raw plant. However, this appears to be incorrect: Terms similar to "soy milk" have been in use since 82 AD [2], and there is evidence of tofu consumption that dates to 220.[3]


The genus name Glycine was originally introduced by Linnaeus (1737) in his first edition of Genera Plantarum. The word glycine is derived from the Greek-glykys (sweet) and very likely refers to the sweetness of the pear-shaped (apios in Greek) edible tubers produced by the native North American twining or climbing herbaceous legume, Glycine apios, now known as Apios americana . Some alternative names are: ground nut, American potato bean, wild bean, Indian potato, ground bean, hopniss, and sea vines. The seeds are also edible. It saved the Massachusetts Bay Pilgrims from starvation.[13] The cultivated soybean first appeared in the Species Plantarum, Linnaeus, under the name Phaseolus max L. The combination, Glycine max(L.) Merr., as proposed by Merrill in 1917, has become the valid name for this useful plant. A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Binomial name Apios americana Medikus Synonyms Apios americana, sometimes called the hog peanut, potato bean, or groundnut (but not to be confused with other plants sometimes known by that name) is a perennial vine native to eastern North America, and bears edible beans and large edible tubers. ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Species Phaseolus acutifoliusTepary bean Phaseolus amblyosepalus Phaseolus angustissimus Phaseolus anisotrichos Phaseolus augustii Phaseolus brevicalyx Phaseolus chacoensis Phaseolus cibellii Phaseolus coccineus- Runner bean Phaseolus filiformis Phaseolus galactoides Phaseolus glabellus Phaseolus grayanus Phaseolus latidenticulatus Phaseolus leucanthus Phaseolus lunatus- Lima bean Phaseolus massaiensis Phaseolus micranthus Phaseolus microcarpus Phaseolus nelsonii Phaseolus oaxacanus Phaseolus pachyrrhizoides...


Soybean diseases

This article is a list of diseases of soybeans (Glycine max). ...

Genetic modification

Soybeans are one of the "biotech food" crops that have been genetically modified, and GM soybeans are being used in an increasing number of products. In 1995 Monsanto introduced Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans that have had a copy of a gene from the bacterium, Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, inserted into its genome by means of a gene gun, that allows the transgenic plant to survive being sprayed by this non-selective herbicide, Roundup. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, kills conventional soybeans. The bacterial gene is EPSP (5-enolpyruvyl shikimic acid-3-phosphate) synthase. Soybeans also have a version of this gene, but the soybean version is sensitive to glyphosate, while the CP4 version is not.[14] The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Species Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium rhizogenes áAgrobacterium is a genus of bacteria that causes tumors in plants. ... The gene gun is a device for injecting cells with genetic information, originally designed for plant transformation. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the U.S. life sciences giant Monsanto. ... It has been suggested that Roundup be merged into this article or section. ...


RR soybeans allow a farmer to spray widely the herbicide Roundup and so to reduce tillage or even to sow the seed directly into an unplowed field, known as no-till farming or conservation tillage. No-till agriculture has many advantages, greatly reducing soil erosion and creating better wildlife habitat;[15] it also saves fossil fuels and sequesters CO2, a greenhouse effect gas.[16] It should be noted that RR soybeans simplify the process, but are not a requirement for no-till agriculture. Roundup may be sprayed on the field (and weeds) before the non-RR soybeans have emerged from the soil. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... No-till planting of corn near Plymouth, Iowa. ... No-till farming, also known as conservation tillage, is a way of growing crops from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


In 1997, about 8% of all soybeans cultivated for the commercial market in the United States were genetically modified. In 2006, the figure was 89%. As with other "Roundup Ready" crops, concern is expressed over damage to biodiversity.[17] However, the RR gene has been bred into so many different soybean cultivars that the genetic modification itself has not resulted in any decline of genetic diversity, as demonstrated by a study on genetic diversity[18] Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


The ubiquitous use of such types of GM soybeans in the Americas has caused problems with exports to some regions. GM crops require extensive certification before they can be legally imported into the European Union, where there is extensive supplier and consumer reluctance to use GM products for consumer or animal use. Difficulties with coexistence and subsequent traces of cross-contamination of non-GM stocks have caused shipments to be rejected and have put a premium on non-GM soy.[19] In the context of agriculture and food and feed production, co-existence means using cropping systems with and without genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in parallel. ...


