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Encyclopedia > Soweto
Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station
Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station
Apartheid in South Africa
Events and Projects

Sharpeville Massacre · Soweto uprising
Treason Trial
Rivonia Trial · Church Street bombing
CODESA · St James Church massacre
Soweto is a constituency in the Khomas Region of Namibia. ... This photograph of Johannesburg, South Africa, was taken from the International Space Station. ... ISS redirects here. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... The Church Street bombing was a 1983 terrorist attack by the African National Congress in Pretoria, South Africa which killed 16 and wounded 130. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated at St James Church, Cape Town by the Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA). ...

Organisations

ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB
Conservative Party · ECC · PP · RP
PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF
Broederbond · National Party · COSATU
SADF · SAP For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... The Black Sash was a non-violent white womens resistance organisation founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair. ... The Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) was a covert South African apartheid-era hit squad[1]. Inaugurated in 1986, and fully functional by 1988 it was set up to eliminate anti-apartheid activists, destroy ANC facilities, and find means to circumvent the economic sanctions[1] imposed on that country. ... The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a far-right party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party. ... The End Conscription Campaign was an anti-apartheid organisation of conscientious objectors in South Africa. ... The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Partys policies of apartheid. ... The Reform Party was created by a group who left the United Party led by Harry Schwarz on February 11 1975. ... The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) was a South African political party formed in 1977. ... The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Refounded National Party of South Africa) was formed as a right wing splinter group of the South African National Party. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... PAC symbol This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. ... The Afrikanerbond or, formerly, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organisation which promotes the interests of the Afrikaners. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ... The South African Defence Force (SADF) were the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

People

P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
Nelson Mandela · Desmond Tutu · F.W. de Klerk
Walter Sisulu · Helen Suzman · Harry Schwarz
Andries Treurnicht · HF Verwoerd · Oliver Tambo
BJ Vorster · Kaiser Matanzima · Jimmy Kruger
Steve Biko · Mahatma Gandhi · Trevor Huddleston Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... Joshua Oupa Gqozo (10 March 1952 - ) was a former Ciskei military ruler. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Helen Suzman was born Helen Gavronsky on 7th November 1917 in Germiston, South Africa as the daughter of Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Andries Treurnicht (1921-1993) was the founder and the leader of the Conservative Party in South Africa. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 - June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of Transkei in South Africa; He led Transkei to self-government in 1964 and to an internationally unrecognised indepedence in October, 1976. ... James Thomas Jimmy Kruger (1917 - 1987) was a South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979. ... Stephen Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977)[1] was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Bronze bust in Bedford. ...

Places

Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island
Sophiatown · South-West Africa
Soweto · Vlakplaas Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... District Six is the name of a former neighborhood of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its inhabitants during the 1970s. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... Sophiatown was a lively, mostly-black suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Vlakplaas is a farm that served as the headquarters of a counterinsurgency unit working for the apartheid government in South Africa. ...

Other aspects

Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter
Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document
Disinvestment campaign
South African Police The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... The Sullivan Principles were developed in 1977 by the Rev. ... The Kairos Document (KD) is a provocative theological statement issued by an anonymous group of theologians mostly based in the black townships of Soweto, South Africa, in 1985. ... The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

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Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. Its name is an English syllabic abbreviation, short for South Western Townships. The administration of Johannesburg has been decentralised into 11 regions. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An abbreviation (from Latin brevis short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. ...

Contents

History

The history of African townships south west of Johannesburg that would later form Soweto was propelled by the increasing eviction of Africans by city and state authorities. Africans had been drawn to work on the gold mines that sprang up after 1886. From the start they were accommodated in separate areas on the outskirts of Johannesburg, such as Brickfields (Newtown) [1]. In 1904 British-controlled city authorities removed African and Indian residents of Brickfields to an "evacuation camp" at Klipspruit municipal sewage farm (not Kliptown, a separate township[2]) outside the Johannesburg municipal boundary, following a reported outbreak of plague [3]. Two further townships were laid out to the east and the west of Johannesburg in 1918. Townships to the south west of Johannesburg followed, starting with Pimville (1934; a renamed part of Klipspruit) and Orlando (1935) [4].


