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Encyclopedia > Soy protein

Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. Upon germination of the soybean, the protein will be digested and the released amino acids will be transported to locations of seedling growth. Legume proteins, such as soy, and pulses belong to the globulin family of seed storage proteins called leguminins (11S) and vicilins (7S), or glycinin and beta-conglycinin in soybeans. Grains contain a third type of storage protein called gluten or "prolamines". Soybeans also contain biologically active or metabolic proteins such as enzymes, trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, and cysteine proteases. The soy cotyledon storage proteins, important for human nutrition, can be extracted most efficiently by water, water plus dilute alkali (pH 7–9), or aqueous solutions of sodium chloride (0.5–2 M) from dehulled and defatted soybeans that have undergone only a minimal heat treatment so that the protein is close to being native or undenatured. Soybeans are processed into three kinds of protein-rich products; soy flour, soy concentrate, and soy isolate. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Soy redirects here. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ... Globulin is one of the two types of serum proteins, the other being albumin. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ...

Contents

History

Soy protein {90%protein (N x 6.25) on a moisture-free basis} has been available since 1936 for its functional properties. In 1936, American organic chemist Percy Lavon Julian designed the world's first plant for the isolation of industrial-grade soy protein. The largest use of industrial grade protein was and still is for paper coatings, in which it serves as a pigment binder. However, Dr. Julian's plant must have also been the source, of the "soy protein isolate" which Ford's Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert spun into an artificial silk that was then tailored into that now famous, "silk is soy" suit which Henry Ford wore on special occasions. The plant's eventual daily output of forty tons of soy protein isolate made the Soya Products Division, Glidden's most profitable division. Percy Lavon Julian (April 11, 1899 – April 19, 1975) was an American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants. ...


During WWII, the fire extinguishing, soy protein foam, "Aero-Foam", the U.S. Navy's beloved fire-fighting "bean soup", was the brainchild of Percy Lavon Julian. When a hydrolyzate of isolated soy protein was fed into a water stream the mixture was converted into a foam by means of an aerating nozzle. The soy protein foam was used to smother oil and gasoline fires aboard ships, particularly useful on aircraft carriers. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ...


In 1958, Central Soya of Fort Wayne, Indiana acquired Julian's Soy Products Division (Chemurgy) of the Glidden Paint Company, Chicago. Recently, Central Soya's (Bunge) Protein Division, in January,2003, joined/merged with DuPont's soy protein (Solae) business, which in 1997 had acquired Ralston Purina's soy division, Protein Technologies International (PTI), St. Louis, Missouri. Eighth Continent, an "ersatz" soy milk is a combined "venture" product of DuPont's Solae, protein isolate and General Mills with a production facility in Minneapolis, MN.


Food grade soy protein isolate, first became available on October 2, 1959 with the dedication of Central Soya's edible soy isolate, Promine D, production facility on the Glidden Company industrial site in Chicago. An edible soy isolate; and edible spun soy fiber has also been available, since 1960, from Ralston Purina Company of St. Louis, Ill. who had hired Boyer and Calvert. In 1987, PTI became the world's leading maker of isolated soy protein.


Food uses

Soy protein is used in a variety of foods such as salad dressings, soups, imitation meats, beverage powders, cheeses, non-dairy creamer, frozen desserts, whipped topping, infant formulas, breads, breakfast cereals, pastas, and pet foods. —Cleopatra, in Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra, 1606 A salad is a food item generally served either prior to or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. ... For other uses, see Soup (disambiguation). ... A meat analogue, also called meat substitute, mock meat or veat, approximates the aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) and/or chemical characteristics of certain types of meat. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Non-dairy creamer is a substance used as a substitute for milk or cream as an addition to coffee or other beverages. ... Whipped topping is a non dairy product made to resemble the taste, texture, and look of whipped cream. ... An infant being fed by bottle. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Functional uses

Soy protein is used for emulsification and texturizing. Specific applications include adhesives, asphalts, resins, cleaning materials, cosmetics, inks, pleather, paints, paper coatings, pesticides/fungicides, plastics, polyesters and textile fibres. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Make-up redirects here. ... Soy ink is a kind of ink made from soybeans. ... Pleather (plastic leather) is a slang term for synthetic leather made out of plastic. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ...