Uses

Soybeans can be broadly classified as "vegetable" (garden) or field (oil) types. Vegetable types cook more easily, have a mild nutty flavor, better texture, are larger in size, higher in protein, and lower in oil than field types. Tofu and soymilk producers prefer the higher protein cultivars bred from vegetable soybeans originally brought to the United States in the late 1930s. The "garden" cultivars are generally not suitable for mechanical combine harvesting because they have a tendency for the pods to shatter on reaching maturity. For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... Soy milk or soya milk (Chinese: 豆浆 or 豆奶, Japanese:豆乳) is the liquid extraction processed from soy beans after soaking, grinding, cooking and straining. ...


Among the legumes, the soybean, also classed as an oilseed, is pre-eminent for its high (38–45%) protein content as well as its high (20%) oil content. Soybeans are the leading agricultural export in the United States. The bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil production, with the high-protein defatted and "toasted" soy meal used as livestock feed. A smaller percentage of soybeans are used directly for human consumption. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Immature soybeans may be boiled whole in their green pod and served with salt, under the Japanese name edamame (枝豆 edamame?). Soybeans prepared this way are a popular local snack in Hawaii, and are becoming increasingly popular in the continental United States. Because of the proclaimed health benefits of soy, edamame has been featured as an ideal snack alternative in fitness and healthy living magazines such as Real Simple. Edamame is sold in the frozen vegetable section at some larger grocery stores, and as ready-to-eat snackfood in many Asian delis. Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... An Issue of Real Simple Real Simple is a monthly womens interest magazine published by Time Publishing Ventures. ...


In China, Japan, and Korea the bean and products made from the bean are a popular part of the diet. The Chinese invented tofu (豆腐), and also made use of several varieties of soybean paste as seasonings. Japanese foods made from soya include: miso (味噌), natto (納豆), and edamame (枝豆). In Korean cuisine, soybean sprouts, called kongnamul (hangul:콩나물) are also used in a variety of dishes such as doenjang, cheonggukjang and ganjang. This article is about the Korean civilization. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... Miso ) is a traditional Japanese food produced by fermenting rice, barley and/or soybeans, with salt and kōji (the most typical miso is made with soy). ... Natto eaten on top of rice is commonly stirred before consumption Nattō ) is a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, popular especially at breakfast. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Hanjeongsik Korean cuisine is based on the traditional foods and preparation techniques of Korea. ... Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste. ... Cheonggukjang is a fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ...


The beans can be processed in a variety of ways. Common forms of soy (or soya) include soy meal, soy flour, soy milk, tofu, textured vegetable protein (TVP, which is made into a wide variety of vegetarian foods, some of them intended to imitate meat), tempeh, soy lecithin and soybean oil. Soybeans are also the primary ingredient involved in the production of soy sauce (or shoyu). Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... Dry TVP flakes are an inexpensive protein source when purchased in bulk and can be added to a variety of vegetarian dishes or used as a supplement to bulk out a meat dish. ... Vegetarian cuisine is cookery of food that meets vegetarian principles. ... This article is about the food. ... Fresh tempeh at the market, Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ...

Soybeans grow throughout Asia and North and South America.
Soybeans grow throughout Asia and North and South America.
Soybean fields in the United States
Soybean fields in the United States

Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) is among the largest processors of soybeans and soy products. ADM along with Dow Chemical Company, DuPont and Monsanto support the industry trade associations United Soybean Board (USB) and Soyfoods Association of North America (SANA). These trade associations have increased the consumption of soy products dramatically in recent years. Download high resolution version (640x978, 162 KB)Soybeans from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x978, 162 KB)Soybeans from http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 875 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Archer Daniels Midland Company (NYSE: ADM), based in Decatur, Illinois, operates more than 270 plants worldwide, where cereal grains and oilseeds are processed into numerous products used in food, beverage, nutraceutical, industrial and animal feed markets worldwide. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ...


Oil

In processing soybeans for oil extraction and subsequent soy flour production, selection of high quality, sound, clean, dehulled yellow soybeans are very important. Soybeans having a dark colored seed coat, or even beans with a dark hilum will inadvertently leave dark specks in the flour, are undesirable for use in commercial food products. All commercial soybeans in the United States are yellow or yellow brown. Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ...