Industrialisation during World War II drew thousands of black workers to the Reef[clarify]. They were also propelled by the implementation of legislation that rendered many rural Africans landless. Informal settlements developed to meet the growing lack of housing. The Sofasonke movement of James Mpanza in 1944 organised the occupation of vacant land in the area, at what became known as Masakeng (Orlando West). Partly as a result of Mpanza's actions, the city council was forced to set up emergency camps in Orlando (1944), Moroka, and Central Western Jabavu (1946) [5]. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Soweto's only hospital came courtesy of World War II. The Royal Imperial Hospital, Baragwanath, was built in what today is Diepkloof in 1941 for convalescing British and Commonwealth soldiers [6]. John Albert Baragwanath owned a hostel, The Wayside Inn, from the late 19th century near the hospital's current location [7]. Field Marshall Jan Smuts noted during the opening ceremonies that the facility would be used for the area's black population after the war. In 1947 King George VI visited and presented medals to the troops there [8]. From this start grew Baragwanath Hospital (as it became known after 1948), reputedly the world's largest hospital [9]. In 1997 another name change followed, with the sprawling facility now known as Hani-Baragwanath Hospital, in honour of the African National Congress leader who was assassinated in 1993 by white extremists [10]. For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


After the Afrikaner-dominated National Party gained power in 1948 and began to implement apartheid, the pace of forced removals and the creation of townships outside legally-designated white areas increased. The Johannesburg council established new townships to the southwest for black Africans evicted from the city's freehold areas of Martindale, Sophiatown), and Alexandra. Some townships were basic site and service plots (Tladi, Zondi, Dhlamini, Chiawelo, Senaoane, 1954), while at Dube middle class residents built their own houses. The first hostel to accommodate migrant workers evicted from the inner city in 1955 was built at Dube. The following year houses were built in the newly proclaimed townships of Meadowlands and Diepkloof [11]. This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Sophiatown (pronounced with a long, stressed i) (also known as Softown or Kofifi) is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ...


In 1956 townships were laid out for particular ethnic groups as part of the state's strategy to sift black Africans into groupings that would later form the building blocks of the so-called "independent homelands." Spurred by a donation of R6-million to the state by Sir Ernest Oppenheimer in 1956 for housing in the area, Naledi, Mapetla, Tladi, Moletsane and Phiri were created to house Sotho and Tswana-speakers. Zulu and Xhosa speakers were accommodated in Dhlamini, Senaoane, Zola, Zondi, Jabulani, Emdeni and White City. Chiawelo was established for Tsonga and Venda-speaking residents [12].


In 1963, the name Soweto (SOuth WEstern TOwnship) was officially adopted for the sprawling township that now occupied what had been the farms of Doornkop, Klipriviersoog, Diepkloof, Klipspruit and Vogelstruisfontein. See also: 1962 in South Africa, other events of 1963, 1964 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... Diepmeadow is a township that is part of the greater Soweto in Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa. ...


Soweto came to the world's attention on June 16, 1976 with the Soweto Uprising, when mass protests erupted over the government's policy to enforce education in Afrikaans rather than English. Police opened fire in Orlando West on 10,000 students[13] marching from Naledi High School to Orlando Stadium, and in the events that unfolded, 566 people died [14]. The impact of the Soweto protests reverberated through the country and across the world. In their aftermath, economic and cultural sanctions were introduced from abroad. Political activists left the country to train for guerrilla resistance. Soweto and other townships became the stage for violent state repression. Since 1991 this date and the schoolchildren have been commemorated by the International Day of the African Child. See also: 1975 in South Africa, other events of 1976, 1977 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The International Day of the African Child has been celebrated on 16 June every year since 1991, when it was first initiated by the Organisation of African Unity. ...


In response, the apartheid state started providing electricity to more Soweto homes, yet phased out financial support for building additional housing [15].


Soweto became an independent municipality with elected black councillors in 1983, in line with the Black Local Authorities Act [16]. Previously the townships were governed by the Johannesburg council, but from the 1970s the state took control [17].