Production methods

Edible soy protein "isolate" is derived from defatted soy flour with a high solubility in water (high NSI). The aqueous extraction is carried out at a pH below 9. The extract is clarified to remove the insoluble material and the "supernatant" is acidified to a pH range of 4-5. The precipitated protein-curd is collected and separated from the whey by centrifuge. The curd is usually neutralized with alkali to form the sodium proteinate salt before drying For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... This article is about common table salt. ...


Soy protein concentrate is produced by immobilizing the soy globulin proteins while allowing the soluble carbohydrates, soy whey proteins, and salts to be leached from the defatted flakes or flour. The protein is retained by one or more of several treatments: leaching with 20-80% aqueous alcohol/solvent, leaching with aqueous acids in the isoelectric zone of minimum protein solubility, pH 4-5; leaching with chilled water (which may involve calcium or magnesium cations), and leaching with hot water of heat-treated defatted soy meal/flour. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ...


All of these processes result in a product that is 70% protein, 20% carbohydrates (2.7 to 5% crude fiber), 6% ash and about 1% oil, but the solubility may differ. One tonne of defatted soybean flakes will yield about 750 kg of soybean protein concentrate. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... One of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials, consisting mainly of carbonates and bicarbonates of metals. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Product types

Isolates

Soy protein isolate is a highly refined or purified form of soy protein with a minimum protein content of 90% on a moisture-free basis. It is made from defatted soy flour which has had most of the non-protein components, fats and carbohydrates removed. Because of this, it has a neutral flavor and will cause less gas due to bacterial flatulence. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals expelled from the rectum. ...


Soy isolates are mainly used to improve the texture of meat products, but are also used to increase protein content, enhance flavor, and as an emulsification. Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ...


Soy protein isolate has a very low fat content when compared to animal sources of protein. It is also claimed that soy protein isolate may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and help prevent osteoporosis, some cancers and menopausal symptoms.[citation needed] Currently, the FDA is examining health concerns related to levels of the toxin furan in soy protein isolate and other foods.[1] Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno- (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ...


Pure soy protein isolate is used mainly by the food industry. It is sometimes available in health stores or in the pharmacy section of the supermarket. It is usually found combined with other food ingredients. The food industry is the complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... This article is about ingredients in general. ...


Concentrates

Soy protein concentrate is about 70% soy protein and is basically soybean without the water soluble carbohydrates. It is made by removing part of the carbohydrates (sugars) from dehulled and defatted soybeans.


Soy protein concentrate retains most of the fiber of the original soybean. Soy protein concentrate is widely used as functional or nutritional ingredient in a wide variety of food products, mainly in baked foods, breakfast cereals and in some meat products. Soy protein concentrate is used in meat and poultry products to increase water and fat retention, and to improve nutritional values (more protein, less fat).


Soy protein concentrates are available in different forms; granules, flour and spray dried. Because they are very digestible, they are well-suited for children, pregnant and lactating women and the elderly. They are also used in pet foods, milk replacers for calves and pigs, and even used for some non-food applications. An assortment of grains The word grain has a great many meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ... Articles in category Pet foods There are 16 articles in this section of this category. ... For the anatomical feature, see calf muscle. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ...


Flours

Soy flour is made by grinding soybeans, into a fine powder. It comes in three forms: natural or full-fat (contains natural oils); defatted (oils removed) with 50% protein content and with either high water solubility or low water solublity; and lecithinated (lecithin added). As soy flour is gluten-free, yeast-raised breads made with soy flour are dense in texture. Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, the term dense has at least three different meanings. ...