To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, rolled into flakes and solvent-extracted with commercial hexane. The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated, are exported abroad, sold as "vegetable oil," or end up in a wide variety of processed foods. The remaining soybean husks are used mainly as animal feed. the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ...


The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are 7% linolenic acid (C18:3); 51% linoleic acid (C-18:2); and 23% oleic acid(C-18:1). It also contains the saturated fatty acids 4%stearic acid and 10% palmitic acid. The term saturation generally means thoroughly full, and can refer to the following: In chemistry, see saturation (chemistry) for a number of meanings. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... A spacefilling model of the Stearic Acid molecule A diagram of the Stearic Acid molecule Stearic acid (IUPAC systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. ...


Soybean oil has a relatively high proportion, 7–10%, of oxidation prone linolenic acid, which is an undesirable property for continuous service, such as in a restaurant. In the early nineties, Iowa State University developed soybean oil with 1% linolenic acid in the oil. Three companies, Monsanto, DuPont/Bunge, and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic, (C18:3; cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 octadecatrienoic acid) Roundup Ready soybeans. In the past hydrogenation was used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid, but this produced the unnatural trans-fatty acid trans fat configuration, whereas in nature the configuration is cis. This external picture from North Dakota State University compares soybean oil fatty acid content with other oils. The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... Bunge Limited (formerly Bunge International) is a multinational food conglomerate. ... Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide produced by the US life sciences giant Monsanto. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Trans is a Latin noun or prefix, meaning across, beyond or on the opposite side [of] . It is the opposite of cis, which means on the same side [of]. In chemistry, a double bond (or ring) not subject to free rotation in which the greater radical on both ends is... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services...


In the 2002–2003 growing season, 30.6 million metric tons of soybean oil were produced worldwide, constituting about half of worldwide edible vegetable oil production, and thirty percent of all fats and oils produced, including animal fats and oils derived from tropical plants.[20] A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...


Soybean oil has also been found effective as an insect repellent in some studies.[21] [22] The commercial product Bite Blocker contains soybean oil as one active ingredient.


Meal

Main article: Soybean meal

Soybean meal, the material remaining after solvent extraction of soybean flakes, with a 50% soy protein content, toasted (a misnomer because the heat treatment is with moist steam) and ground in a hammer mill, provided the energy for the American production method, beginning in the 1930s, of growing farm animals such as poultry and swine on an industrial scale; and more recently the aquaculture of catfish. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Soybean meal according to AAFCO is the product obtained by grinding the flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from soybeans by a solvent or mechanical extraction process. ... Soybean meal according to AAFCO is the product obtained by grinding the flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from soybeans by a solvent or mechanical extraction process. ... Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. ... A hammer mill is a machine, which purpose is to shred material into fine particles. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Trinomial name Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Sus domestica The domestic pig (or in some areas hog) is normally given the scientific name Sus scrofa domestica, though some taxonomists use the term , reserving for the wild boar. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ...


Flour

Soy flour refers to defatted soybeans where special care was taken during desolventizing (not toasted) in order to minimize denaturation of the protein to retain a high Nitrogen Solubility Index (NSI), for uses such as extruder texturizing (TVP). It is the starting material for production of soy concentrate and soy protein isolate. Irreversible egg protein denaturation and loss of solubility, caused by the high temperature (while cooking it) Denaturation is the alteration of a protein or nucleic acids shape through some form of external stress (for example, by applying heat, acid or alkali), in such a way that it will no...

  • Defatted soy flour is obtained from solvent extracted flakes, and contains less than 1% oil.
  • Full-fat soy flour is made from unextracted, dehulled beans, and contains about 18% to 20% oil. Due to its high oil content a specialized Alpine Fine Impact Mill must be used for grinding rather than the more common hammer mill.
  • Low-fat soy flour is made by adding back some oil to defatted soy flour. The lipid content varies according to specifications, usually between 4.5% and 9%.
  • High-fat soy flour can also be produced by adding back soybean oil to defatted flour at the level of 15%.
  • Lecithinated soy flour is made by adding soybean lecithin to defatted, low-fat or high-fat soy flours to increase their dispersibility and impart emulsifying properties. The lecithin content varies up to 15%.

Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ...