Soweto's black African councillors were not provided by the apartheid state with the finances to address housing and infrastructural problems. Township residents opposed the black councillors as puppet collaborators who personally benefitted financially from an oppressive regime. Resistance was spurred by the exclusion of blacks from the newly formed tricameral Parliament (which did include Whites, Asians and Coloureds). Municipal elections in black, coloured, and Indian areas were subsequently widely boycotted, returning extremely low voting figures for years. Popular resistance to state structures dates back to the Advisory Boards (1950) that co-opted black residents to advise whites who managed the townships.


In Soweto popular resistance to apartheid emerged in various forms during the 1980s. Educational and economic boycotts were initiated, and student bodies were organised. Street committees were formed, and civic organisations were established as alternatives to state-imposed structures. One of the most well-known "civics" was Soweto's Committee of Ten, started in 1978 in the offices of The Bantu World newspaper. Such actions were strengthened by the call issued by African National Congress's 1985 Kabwe congress in Zambia to make South Africa ungovernable. As the state forbade public gatherings, church buildings like Regina Mundi were sometimes used for political gatherings. The World, originally named The Bantu World, was the Johannesburg black daily newspaper which published photographer Sam Nzimas iconic image of Hector Pieterson, taken during the Soweto uprisings of June 16, 1976. ...


In 1995 Soweto became part of the Southern Metropolitan Transitional Local Council, and in 2002 was incorporated into the City of Johannesburg [18]. A series of bomb explosions rocked Soweto in October 2002. The explosions, believed to be the work of the Boeremag, a right wing extremist group, damaged buildings and railway lines, and killed one person. See also: 2001 in South Africa, other events of 2002, 2002 in South African sport, 2003 in South Africa and the Timeline of South African history. ... A filling station in Soweto said to have been bombed by the so-called Boeremag. ...


Demographics

As Soweto was counted as part of Johannesburg in South Africa's 2001 census, recent demographic statistics are not readily available. It has been estimated that 65% of Johannesburg's residents live in Soweto [19] (2002 figures). However, the 2001 Census put its population at 896,995 [20] - or about one-third of the city's total population.


Soweto's population is predominantly black. All eleven of the country's official languages are spoken, and the main linguistic groups (in descending order of size) are Zulu, Sotho, Tswana, Venda, and Tsonga. Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... Zulu (called isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... Sesotho (Sotho, Southern Sotho or Southern Sesotho[1]) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language. ... Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... Venda, also known as Tshivenda, or Luvenda, is a Bantu language. ... The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan. ...


Suburbs

By 2003 the Greater Soweto area consisted of 87 townships grouped together into Administrative Regions 6 and 10 of the City of Johannesburg Regional Spatial Development Framework.


Estimates of how many residential areas make up Soweto itself vary widely. Some say that Soweto comprises 29 townships [21], others find 32 [22]. Still others talk of 34 [23] or even 50 [24] "suburbs." The differences may be due to confusion arising from the merger of adjoining townships (such as Lenasia and Eldorado Park) with those of Soweto into Regions 6 and 10. But the total number also depends on whether the various "extensions" and "zones" are counted separately, or as part of one main suburb. The 2003 Regional Spatial Development Framework arrived at 87 names by counting various extensions (e.g. Chiawelo's 5) and zones (e.g. Pimville's 7) separately. The City of Johannesburg's website groups the zones and extensions together to arrive at 32, but omits Noordgesig and Mmesi Park.[25] Lenasia is large Indian township south of Soweto in Gauteng Province, South Africa. ...