Soy grits are similar to soy flour except that the soybeans have been toasted and cracked into coarse pieces. Look up grit, GRIT, grits, GRITS in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nutrition

Soy is rated as the second most allergenic foods to humans; the first being peanuts. Soybeans are considered a "complete protein" source in that they provide all the essential amino acids for human nutrition.[2] However, some scientific sources disagree on this as the best measure of "complete protein."[citation needed] Soybean protein is essentially identical to that of other legume pulses (that is to say, legume proteins in general consist of 7S and 11S storage proteins), and is one of the least expensive sources of dietary protein[citation needed]. For this reason, soy is important to many vegetarians and vegans. A complete protein or whole protein is a protein that contains all amino acids, most notably the nine essential amino acids to humans and most animals, in ratios appropriate to the body. ... First, what is an amino acid? Amino Acids are chemical substances that make up protein. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Vegan redirects here. ...


Of any studied legume, whole soybeans have the highest levels of phytic acid, an organic acid and mineral chelator present in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds, which binds to certain ingested minerals: calcium, magnesium, iron, and especially zinc — in the intestinal tract, and reduces the amount the body assimilates. For people with a particularly low intake of essential minerals, especially young children and those in developing countries, this effect can be undesirable. However, dietary mineral chelators help prevent over-mineralization of joints, blood vessels, and other parts of the body, which is most common in older persons. Phytic acid (known as phytate when its salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially seeds. ... An organic acid is an organic compound that is an acid. ... Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw; pronounced ) is the binding or complexation of a bi- or multidentate ligand. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


The digestibility of some soyfoods are as follows: steamed soybeans 65.3%, tofu 92.7%, soy "milk" 92.6%, soy protein isolate 93–97%.[3][4] Some studies on rats have indicated that the biological value of soy protein isolates is comparable to animal proteins such as casein if enriched with the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine.[5]


Lafayette Mendel and Morris S. Fine of the Sheffield Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry at Yale University made the observation in the September 1911 edition of the Journal of Biological Chemistry that soybeans produce a positive nitrogen (N) balance in a human subject when they conducted a study to determine the utilization of legume proteins. The treatment called for 5 days of a 2400 calorie diet consisting of meat, eggs, nut butter, potatoes and fruit, followed by 6 days where 90.5% of total nitrogen was supplied by soybeans, and then another 5 days of the first diet, minus the nut butter. They discovered that the soy bean nitrogen is "distinctly (if only slightly) less well utilized than that of the preceding and succeeding mixed diets".[6] Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan. ... Yale redirects here. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry is a scientific journal published by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. ...


When measuring the nutritional value of protein, the original Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) method first proposed by Osborne and Mendel in 1917, was the most widely used method until 1990. This method was found to be flawed for the biological evaluation of protein quality, because the young rats used in the study had higher relative requirements for sulfur-containing amino acids than did humans. As such the analytical method that is universally recognized by the FAO/WHO (1990) as well as the FDA, USDA, United Nations University (UNU) and the National Academy of Sciences when judging the quality of protein is Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, as it is viewed as accurately measuring the correct relative nutritional value of animal and vegetable sources of protein in the diet.[7][8] Based on this method, soy protein is considered to have a similar equivalent in protein quality to animal proteins. Egg white has a score of 1.00, beef 0.92, isolated soy protein 0.92, and soy concentrate 0.99. In 1990 at an FAO/WHO meeting it was decided that proteins having values higher than 1.0 would be rounded or "leveled down" to 1.0 as scores above 1.0 are considered to indicate that the protein contains essential amino acids in excess of the human requirements.[9] The approach of 'capping off' scores at 1.0 as the highest possible rating implies injustice to high-quality proteins which can compensate for low-quality ones by virtue of their high content of essential amino acids.[original research?] Egg has an actual PDCAA score of 1.19 compared to 0.92 for isolated soy protein, however when leveled down, they appear much closer.[10] Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is based on the weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food protein during the test period. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on the amino acid requirements of humans. ...


Biological value of soy protein

Main Article: Biological Value Biological Value or BV is a common method for measuring protein quality and biological utilization rates of protein for human and animal consumption. ...


Another measure of a protein's use in nutrition is the Biological Value scale. The Biological Value method, which dates back to 1911 relies on nitrogen retention as a measurement of protein quality. Soybean protein isolate has a biological value of 74. [11] Biological Value or BV is a common method for measuring protein quality and biological utilization rates of protein for human and animal consumption. ...