Infant formula

Infant formulas based on soy are used by lactose-intolerant babies and for babies that are allergic to cow milk proteins. The formulas are sold in powdered, ready-to-feed, or concentrated liquid forms. An infant being fed by bottle. ...


Some reviews express the opinion that more research is needed to answer the question of what effect the phytoestrogens contained in soy formula may have on infants [23][24], but did not find any adverse effects. Diverse studies conclude there are no adverse effects in human growth, development, or reproduction as a result of the consumption of soy-based infant formula.[25][26][27] One of these studies, published at the Journal of Nutrition[27], concludes that:

...there is no clinical concerns with respect to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune development, or thyroid disease. SBIFs provide complete nutrition that adequately supports normal infant growth and development. FDA has accepted SBIFs as safe for use as the sole source of nutrition

Nut butter

Soybeans have been made into a spread called soynut butter, similar to peanut butter but with soybeans instead. It is less fattening than peanut butter.


Substitute for existing products

Open package of cream cheese with chives, a soy milk based cream cheese alternative
Open package of cream cheese with chives, a soy milk based cream cheese alternative

Soybeans are the primary ingredient in many processed foods, including dairy product substitutes (e.g., margarine, soy ice cream, soy milk, soy yogurt, soy cheese and soy cream cheese), as well as Crisco, soybean oil, tofu, veggie burgers, soy crisps, among others. Soybeans are processed to produce a texture and appearance similar to other foods (e.g., butter, ice cream, milk, yogurt, cheese, lard, olive oil, ground beef, potato chips, etc.) and are readily available in most supermarkets. Soy milk does not contain significant amounts of calcium, since the high calcium content of soybeans is bound to the insoluble constituents and remains in the pulp. Many manufacturers of soy milk now sell calcium-enriched products as well. Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ... 500g package of Alpro soy yogurt, from a German supermarket The soy yogurt actually looks like usual cream yogurt Soy yogurt is yogurt prepared using soy milk, yogurt bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and sometimes additional sweetener, like fructose, glucose, honey or raw sugar [1]. It is one... Soy cheese is an alternative that is relatively new to most markets. ... Soy cheese is an alternative that is relatively new to most markets. ... Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912 Crisco, a popular brand of shortening, was first produced in 1911 by Procter & Gamble and was the first shortening to be made entirely of vegetable oil. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... This article is about the fat. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... Image:Minced beef USDA.jpg Minced beef in industrial grinder Ground beef, beef mince or hamburger meat, is a meat product, made of beef finely chopped by a meat grinder. ... Saratoga chips Potato chips (British English or Hiberno-English: crisps) are slim slices of potatoes deep fried or baked until crisp. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Okara or soy pulp is a white or yellowish pulp consisting of insoluble parts of the soybean which remain in the filter sack when pureed soybeans are filtered in the production of soy milk. ...


Other products

Soybeans are the bean used in Chinese fermented black beans, douchi, not the sometimes confused black turtle beans. Douchi (Chinese: 豆豉; pinyin: ), also called hamanatto or Chinese fermented black beans, is a flavoring most popular in the cuisine of China, and is used to make black bean sauce. ... Navy Bean redirects here. ...


Soybeans are also used in industrial products including oils, soap, cosmetics, resins, plastics, inks, crayons, solvents, clothing, and biodiesel. Soybeans are also used as fermenting stock to make a brand of vodka.[citation needed] For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Make-up redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crayon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ...


Henry Ford promoted the soybean, helping to develop uses for it both in food and in industrial products, even demonstrating auto body panels made of soy-based plastics. Ford's interest led to two bushels of soybeans being used in each Ford car as well as products like the first commercial soy milk, ice cream and all-vegetable non-dairy whipped topping. The Ford development of so-called soy-based plastics was based on the addition of soybean flour and wood flour to phenolformaldehyde plastics. Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Greek Café Frappé prepared with soy milk, topped with additional cinnamon 1 l (2. ...


In 1931, Ford hired chemists Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert to produce artificial silk. They succeeded in making a textile fiber of spun soy protein fibers, hardened or tanned in a formaldehyde bath which was given the name Azlon by the Federal Trade Commission. Pilot production of Azlon reached 5000 pounds per day in 1940, but never reached the commercial market. R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point -53 °C Related Compounds Related aldehydes acetaldehyde benzaldehyde Related compounds ketones carboxylic acids Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Formaldehyde (methanal) is the chemical compound with the formula... Azlon is a synthetic textile fiber composed of protein material derived from natural sources. ...