The list below provides the dates when some of Soweto's townships were established, along with the probable origins or meanings of their names, where available:

  • Chiawelo (1956), "Place of Rest" (Venda)
  • Dhlamini (1956), Unknown, Nguni family name
  • Diepmeadow, comprising
    • Diepkloof (1957; "Deep Ravine", Afrikaans), originally a farm
    • Meadowlands (1958), Originally Meadowlands Small Holdings (1938)
    • Meadowlands West
  • Dobsonville including Dobsonville Gardens
  • Doornkop, "Hill of Thorns" (Afrikaans)
  • Dube (1948), Named for John Langalibalele Dube (1871-1946), educator [26], newspaper founder, and the first ANC president (1912-17) [27]
  • Emdeni (1958), "At the family" (Zulu, from umndeni - family), including extensions
  • Jabavu (1948), Named for Davidson Don Tengo Jabavu (1885-1959), educator and author
  • Jabulani (1956), "Rejoice" (Zulu)
  • Klipspruit (1904), "Rocky Stream" (Afrikaans), originally a farm map
  • Kliptown
  • Mapetla (1956), including Mapetla Extension (1962), Unknown Sotho family name
  • Mmesi Park
  • Mofolo (1954), including (Mofolo Central, Mofolo North, Mofolo South), Named for Thomas Mofolo (1876-1948), Sotho author, translator, and educator
  • Molapo (1956), Name of a Basotho tribe
  • Moletsane (1956), Name of a Batuang chief
  • Moroka (1946), including Moroka North (1955), Named for Dr James Sebe Moroka (1891-1985)[28], later ANC president (1949-52) during the 1952 Defiance Campaign
  • Naledi (1956), "Star" (Sotho/Pedi/Tswana), originally Mkizi
  • Noordgesig, "North View" (Afrikaans)
  • Orlando (1932), including (Orlando East, Orlando West, 1946), Named for Edwin Orlando Leake (1860-1935), chairman of the Non-European Affairs Department (1930-31), Johannesburg mayor (1925-26)
  • Phiri (1956) and Phiri Extension, "Hyena" (Sotho/Tswana)
  • Pimville (1934), Named for James Howard Pim, councillor (1903-07), Quaker [29], philanthropist, and patron of Fort Hare Native College [30]; originally part of Klipspruit
  • Power Park, in the vicinity of the power station
  • Protea Glen, Unknown (The protea is South Africa's national flower)
  • Protea North
  • Protea South
  • Senaoane (1958), Named for Solomon G Senaoane (-1942), first sports organiser in the Non-European Affairs Department
  • Tladi (1956), "Lightning" (Sotho)
  • Zola (1956), "Calm" (Zulu/Xhosa)
  • Zondi (1956), Unknown family name(Zulu)

Other Soweto townships include Braamfischerville, Killarney, Mzimhlope, Phefeni, Phomolong, Snake Park, and White City [31]. Dobsonville is a suburb of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa. ... Doornkop is a town which lies southwest of Johannesburg, close to Krugersdorp, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. ... Dubé or Dube is a surname, and may refer to: Antoine Dubé Christian Dubé Claire LHeureux-Dubé Jean Dubé Jean Dubé (musician) Jean-Eudes Dubé Jessica Dubé Joe Dube John Langalibalele Dube Jonathan Dube Madeleine Dubé Phesheya Dube Lucky Dube Duby This page or section lists people with the... Kliptown, a suburb of the former black township of Soweto in Gauteng, South Africa, located about 17km south-west of Johannesburg. ... Orlando is the name of a township in, Soweto, South Africa. ... Protea Glen is a suburb of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa. ...


A full description of the origins of the names of these suburbs can be found at Urban legends - what's in a name?.


Economy

Informal settlement, Soweto.
Informal settlement, Soweto.

Many parts of Soweto rank among the poorest in Johannesburg, although individual townships tend to have a mix of wealthier and poorer residents. In general, households in the outlying areas to the northwest and southeast have lower incomes, while those in southwestern areas tend to have higher incomes. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The economic development of Soweto was severely curtailed by the apartheid state, which provided very limited infrastructure and prevented residents from creating their own businesses. Roads remained unpaved, and many residents had to share one tap between four houses, for example. Soweto was meant to exist only as a dormitory town for black Africans who worked in white houses, factories, and industries. The 1957 Natives (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act and its predecessors restricted residents between 1923 to 1976 to seven self-employment categories in Soweto itself. Sowetans could operate general shops, butcheries, eating houses, sell milk or vegetables, or hawk goods. The overall number of such enterprises at any time were strictly controlled. As a result, informal trading developed outside the legally-recognized activities [32].


