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Encyclopedia > Sovremennik
The Title Page of the issue printed after the death of Alexander Pushkin
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The Title Page of the issue printed after the death of Alexander Pushkin

Sovremennik (Russian: "Современник", literally: The Contemporary) was a Russian literary, social and political magazine, published in St.Petersburg in 1836-1866. It came out four times a year in 1836-1843 and once a month after that. The magazine published poetry, prose, critical, historical, ethnographic, and other material. Aleksandr Pushkin was a Russian poet and a founder of modern Russian literature Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин) (June 6 (May 26, O.S... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Sovremennik originated as a private enterprise of Alexander Pushkin who was running out of money to support his growing family. To assist him with the magazine, the poet asked Nikolai Gogol, Pyotr Vyazemsky and Vladimir Odoyevsky to contribute their works to the journal. It was there that the first substantial assortment of Fyodor Tyutchev's poems was published. Soon it became clear that Pushkin's establishment could not compete with Faddey Bulgarin's journal, which published more popular and less demanding literature. The Sovremennik was out of date and could not command a paying audience. Aleksandr Pushkin was a Russian poet and a founder of modern Russian literature Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин) (June 6 (May 26, O.S... Nikolai Gogol Gogol redirects here. ... Petr Vyazemsky Prince Pyotr Vyazemsky (1792-1878)(Вяземский, Пётр Андреевич) was a Russian poet. ... Prince Vladimir Fyodorovich Odoevsky (Russian: ) (August 13 [O.S. August 1] 1803 – March 11 [O.S. February 27] 1869) was a prominent Russian philosopher, writer, music critic, philanthropist and pedagogue. ... Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev (Russian: Федор Иванович Тютчев) (December 5 [O.S. November 23] 1803 - July 27 [O.S. July 15] 1873) is generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov. ...


When Pushkin died, his friend Pyotr Pletnyov took over the editorship in 1838. A few years later the magazine fell into decline, and Pletnyov handed it over to Nikolai Nekrasov and Ivan Panayev in 1847. It was Nekrasov who really made the magazine profitable. He enlisted the services of Ivan Turgenev, Ivan Goncharov, Alexander Herzen, and Nikolai Ogaryov. The Sovremennik was the first to publish translated works by Charles Dickens, George Sand, and other best-selling foreign writers. Peter A. Pletnev (1836). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov (November 28, 1821 – January 8, 1878 {O.S.: December 28, 1877}) was a Russian poet, best remembered as the long-standing publisher of Современник (The Contemporary) (from 1846 until July 1866, when the journal was shut down by the government in connection with the arrest of its radical... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) For other uses, see Turgenev (disambiguation). ... Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (June 18, 1812 – September 27, 1891; June 6, 1812 – September 15, 1891, O.S.) was a Russian novelist best known as the author of Oblomov (1859). ... Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 in Moscow - January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870 in Paris) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the father of Russian socialism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation... Nikolay Platonovich Ogarev (Russian: НИКОЛАЙ ПЛАТОНОВИЧ ОГАРЕВ) (1813 - 1877) - a Russian poet, historian. ... Dickens redirects here. ... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ...


Although the magazine was owned and run by Nekrasov, its official editor-in-chief was Alexander Nikitenko. The virulent realist critic Vissarion Belinsky was responsible for its ideology. His criticism of present-day reality and propaganda of democratic ideas made the journal very popular among the Russian intelligentsia. Sovremennik's circulation was 3,100 copies in 1848. The Editor in chief is a publications primary editor. ... Vissarion Grigorievich Belinskii (Виссарио́н Григо́рьевич Бели́нский) (1811 - 1848) was Russian writer, literary critic, philosopher and revolutionary activist (a Westernizer). ... The intelligentsia (from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of people engaged in complex mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of culture, encompassing intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the reactionary reign of Nicholas I, the journal had to struggle against censorship and complaints of disgruntled aristocracy. Its position grew more complicated after Herzen's emigration (1847) and Belinsky's death (1848). Despite these hardships, Sovremennik published works by best Russian authors of the day: Leo Tolstoy, Turgenev, and Nekrasov. Timofey Granovsky, Sergey Solovyov and other leading historians were published as well. Nicholas I can be: Pope Nicholas I Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia and King of Poland Nicholas Mysticus, Patriarch Nicholas I of Constantinople This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of the Tolstoy... Timofey Nikolayevich Granovsky (March 9, 1813 - October 4, 1855) was a founder of medieval studies in the Russian Empire. ... Sergey Mikhaylovich Solovyov (Soloviev, Solovyev) May 17 (May 5 (O.S.) 1820 — April 16 (April 4, (O.S.)), 1879 was one of the greatest historians of Imperial Russia. ...