Today, very high quality textile fibers are made commercially from "okara" (soy pulp), a by-product of tofu production. Okara or soy pulp is a white or yellowish pulp consisting of insoluble parts of the soybean which remain in the filter sack when pureed soybeans are filtered in the production of soy milk. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ...


Nutrition

Protein, Vitamins, and Minerals

Main article: soy protein

Soybeans are generally considered to be a source of complete protein, without any need for Protein combining.[28] although this is contested by some sources.[29][30] A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body's inability to synthesize them. For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for many vegetarians and vegans or for people who cannot afford meat. Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. ... A complete protein or whole protein is a protein that contains all amino acids, most notably the nine essential amino acids to humans and most animals, in ratios appropriate to the body. ... Protein combining (also protein complementing) is the theory, now largely discredited (citation needed), that vegetarians must eat foods such as beans and rice together, or at least on the same day, so the different amino acids in the foods combine to form a complete protein, containing all eight essential amino... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Vegan redirects here. ...


The gold standard for measuring protein quality, since 1990, is the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and by this criterion soy protein is the nutritional equivalent of meat and eggs for human growth and health. Soybean protein isolate has a Biological Value of 74, whole soybeans 96, soybean milk 91, and eggs 97.[31] Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on the amino acid requirements of humans. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Biological Value or BV is a common method for measuring protein quality and biological utilization rates of protein for human and animal consumption. ...


Soy protein is similar to that of other legume seeds, but has the highest yield per square meter of growing area, and is the least expensive source of dietary protein. Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. ...

Toasted soybeans
Toasted soybeans

Consumption of soy may also reduce the risk of colon cancer, possibly due to the presence of sphingolipids.[32] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 346 KB) Summary A package of toasted soybeans, manufactured and distributed by Trader Joes. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 346 KB) Summary A package of toasted soybeans, manufactured and distributed by Trader Joes. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... General chemical structure of sphingolipids. ...


Role of soyfoods in disease prevention

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids, for example, alpha-linolenic acid C18-3, all cis, 9,12,15 octadecatrienoic acid (where the omega-3 refers to carbon number 3 counting from the hydrocarbon tail whereas C-15 refers to carbon number 15 counting from the carboxyl acid head) are special fat components that benefit many body functions. However, the effects which are beneficial to health are associated mainly with the longer-chain, more unsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) found in fish oil and oily fish. For instance, EPA and DHA, inhibit blood clotting, while there is no evidence that alpha-linolenic acid (aLNA) can do this. Soybean oil is one of the few common vegetable oils that contains a significant amount of aLNA; others include canola, walnut, and flax. However, soybean oil does not contain EPA or DHA. Soybean oil does contain significantly greater amount of omega-6 fatty acids in the oil: 100g of soybean oil contains 7g of omega-3 fatty acids to 51g of omega-6: a ratio of 1:7. Flaxseed, in comparison, has an omega-3:omega-6 ratio of 3:1. Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ...


Isoflavones

Main article: Isoflavone

Soybeans also contain the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, types of phytoestrogen, that are considered by some nutritionists and physicians to be useful in the prevention of cancer and by others to be carcinogenic[citation needed] and endocrine disruptive[citation needed]. Soy's content of isoflavones are as much as 3mg/g dry weight.[citation needed] Isoflavones are polyphenol compounds, produced primarily by beans and other legumes, including peanuts and chickpeas. Isoflavones are closely related to the antioxidant flavonoids found in other plants, vegetables and flowers. Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are found in only some plant families, because most plants do not have an enzyme, chalcone isomerase which converts a flavone precursor into an isoflavone. The chemical structure of the isoflavone backbone (3-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyr-4-one) Isoflavones are a class of organic compounds and biomolecules related to the flavonoids [1]. They act as phytoestrogens in mammals. ... The chemical structure of the isoflavone backbone (3-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyr-4-one) Isoflavones are a class of organic compounds and biomolecules related to the flavonoids [1]. They act as phytoestrogens in mammals. ... Genistein is one of several known isoflavones. ... daidzein This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Phytoestrogens are plant compounds with effects similar to those of estrogen, although somewhat weaker. ... A phytoestrogen that is thought of by many as useful in treating cancer. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ...