By 1976 Soweto had only two cinemas and two hotels, and only 83% of houses had electricity. And up to 93% of residents had no running water. Using fire for cooking and heating, resulting in respiratory problems that contributed to high infant mortality rates (54 per 1,000 compared to 18 for whites, 1976 figures [33]

Housing development project, Kliptown.
Housing development project, Kliptown.

The restrictions on economic activities were lifted in 1977, spurring the growth of the taxi industry as an alternative to Soweto's inadequate bus and train transport systems [34]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (683x1024, 301 KB) Photographer: thomas sly Source: flickr ([1]) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (683x1024, 301 KB) Photographer: thomas sly Source: flickr ([1]) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


In 1994 Sowetans earned on average almost six and a half times less than their counterparts in wealthier areas of Johannesburg (1994 estimates). Sowetans contribute less than 2% to Johannesburg's rates [35]). Some Sowetans remain impoverished, and others live in shanty towns with little or no services. About 85% of Kliptown comprises informal housing, for example [36]. The Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee argues that Soweto's poor are unable to pay for electricity. The committee believes that the South African government's privatization drives will worsen the situation. Research showed that 62% of residents in Orlando East and Pimville were unemployed or pensioners [37]. Joe Slovo shanty town in Langa on the Cape Flats simmers after a fire (Cape Town, South Africa) Shanty town near Tijuana, Mexico. ...


There have been signs recently indicating economic improvement. The Johannesburg city council began to provide more street lights and to pave roads. Private initiatives to tap Sowetans' combined spending power of R4.3 billion were also planned, [38] including the construction of Protea Mall, and Jabulani Mall , the development of Maponya Mall, an upmarket hotel in Kliptown, and the Orlando Ekhaya entertainment centre. Soweto has also become a center for nightlife and culture.


In popular culture

Soweto was characterized in the American film Stander (film). The film presented the story of Andre Stander, a rogue police captain who sympathized with the irrational state of apartheid and its corruption by becoming a bank thief. The Soweto uprising riots provided Stander's breaking point in the film. The UK music duo, Mattafix, has a song called Memories Of Soweto on their 2007 album Rhythm & Hymns. Stander is a 2003 biographical film about Captain André Stander, a South African police officer who turned into a bank robber, starring Tom Jane. ... André Stander was a police Captain in the robbery and homicide division of the police in Johannesburg, South Africa who began robbing banks in the 1970s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mattafix are a UK duo, made up of Marlon Roudette and Preetesh Hirji. ... Rhythm & Hymns is Mattafixs second album, released in November, 2007. ...


Soweto is credited as one of the founding places for kwaito, which is a style of hip-hop specific to South Africa.[1] This form of music, which combined many elements of house music, American hip-hop, and traditional African music, became a strong force amongst black South Africans. The spread of Soweto in popular culture worked both ways, as American hip-hop artists Hieroglyphics rap about the terrible conditions and changing social order in their song "Soweto," saying that cowardice has ruled this area, but how now the "gems," or black youth, need to express themselves.[2] This appears to be Hieroglyphics attempt to urge a critical, political version of hip-hop in South Africa. Kwaito is a music genre that emerged in Johannesburg, South Africa in the early 1990s. ... Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ...


Soweto is said to be one of the major townships where kwaito and South African hip hop music were formed. These music types are associated with Black South African youth who inhabit the ghettos of Soweto. According to Zine Magubane, kwaito and rap music are, quite intentionally, marketed to Black South African youth between the ages of 14 and 20. Magubane draws many connections to the consumerism patterns of African-American and South African youth. She notes that: “There is a segment of Black South African children who demonstrate many of the consumer characteristics displayed by their American counterparts, and they are therefore definitely worth targeting as primary consumers” (Magubane 220). [3] African-American popular culture, manifested through soft drink ads, NBA stars, movies, and rap music, all seem to influence the consumerism patterns of Black youth in Soweto. In essence, Black South African consumer habits are strongly orientated towards American products. [4]