According to the 1972 publication Soybeans: Chemistry and Technology, highly refined isolated soy protein has an average biological value of 71, which contrasts sharply with the biological value of whole soybeans at 96, soybean milk (91), whole eggs (97) and cow's milk (90).[12]


Health

See also: Soy controversy

In 1995, the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol.333, No. 5) published a report from the University of Kentucky entitled, "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids." It was financed by the PTI division of DuPont,"The Solae Co."[1] St. Louis. This meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. However, High Density Lipoprotein HDL (good) cholesterol did not increase. Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones: genistein and daidzein) adsorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this research PTI, in 1998, filed a petition with FDA for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. This article describes a number of health-related controversies related to the consumption of soybean. ... Look up Serum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... High-density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size (8–11 nm in diameter), that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal/+human cells and bodies. ... A phytoestrogen that is thought of by many as useful in treating cancer. ... Genistein is one of several known isoflavones. ... daidzein This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In chemistry, a molecule is adsorbed onto a surface when temporary bonds are formed between the surface and the molecule. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ...


The FDA granted this health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." One serving, (1 cup or 240 mL) of soy milk, for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein.


In January 2006 an American Heart Association review (in the journal "Circulation") of a decade long study of soy protein benefits casts doubt on the FDA allowed "Heart Healthy" claim for soy protein. The panel also found that soy isoflavones do not reduce post menopause "hot flashes" in women nor do isoflavones help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus or prostate. Thus, soy isoflavones in the form of supplements is not recommended. Among the conclusions the authors state, "In contrast, soy products such as tofu, soy butter, soy nuts, or some soy burgers should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fats, fibre, vitamins, and minerals and low content of saturated fat. Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer benefits to cardiovascular health."[13] For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


The original paper is in the journal Circulation: January 17, 2006.[14] is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soy is also rich in estrogenic compounds such as genistein and daidzein, however, research is conflicting as to whether or not it can cause increases in estrogen in men.[15] Studies have found that in fact these compounds compete with estrogen for estrogen-receptors, leading to cognitive impairment in men.[citation needed] Genistein is one of several known isoflavones. ... daidzein This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Estriol. ...


A recent study found that 56g of soy protein powder per day caused serum testosterone to fall 19% in four weeks in a test group of twelve healthy males. According to the study, this data supports further studies of these hormonal effects as a mechanism in prostate cancer prevention. [16] However, a study conducted by the Miami Research Associates refutes the finding of the Goodin study, finding that soy protein had no significant impact on testosterone levels in healthy males. [17] In fact, only one participant in the Goodin study actually saw a drop in testosterone. The participant in question had testosterone levels 200% higher than all of the other subjects, and during the study, his levels dropped to bring him inline with the other participants. The Goodin study did not conclusively prove that the participant's erratic testosterone levels were related to the soy protein.


Uses

Textured Soy Protein

For more details on this topic, see Textured soy protein.

TSP is made by forming a dough from high nitrogen solubility index (NSI) defatted soy flour with water in a screw-type extruder such as the Wenger and heating with or without steam. The dough is extruded through a die into various possible shapes; granules, flakes, chunks, goulash, steakettes (schnitzle), etc., and dried in an oven. TSP made from soy flour contains 50% soy protein and needs to be rehydrated, before use, at a weight ratio of 1 TSP:2 WATER. However, TSP when made from soy concentrate contains 70% protein and can be rehydrated at a ratio of 1:3. It can be used as a meat replacement or supplement. The extrusion technology changes the structure of the soy protein, resulting in a fibrous spongy matrix that is similar in texture to meat. Dry TVP flakes are an inexpensive protein source when purchased in bulk and can be added to a variety of vegetarian dishes or used as a supplement to bulk out a meat dish. ... diareaha diareaha diareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha diareahadiareaha... Extruded aluminium; slots allow bars to be joined with special connectors. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


While TSP has a shelf life of more than a year when stored dry at room temperature, it should be used at once or stored for no more than three days in the refrigerator after rehydration. It is usually rehydrated with cold or hot water, but a bit of vinegar or lemon juice can be added to quicken the process. Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Fridge redirects here. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Binomial name Citrus X limon {{{author}}} Lemons are the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus X limon. ...