Claims of cholesterol reduction

The dramatic increase in soyfood sales is largely credited to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval of health claims for soy in which studies are conflicting as to their cholesterol lowering ability.[33] “FDA” redirects here. ...


From 1992 to 2003, sales have experienced a 15% compound annual growth rate, increasing from $300 million to $3.9 billion over 11 years, as new soyfood categories have been introduced, soyfoods have been repositioned in the market place, thanks to a better emphasis on marketing nutrition. Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is one method of assessing the average growth of a value over time. ...


In 1995, the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol. 333, No. 5) published a report from the University of Kentucky entitled, "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids." It was financed by the PTI division of DuPont,"The Solae Co."[34] St. Louis, Missouri, a soy producer and marketer. This meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. However, High Density Lipoprotein HDL(good cholesterol) did not increase by a significant amount. Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones: genistein and daidzein) adsorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this research PTI, in 1998, filed a petition with FDA for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. It should be noted that only subjects with serum cholesterol of 250mg/dl and higher showed any improvement in the study. The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8–11 nm in diameter), that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal/+human cells and bodies. ... A phytoestrogen that is thought of by many as useful in treating cancer. ... In chemistry, a molecule is adsorbed onto a surface when temporary bonds are formed between the surface and the molecule. ...


The FDA granted this health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." One serving, (1 cup or 240 mL) of soy milk, for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein. Solae resubmitted their original petition, asking for a more vague health claim, after their original was challenged and highly criticized. Solae also submitted a petition for a health claim that soy can help prevent cancer. They quickly withdrew the petition for lack of evidence and after more than 1,000 letters of protest were received. In February 18, 2008 Weston A. Price Foundation submitted a petition for removal of this health claim.[35]


In January, 2006 an American Heart Association review (in the journal Circulation) of a decade long study of soy protein benefits casts doubt on the FDA allowed "Heart Healthy" claim for soy protein. This review of the literature compared soy protein and its component isoflavones with casein (isolated milk protein), wheat protein, and mixed animal proteins.[36] The review panel also found that soy isoflavones have not been shown to reduce post menopause "hot flashes" in women and the efficacy and safety of isoflavones to help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus or prostate is in question. Thus, soy isoflavone supplements in food or pills is not recommended. Among the conclusions the authors state, "In contrast, soy products such as tofu, soy butter, soy nuts, or some soy burgers should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and low content of saturated fat. Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer benefits to cardiovascular health."[37] The original paper is in the journal Circulation: January 17, 2006.[38] The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ...


Soy controversy

Phytoestrogen

Main article: Phytoestrogens

Soybeans contain isoflavones called genistein and daidzein, which are one source of phytoestrogens in the human diet. Since most naturally occurring estrogenic substances show only weak activity, it is doubtful that normal consumption of foods that contain these phytoestrogens would provide sufficient amounts to elicit a physiological response in humans.[citation needed] Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal/+human cells and bodies. ... A phytoestrogen that is thought of by many as useful in treating cancer. ... Genistein is one of several known isoflavones. ... daidzein This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal/+human cells and bodies. ...


Plant lignans associated with high fiber foods such as cereal brans and beans are the principal precursor to mammalian lignans which have an ability to bind to human estrogen sites. Soybeans are a significant source of mammalian lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol containing 13–273 µg/100 g dry weight.[39] Another phytoestrogen in the human diet with estrogen activity is coumestans, which are found in beans, split-peas, with the best sources being alfalfa, clover, and soybean sprouts. Coumestrol, an isoflavone coumarin derivative is the only coumestan in foods.[40][41] A lignan is a chemical compound found in plants. ... Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is an anti-oxidant phytochemical present in flax, sunflower, sesame and pumpkin seeds. ... Coumarin is a chemical compound; a toxin found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ...


Soybeans and processed soy foods do not contain the highest "total phytoestrogen" content of foods. A study in which data were presented on an as is (wet) basis per 100 g and per serving found that food groups with decreasing levels of total phytoestrogens per 100 g are nuts and oilseeds, soy products, cereals and breads, legumes, meat products, various processed foods that may contain soy, vegetables, and fruits.[42]


Men

Because of the phytoestrogen content, some studies indicate that there is an inverse correlation between soybean ingestion and testosterone in men.[43] For this reason, they may protect against the development of prostate cancer.[44] Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...