In her article, Is Kwaito South African Hip Hop?, Sharlene Swartz highlights the ways in which the kwaito music industry in South Africa has expanded and acted as a form of Black empowerment by giving Black youth an “economic identity.”[5] The thriving music industry is allows for Black South Africans to participate in an economy that was long inaccessible to them during apartheid ruling. Swartz highlights the impact that Black Africans now have in the music industry when she notes: “The $130 million dollar a year industry is almost entirely black- artists, record labels, production companies, clubs, and Yfm, an almost exclusively kwaito radio station” (Swartz 9).[6]


New York City's indie rock band Vampire Weekend has described their musical sound as "Upper West Side Soweto," as it mixes preppy, well-read indie rock with joyful, Afro-pop-inspired melodies and rhythms.[7] Vampire Weekend is an indie rock band from New York City signed to XL Recordings. ...


Soweto is mentioned in the Eddy Grant anti-apartheid reggae anthem from the 1980s Gimme Hope Jo'anna. Eddy Grant (born Edmond Montague Grant, 5 March 1948), is a Plaisance, Guyana born musician. ...


It is also mentioned in the novel, Waiting for the Rain by Sheila Gordon. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Sheila Gordon, a novelist born in South Africa in 1927, is the author of Waiting for The Rain, The Middle of Somewhere, and Unfinished Business. ...


Mexican group Tijuana No! recorded the song "Soweto" for their first album "No". In reference to the city and the movements.


It is also the name of a song by the rap group Hieroglyphics. The Hieroglyphics, also known as the Hieroglyphics Crew and Hiero, are an American underground hip hop collective based in Oakland, California. ...


The marches by students in Soweto are briefly mentioned in a novel by Linzi Glass named Ruby Red, which had been nominated for the Carnegie Medal in 2008. The Carnegie Medal in Literature was established in the UK in 1936 in honour of Scottish philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. ...


Famous Sowetans

Soweto was the birthplace of:

Current and past residents include: Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African lawyer, trade union leader, activist, politician and businessman. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mosima Gabriel Sexwale (born 5 March 1953), commonly known as Tokyo Sexwale, is a South African businessman and former politician, anti-apartheid activist, and political prisoner. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Irvin Khoza (born January 27, 1948 in Alexandra) is a South African soccer administrator. ... Orlando Pirates are a South African football team, founded in 1937 in the Orlando section of Soweto, South Africa. ... Kaizer Motaung (16 October 1944 - ) was a South African soccer player and founder of the Kaizer Chiefs Football Club, of which he is still (as of 2005) chairman and managing director. ... Kaizer Chiefs is a South African football team, founded 7 January 1970 in Soweto, Johannesburg. ... Matsilela Ephraim Sono (affectionately known as Jomo Sono and sometimes also called the Black Prince of South African Soccer) (17 July 1955 - ) is a South African soccer club owner and coach and was also a star soccer player. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Theophilus Khumalo (better known as Doctor Khumalo) (born 26 June 1967 in Soweto) is a South African soccer player. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Lucas Valeriu Radebe (born April 12, 1969) is a former Leeds United and South African football player. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Mandoza (real name Mduduzi Tshabalala) (1978 - ) is a South African kwaito musician. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Kwaito is a music genre that emerged in Johannesburg, South Africa in the early 1990s. ... Bonginkosi Dlamini, aka Zola is a poet, actor, musician and also presents a television show by the same name Zola on SABC 1. ... Frank Chikane (born 1951) is a South African civil servant, writer and cleric. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Mandela's House in Orlando
Mandela's House in Orlando

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Gibson Kente (1932 - November 7, 2004) was a South African playwright based in Soweto. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Aggrey Klaaste (6 January 1940 – 19 June) 2004 was a South African newspaper journalist and editor. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications in various media. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Percy Peter Tshidiso Qoboza [Jan 17, 1938 - Jan 17, 1988], was an influential black South African journalist, author, and outspoken critic of the apartheid government in South Africa during the early periods of world recognition of the problems evident in the racially divided land. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications in various media. ... Steven Jerome Pienaar (born 17 March 1982 in Johannesburg, South Africa) is a South African football midfielder currently on Borussia Dortmunds books, but signed on a season-long loan for Everton with the view to making the deal permanent at the end of the twelve month term. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... BV Borussia Dortmund is a German football club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the most successful clubs in German football. ...