The period between 1852 and 1862 is considered to be the most brilliant in the history of the journal. Nekrasov managed to strike a deal with its leading contributors, whereby their new works were to be published exclusively by him. As regards ideology, the Sovremennik grew more radical together with its audience. Belinsky was succeeded by Nikolai Chernyshevsky in 1853 and by Nikolai Dobrolyubov. All their principal articles were published in the Sovremennik. 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nikolai Chernyshevsky Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (Russian: Николай Гаврилович Чернышевский) (July 12, 1828 - October 17, 1889) was a Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic, and socialist. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Most popular contributors to Sovremennik in 1856 (left to right): Ivan Goncharov, Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, Dmitri Grigorovich, Alexander Druzhinin and Alexander Ostrovsky.
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Most popular contributors to Sovremennik in 1856 (left to right): Ivan Goncharov, Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, Dmitri Grigorovich, Alexander Druzhinin and Alexander Ostrovsky.

In late 1858, the magazine entered into polemics with the liberal and conservative press and became a platform for and ideological center of the revolutionary democracy, turning into a political magazine. In 1861, it published materials, dedicated to the emancipation of the serfs and advocated the interests of serfs in the strongest terms possible. In 1859-1961, Sovremennik argued with Herzen's Kolokol about the aims of the Russian democracy. Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (June 18, 1812 – September 27, 1891; June 6, 1812 – September 15, 1891, O.S.) was a Russian novelist best known as the author of Oblomov (1859). ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) For other uses, see Turgenev (disambiguation). ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of the Tolstoy... Aleksandr Nicolaevich Ostrovsky (Александр Николаевич Островский) (April 12 (March 31, O.S.)1823— June 14 (June 2, O.S.)1886) was a Russian... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia performed by tsar Alexander II of Russia amounted to liquidation of serf dependence of Russian peasants. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


Such a radical stance alienated those writers who were indifferent to politics or personally disliked revolutionary intelligentsia. Although Tolstoy, Turgenev, and Dmitry Grigorovich eventually left the magazine, the Sovremennik's circulation reached 7,126 copies in 1861. The death of Dobrolyubov in 1861, an 8-month suspension of publishing activities (in June 1862), and Chernyshevsky's arrest caused irreparable damage to the magazine. Its ideological stance became less clear and consistent. The intelligentsia (from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of people engaged in complex mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of culture, encompassing intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ...


In 1863, Nekrasov managed to resume publishing the Sovremennik. He invited Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin (stayed until 1864), Maxim Antonovich, Grigory Yeliseyev, and Alexander Pypin to join its editorial staff. Controversy among the members of the editorial staff soon resulted in adoption of a more temperate policy. 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Saltykov-Shchedrin. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


In 1863-1866, Sovremennik published Chernyshevsky's What Is To Be Done? (written in the Peter and Paul Fortress), satires by Saltykov-Shchedrin, and works by the so-called plebeian authors (Vasili Sleptsov, Fyodor Reshetnikov, Gleb Uspensky). The magazine was closed down in June 1866, due to the official panic that followed the first attempt on Alexander II's life. After that, Nekrasov and Saltykov-Schedrin acquired the rights to publish the Otechestvenniye Zapiski, a literary journal widely viewed as the Sovremennik's successor. The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Dmitry Vladimirovich Karakozov (Дмитрий Владимирович Каракозов in Russian) (10. ...


References

This article is based on material from the public domain 1906 Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Title pages of «Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary» Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is, in its scope and style, the Russian counterpart to the 1911 Britannica. ...


 
 

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