TSP can replace ground beef in most recipes, completely or partly. It can also replace up to 33% "tuna" fish in tuna salad. It is high in protein and low in fat and sodium. It is also a good source of fibre and isoflavones.


References

  1. ^ Health Effects of Low Furan Levels in Foods Examined
  2. ^ http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2000/300_soy.html Soy: Health Claims for Soy Protein, Questions About Other Components
  3. ^ Liu, KeShun (1997-05-01). Soybeans : Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization (Hardcover), Springer, 532. ISBN 0-8342-1299-4. “Citation on p.391 from Watanabe, et al., 1971 (in Japanese)” 
  4. ^ "Nutritional Value of Food Protein Products", I.E. Liener; In Smith and Circle, editors; "Soybeans: Chemistry and Technology." Published by The AVI Publishing Co. 1972. Westport, Connecticut.
  5. ^ Hajos, G., et al, Effects of Proteolytic Modification and Methionine Enrichment On the Nutritional Value of Soya Albumins For Rats. Nutri. Biochem. 7:481-487, 1996.
  6. ^ http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/10/6/433.pdf Mendel B., Fine M., Utilization of Legume Proteins, J Biol Chem, p 437, September 25, 1911
  7. ^ FAO/WHO (1991) Protein Quality Evaluation Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No. 51, Rome.
  8. ^ Schaafsma, G. (2000) 'The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score. Journal of Nutrition 130, 1865S-1867S
  9. ^ FAO/WHO [1990]. Expert consultation on protein quality evaluation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  10. ^ FAO/WHO/UNU [1985]. Expert consultation. Energy and protein requirements. Technical Report Series 724. World Health Organization, Geneva.
  11. ^ Protein Quality-Report of Joint FAO’/WHO Expert Consultation, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 51, 1991.
  12. ^ http://mycause.com/bjw/AKSmith-SJCircle-soy-protein.pdf
  13. ^ Soy Protein, Isoflavones, and Cardiovascular Health: An American Heart Association Science Advisory for Professionals From the Nutrition Committee -- Sacks et al. 113 (7): 1034 -- Circulation Article
  14. ^ Soy Protein, Isoflavones, and Cardiovascular Health. An American Heart Association Science Advisory for Professionals From the Nutrition Committee -- Sacks et al., 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.171052 -- Circulation Article
  15. ^ B.L. Dillingham, B.L. McVeigh, J.W. Lampe, and A.M. Duncan, (2005). "Soy Protein Isolates of Varying Isoflavone Content Exert Minor Effects on Serum Reproductive Hormones in Healthy Young Men" Journal of Nutrition, 135.
  16. ^ Goodin, Susan et al. (2007) , Clinical and Biological Activity of Soy Protein Powder Supplementation in Healthy Male Volunteers, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, vol.16
  17. ^ Kalman D et al. (2007), Effect of Protein Source and Resistance Training on Body Composition and Sex Hormones, J Int Soc Sports Nutrition, Jul 23;4(1):4.

WHO redirects here. ...

External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Soy protein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2096 words)
Soy protein is used in a variety of foods such as salad dressings, soups, imitation meats, beverage powders, cheeses, non-dairy creamer, frozen desserts, whipped topping, infant formulas, breads, breakfast cereals, pastas, and pet foods.
Soy protein concentrate is produced by immobilizing the soy globulin proteins while allowing the soluble carbohydrates, soy whey proteins, and salts to be leached from the defatted flakes or flour.
The protein is retained by one of several treatments: leaching with 20-80% aqueous alcohol/solvent, leaching with aqueous acids in the isoelectric zone of minimum protein solubility, pH 4-5; leaching with chilled water (which may involve calcium or magnesium cations), and leaching with hot water of heat-treated defatted soy meal/flour.
Soy Protein (1019 words)
The mechanism of the lipid-lowering activity of soy protein is unclear.
The soy isoflavones are antioxidants, and their antioxidant activity may contribute to the possible anti-atherogenic effect of soy protein.
Soy protein has been found to reduce intestinal mucosa polyamine levels in rats, which may be another anticarcinogenic mechanism.
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