Other interest

Well-known artists from Soweto, besides those mentioned above, include:

Films that include Soweto scenes: Soweto Gospel Choir is a South African gospel group. ...

  • Tau ya Soweto (2005).
  • Tsotsi (2005), Oscar, Best Foreign Language Film of the Year.
  • Sarafina(1992).
  • Hijack stories (2000)

Sarafina! is a South African musical by Mbongeni Ngema depicting apartheid; it was later adapted into a movie starring Leleti Khumalo and Whoopi Goldberg. ...

Landmarks

Orlando Power Station Cooling Towers
Orlando Power Station Cooling Towers

Soweto landmarks, apart from those mentioned above, include [41]: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

  • Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Diepkloof
  • Cooling Towers, Orlando Electricity Plant
  • Credo Mutwa village, Central Western Jabavu
  • Freedom Square, Kliptown
  • Hector Pieterson Memorial Museum, Orlando West
  • Mandela Family Museum, Orlando West [42]
  • Regina Mundi Catholic Church, Rockville [43]

Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital is the largest hospital in the world, occupying 173 acres, with 3200 beds and 6760 staff members. ...

See also

The World, originally named The Bantu World, was the Johannesburg black daily newspaper which published photographer Sam Nzimas iconic image of Hector Pieterson, taken during the Soweto uprisings of June 16, 1976. ... Region 6 is situated towards the south east of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area. ... Region 10 includes most of Soweto. ... Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... The Sowetan is an English language, South African newspaper that started in 1981 as a liberation struggle newspaper and was freely distributed to households in the black township of Soweto, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. ...

References

  1. ^ Magubane, Zine. “Globalization and Gangster Rap: Hip Hop in the Post-Apartheid City.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 208-29. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press
  2. ^ Lyrics: Hieroglyphics - Soweto
  3. ^ Magubane, Zine. “Globalization and Gangster Rap: Hip Hop in the Post-Apartheid City.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 208-29. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. P. 220
  4. ^ Magubane, Zine. “Globalization and Gangster Rap: Hip Hop in the Post-Apartheid City.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 208-29. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press. P. 220
  5. ^ Is Kwaito South African Hip Hop? Why the answer matters and who it matters to, Sharlene Swartz The Youth Institute 14 May 2003
  6. ^ Is Kwaito South African Hip Hop? Why the answer matters and who it matters to, Sharlene Swartz The Youth Institute 14 May 2003
  7. ^ Vampire Weekend

Beavon, Keith S. O. Johannesburg: A city and metropolitan area in transformation, in Carole Rakodi (editor) The urban challenge in Africa: Growth and management of its large cities. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1997.


External links

  • BBC video of the Soweto uprisings
  • Chronology of Events in the Making of Soweto
  • Egoli - A History of Black Johannesburg
  • Fraser, Neil. 2005. "Exciting plans for Soweto," July 4.
  • Guardian Unlimited audio recording of Antoinette Sithole on the Soweto uprising
  • How one photograph changed the world By Jerome Cartillier, Mail & Guardian, June 16, 2006.
  • Maps: Large PDF Map; Soweto Map
  • Soweto
  • "Soweto Uplifting" Travel story by Roderick Eime
  • Soweto uprisings . com, an extensive mashup with loads of info on the events on June 16th 1976.
  • [44]
  • Township Vibes - Taking The Townships To Another Level. Blog.

Coordinates: 26°15′58″S, 27°51′57″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Soweto - MSN Encarta (900 words)
Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa.
The Soweto uprising or Soweto riots were a series of clashes in Soweto, South Africa on June 16, 1976 between fl youths and the South African authorities.
Soweto’s location and size helped bring it to the forefront of fl resistance against apartheid, the South African government’s rigid policy of racial segregation that was in effect from 1948 to the early 1990s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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