Women

A 2001 lierature review suggested that women with current or past breast cancer should be aware of the risks of potential tumor growth when taking soy products, based on the effect of phytoestrogens on breast cancer cell growth in animals.[45]


A 2006 commentary reviewed the relationship with soy and breast cancer. They stated that soy may prevent breast cancer, but cautioned that the impact of isoflavones on breast tissue needs to be evaluated at the cellular level in women at high risk for breast cancer.[46]


Infant formula

There are some studies that state that phytoestrogen in soy can lead to alterations in the proliferation and migration of intestinal cells. The effects of these alterations are unknown.[47] However, some studies conclude there are no adverse effects in human growth, development, or reproduction as a result of the consumption of soy-based infant formula.[48] Other reviews agree, but state that more research is needed to answer the question of what effect phytoestrogens have on infants.[49][50] Soy formula has also been linked to autoimmune disorders of the thyroid gland.[51] In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts (down to the sub-molecular levels) as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues. ...


Allergens

Main article: Soy allergy

About 8% of children in the USA are allergic to soybean proteins.[citation needed] The major soy allergen has been identified by scientists at USDA.[citation needed] Both transgenic and conventional soybean varieties without the allergenic protein have been prepared.[citation needed] Soy allergy, typically, will manifest itself approximately a day after consumption of the beans. Common symptoms are urticaria, rash, itching, and redness of the skin.[52][53] Soy allergy is a type of food allergy. ... USDA redirects here. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ...


Promotion as health food

Soy consumption has been promoted by natural food companies and the soy industry's aggressive marketing campaign in various magazines, television ads and in health food markets. Research has been conducted examining the validity of the beneficial health claims with regard to the increase in consumption of soybeans which mimic hormonal activity. A practice guideline published in the journal Circulation questions the efficacy and safety of soy isoflavones for preventing or treating cancer of the breast, endometrium, and prostate (although the same study also concludes that soy in some foods should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health) and does not recommend usage of isoflavone supplements in food or pills.[54] A review of the available studies by the United States' Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found little evidence of substantial health improvements and no adverse effects, but also noted that there was no long-term safety data on soy consumption.[55] The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), supports research designed to improve the outcomes and quality of health care, reduce its costs, address patient safety and medical errors, and broaden access to effective services. ...


Brain

Estrogen helps protect and repair the brain during and after injury.[56] The mimicry of estrogen by the phytoestrogens in soy has introduced a controversy over whether such a replacement is harmful or helpful to the brain. Several studies have found soy to be harmful for rats.[57][58][59][60] One study followed over 3000 Japanese men between 1965 and 1999, and that showed a positive correlation between brain atrophy and consumption of tofu.[61] The study was rejected as not credible by the Food and Drug Administration when it issued its health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease."[62] “FDA” redirects here. ...


Carcinogen

Raw soy flour is known to cause pancreatic cancer in rats.[63] Whether this is also true in humans is unknown because no studies comparing cases of pancreatic cancer and soy intake in humans have yet been conducted, and the doses used to induce pancreatic cancer in rats are said to be larger than humans would normally consume. Heated soy flour may not be carcinogenic in rats.[64][65] Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor within the pancreatic gland. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Soybean - definition of Soybean in Encyclopedia (576 words)
Soybeans may be boiled whole (in the green pod) and served with salt, often under the Japanese name edamame.
Soybeans prepared this way are a popular local snack in Hawai'i where, like Japan, the bean and products made from the bean (miso, natto, tofu, etc.) are a significant part of the diet.
Soybeans are considered a source of complete protein, i.e., protein that contains significant amounts of the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of its inability to synthesize them.
Soybean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4843 words)
Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ.
The principal soluble carbohydrates, saccharides, of mature soybeans are the disaccharide sucrose(range 2.5-8.2%), the trisaccharide raffinose(0.1-1.0%) composed of one sucrose molecule connected to one molecule of galactose, and the tetrasaccharide stachyose(1.4 to 4.1%) composed of one sucrose connected to two molecules of galactose.
Soybeans also contain isoflavones, a type of phytoestrogen, that are considered by some nutritionists and physicians to be useful in the prevention of cancer, though very controversial and also blamed for some thyroid and reproductive health problems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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